Carbohydrates & LipidsKEY WORDSDehydration Synthesis (Condensation)PolymerMonomerCarbohydrateSimple sugarComplex carbohydr...
The synthesis and breakdown of polymers
CARBOHYDRATES
Carbohydrate Types 1. SIMPLE SUGARS Monosaccharides - one sugar molecule• Hexose = 6 carbons  Glucose –cell energy  Fructo...
Linear and ring forms of glucose
Carbohydrate Types2. SIMPLE SUGARSDisaccharides - two sugar moleculeSucrose (sugar)Glucose + FructoseLactose (milk)Glucose...
How are disaccharides made?Dehydration synthesis:
Examples of disaccharide synthesis
Carbohydrate TypesCOMPLEX CARBOHYDRATESPOLYSACCHARIDES:Long chains of monosaccharidesEXAMPLESStarch (amylose)GlycogenFiber...
Starch• Long-term energy storage  of glucose for plants (roots,  seeds)• < 500,000 glucoses
GlycogenShort term storagepolysaccharide for animals• ~300g stored carbo in body• 72g liver (glycogen)• 245g muscle (glyco...
Storage polysaccharides
ChitinString of modified glucoseStructural component of:Insects, Arthropods, fungi
Cellulose•Polymer of glucose•Structural material in plants - Fiber•Why indigestible?•Monomers linked together differently ...
Starch verses Cellulose• Glucose linked differently• Cellulose is not recognized by our digestive  enzymes• Some organisms...
Starch and cellulose structures
Starch and cellulose structures
QUESTION  When you eat a starchy food, an enzyme in your  mouth breaks it down into maltose. Maltose  enters your small in...
Question• Which of the following terms includes  all others in the list?  A.   Monosaccharide  B.   Disaccharide  C.   Sta...
Question• The molecular formula for glucose is  C6H12O6. What would be the  molecular formula for 10 glucoses  linked toge...
LIPIDS
Three Major Groups of Lipids• Oils, Fats, and Waxes• Phospholipids• Steroids (Cholesterol, Estrogen,  Testosterone, etc…)
Similarities of Fats and Oils• All contain C, H, and O• Usually no ring structures• Made up of fatty acid subunits  (long ...
Triglycerides• Fats and Oils have 3 fatty acids  linked to a glycerol (condensation)
The synthesis and structure of a fat, or triacylglycerol
Fatty Acid Subunits:           FATS     vs.   OILS• Solid at room temperature                              • Liquid at roo...
Types of Fatty acidsSaturatedUnsaturatedPolyunsaturated
Saturated   Unsaturated
Unsaturated Fats• Monounsaturated: One C=C  – olive, canola, nut oils• Polyunsaturated: More than one C=C  – corn safflowe...
Phospholipids• One fatty acid chain (non-polar, hydrophobic)  of triglyceride replaced with a phosphate  group (charged, h...
Phospholipids
Steroids• Four fused rings of carbon• steroid hormones: estrogen, testosterone• cholesterol: vital  component of cell  mem...
Cholesterol, a steroid
Cholesterol•Body will make if not enough in diet•Part of lipid membrane around cells•Helps stabilize, strengthen membrane
The structure of a phospholipid
Phospholipid
Two structures formed by self-assembly of phospholipids in aqueous environments
Question• What is the difference between the  two ring forms of glucose (alpha &  beta)?
Question• Human sex hormones belong to what  family of lipids?
Question• How many water molecules are  needed to completely hydrolyze a  polymer that is 100 monomers long?
QuestionUnsaturated fats:A. Are more common in animals than plantsB. Have double bonds in their carbon chainsC. Solidify a...
Next Time:Macromolecules, Part TwoProteins and Nucleic Acids
Ch.5  carbs, lipids
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  • Saturated fatty acid
  • Saturated fatty acid
  • Why is cholesterol bad for your health?
  • Ch.5 carbs, lipids

    1. 1. Carbohydrates & LipidsKEY WORDSDehydration Synthesis (Condensation)PolymerMonomerCarbohydrateSimple sugarComplex carbohydrateStarchGlycogenCelluloseLipidTriglycerideSaturated fatty acidUnsaturated fatty acidSteroidCholesterol
    2. 2. The synthesis and breakdown of polymers
    3. 3. CARBOHYDRATES
    4. 4. Carbohydrate Types 1. SIMPLE SUGARS Monosaccharides - one sugar molecule• Hexose = 6 carbons Glucose –cell energy Fructose - honey Galactose – milk• Pentose = 5 carbons Ribose - RNA Deoxyribose - DNA
    5. 5. Linear and ring forms of glucose
    6. 6. Carbohydrate Types2. SIMPLE SUGARSDisaccharides - two sugar moleculeSucrose (sugar)Glucose + FructoseLactose (milk)Glucose + GalactoseMaltose (grains)Glucose + Glucose
    7. 7. How are disaccharides made?Dehydration synthesis:
    8. 8. Examples of disaccharide synthesis
    9. 9. Carbohydrate TypesCOMPLEX CARBOHYDRATESPOLYSACCHARIDES:Long chains of monosaccharidesEXAMPLESStarch (amylose)GlycogenFiber (cellulose)Chitin
    10. 10. Starch• Long-term energy storage of glucose for plants (roots, seeds)• < 500,000 glucoses
    11. 11. GlycogenShort term storagepolysaccharide for animals• ~300g stored carbo in body• 72g liver (glycogen)• 245g muscle (glycogen)• 10g blood (glucose)
    12. 12. Storage polysaccharides
    13. 13. ChitinString of modified glucoseStructural component of:Insects, Arthropods, fungi
    14. 14. Cellulose•Polymer of glucose•Structural material in plants - Fiber•Why indigestible?•Monomers linked together differently than in starch •Starch•Cellulose
    15. 15. Starch verses Cellulose• Glucose linked differently• Cellulose is not recognized by our digestive enzymes• Some organisms (microbes) in the guts of cows and termites do make enzymes that can digest cellulose
    16. 16. Starch and cellulose structures
    17. 17. Starch and cellulose structures
    18. 18. QUESTION When you eat a starchy food, an enzyme in your mouth breaks it down into maltose. Maltose enters your small intestine, where it is broken down into glucose. The starch is a _________, the maltose is a ________, and the glucose is a(n):_________.a) Protein dipeptide amino acidb) Monosaccharide disaccharide polysaccharidec) Triglyceride fatty acid glycerold) Amino acid dipeptide proteine) Polysaccharide disaccharide monosaccharide
    19. 19. Question• Which of the following terms includes all others in the list? A. Monosaccharide B. Disaccharide C. Starch D. Carbohydrate E. Polysaccharide
    20. 20. Question• The molecular formula for glucose is C6H12O6. What would be the molecular formula for 10 glucoses linked together?
    21. 21. LIPIDS
    22. 22. Three Major Groups of Lipids• Oils, Fats, and Waxes• Phospholipids• Steroids (Cholesterol, Estrogen, Testosterone, etc…)
    23. 23. Similarities of Fats and Oils• All contain C, H, and O• Usually no ring structures• Made up of fatty acid subunits (long chain of carbons and hydrogen with a carboxyl end)
    24. 24. Triglycerides• Fats and Oils have 3 fatty acids linked to a glycerol (condensation)
    25. 25. The synthesis and structure of a fat, or triacylglycerol
    26. 26. Fatty Acid Subunits: FATS vs. OILS• Solid at room temperature • Liquid at room temp.• From animal sources, coco & palm • From plants• Saturated with hydrogens • Unsaturated
    27. 27. Types of Fatty acidsSaturatedUnsaturatedPolyunsaturated
    28. 28. Saturated Unsaturated
    29. 29. Unsaturated Fats• Monounsaturated: One C=C – olive, canola, nut oils• Polyunsaturated: More than one C=C – corn safflower, soy oils• Hydrogenated: Oils made solid by breaking C=C bonds and replacing with H (Hydrogenation) – Partially hydrogenated - margarine
    30. 30. Phospholipids• One fatty acid chain (non-polar, hydrophobic) of triglyceride replaced with a phosphate group (charged, hydrophilic)• chief component of lipid bilayer, outer membrane of all cells
    31. 31. Phospholipids
    32. 32. Steroids• Four fused rings of carbon• steroid hormones: estrogen, testosterone• cholesterol: vital component of cell membranes
    33. 33. Cholesterol, a steroid
    34. 34. Cholesterol•Body will make if not enough in diet•Part of lipid membrane around cells•Helps stabilize, strengthen membrane
    35. 35. The structure of a phospholipid
    36. 36. Phospholipid
    37. 37. Two structures formed by self-assembly of phospholipids in aqueous environments
    38. 38. Question• What is the difference between the two ring forms of glucose (alpha & beta)?
    39. 39. Question• Human sex hormones belong to what family of lipids?
    40. 40. Question• How many water molecules are needed to completely hydrolyze a polymer that is 100 monomers long?
    41. 41. QuestionUnsaturated fats:A. Are more common in animals than plantsB. Have double bonds in their carbon chainsC. Solidify at room temperatureD. Contain more H than saturated fats having the same # of CE. Have fewer fatty acid chains
    42. 42. Next Time:Macromolecules, Part TwoProteins and Nucleic Acids

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