Ch.32 34 - animals


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  • Which group includes snails, clams, and squid? Mollusks Which group is the sponges? Porifera Which are the flatworms? Platyhelminthes … segmented worms? Annelids … roundworms? Nematodes Which group has jointed appendages & an exoskeleton? Arthropods Which two groups have radial symmetry? Cnidaria, Echinoderm What is the adaptive advantage of bilateral symmetry? cephalization Which group has no symmetry? Profiera
  • Ch.32 34 - animals

    1. 1. 2007-2008 Kingdom: Animals Domain Eukarya (Ch. 32, 33, 34) Domain Bacteria Domain Archaea Domain Eukarya Common ancestor
    2. 2. Introduction to Animal Evolution Chapter 32
    3. 3. General Features of Animals <ul><li>Heterotrophs </li></ul><ul><li>Mobility </li></ul><ul><li>Multicellularity </li></ul><ul><li>Diploidy </li></ul><ul><li>Sexual Reproduction </li></ul><ul><li>Absence of cell wall </li></ul><ul><li>Blastula Formation </li></ul><ul><li>Tissues </li></ul>
    4. 4. Animals probably evolved from colonial protists: A choanoflagellate colony
    5. 5. One hypothesis for the origin of animals from a flagellated protist
    6. 6. Heterotrophs <ul><li>Animals cannot make their own food </li></ul>
    7. 7. Mobility <ul><li>Animals can perform rapid, complex movements </li></ul>
    8. 8. Multicellularity <ul><li>All animals are multicellular </li></ul>
    9. 9. Diploidy <ul><li>Most animals are diploid. </li></ul>
    10. 10. Sexual Reproduction <ul><li>Most animals reproduce sexually by producing gametes. </li></ul>
    11. 11. Absence of a Cell Wall <ul><li>Animals lack rigid cell walls. </li></ul>
    12. 12. Blastula Formation <ul><li>The zygote divides and forms a hollow ball of cells. </li></ul>
    13. 13. Early Embryonic Development
    14. 14. Protostomes & Deuterostomes
    15. 15. Body Cavity <ul><li>Space for organ system development </li></ul><ul><ul><li>increase digestive & reproductive systems </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Coelom </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mesoderm & endoderm interact during development </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>allows complex structures to develop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ex. stomach </li></ul></ul></ul>ectoderm ectoderm mesoderm endoderm ectoderm mesoderm endoderm mesoderm endoderm acoelomate pseudocoelomate coelomate protostome vs. deuterostome coelom cavity pseudocoel
    16. 16. Body Symmetry <ul><li>Radial Symmetry – Parts arranged around a central axis. </li></ul><ul><li>Bilateral – Right and left half. </li></ul><ul><li>Asymmetrical – No symmetry </li></ul>
    17. 17. Tissues & Organs <ul><li>Cells are organized by structure and function into: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Tissues – groups of cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Muscle tissue, blood, connective tissue </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Organs – groups of tissues </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Heart, Lungs, Liver </li></ul></ul></ul>
    18. 18. Origin of Tissues
    19. 19. Segmentation <ul><li>Advanced animals are segmented. </li></ul>
    20. 20. Animal Evolution Porifera Cnidaria Platyhelminthes sponges jellyfish flatworms roundworms Nematoda Mollusca Arthropoda Chordata Annelida Echinodermata mollusks multicellularity Ancestral Protist tissues bilateral symmetry body cavity segmentation coelom starfish vertebrates endoskeleton segmented worms insects spiders backbone specialization &  body complexity specialized structure & function, muscle & nerve tissue distinct body plan; cephalization <ul><li>body complexity </li></ul><ul><li> digestive & repro sys </li></ul> digestive sys  body size redundancy, specialization,  mobility <ul><li>body & brain </li></ul><ul><li>size,  mobility </li></ul>radial bilateral
    21. 21. Cambrian Explosion <ul><li>Many phyla evolved rapidly over a 40 million year period </li></ul><ul><li>Produced high diversity </li></ul><ul><li>Makes sorting out phylogenetic tree difficult </li></ul>
    22. 22. “ Evo-Devo”: Reasons for Cambrian Diversification <ul><li>Ecological </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Emergence of predator-prey relationships </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Evolution of protective outer covering & other adaptations </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Geological </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Enough atmospheric oxygen to support metabolism </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Genetic </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Hox genes- spatial and temporal expression in developing embryos </li></ul></ul>
    23. 23. Invertebrate: Porifera <ul><li>Sponges </li></ul><ul><ul><li>no distinct tissues/organs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>A few specialized cell types </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>no symmetry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>sessile (as adults) </li></ul></ul>food taken into each cell by endocytosis
    24. 24. Invertebrate: Cnidaria <ul><li>Jellyfish, hydra, sea anemone, coral </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tissues, but no organs </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>two cell layers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>radial symmetry </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>predators </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>tentacles surround gut opening </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>extracellular digestion </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>release enzymes into gut cavity </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>absorption by cells lining gut </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>medusa polyp
    25. 25. Stinging cells of Cnidarians
    26. 26. Obviously, we have a movie Jellyfish Video
    27. 27. Invertebrate: Platyhelminthes <ul><li>Flatworms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>tapeworm, planaria </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>mostly parasitic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bilaterally symmetrical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>right & left, head (anterior) end </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>& posterior end </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>cephalization = development of brain </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>concentration of sense organs in head </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>increased specialization in body plan </li></ul></ul></ul>Animals now face the world head on ! acoelomate ectoderm mesoderm endoderm
    28. 28. Invertebrate: Nematoda <ul><li>Roundworms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>bilaterally symmetrical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>body cavity </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>pseudocoelom = simple body cavity </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>digestive system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>tube running through length of body (mouth to anus) </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>many are parasitic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hookworm </li></ul></ul></ul>C. elegans
    29. 29. Invertebrate: Mollusca <ul><li>Mollusks </li></ul><ul><ul><li>slugs, snails, clams, squid </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bilaterally symmetrical (with exceptions) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>soft bodies, protected by hard shells (mostly) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>true coelem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>increases complexity & specialization of internal organs </li></ul></ul></ul>
    30. 30. Invertebrate: Annelida <ul><li>Segmented worms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>earthworms, leeches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>segments </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>increase mobility </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>redundancy in body sections </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bilaterally symmetrical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>true coelem </li></ul></ul>fan worm leech
    31. 31. Invertebrate: Arthropoda <ul><li>Spiders, insects, crustaceans </li></ul><ul><ul><li>most successful animal phylum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>bilaterally symmetrical </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>segmented </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>specialized segments </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>allows jointed appendages </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>exoskeleton </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>chitin + protein </li></ul></ul></ul>
    32. 32. Arthropod groups insects 6 legs, 3 body parts crustaceans gills, 2 pairs antennae crab, lobster, barnacles, shrmp arachnids 8 legs, 2 body parts spiders, ticks, scorpions
    33. 34. Invertebrate: Echinodermata <ul><li>Seastars, sea urchins, sea cucumber </li></ul><ul><ul><li>radially symmetrical as adults </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>spiny endoskeleton </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Deuterostome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>coelom </li></ul></ul>loss of bilateral symmetry?
    34. 35. Invertebrate quick check… <ul><li>Which group includes snails, clams, and squid? </li></ul><ul><li>Which group is the sponges? </li></ul><ul><li>Which are the flatworms? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>… segmented worms? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>… roundworms? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Which group has jointed appendages & an exoskeleton? </li></ul><ul><li>Which two groups have radial symmetry? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the adaptive advantage of bilateral symmetry? </li></ul><ul><li>Which group has no symmetry? </li></ul>Invertebrates: Porifera, Cnidaria, Platyhelminthes, Nematoda, Annelida, Mollusca, Arthropoda, Echinodermata
    35. 36. <ul><li>Vertebrates </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, mammals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>internal bony skeleton </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>backbone encasing spinal column </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>skull-encased brain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>deuterostome </li></ul></ul>Chordata postanal tail notochord hollow dorsal nerve cord pharyngeal pouches becomes brain & spinal cord becomes vertebrae becomes gills or Eustachian tube becomes tail or tailbone Oh, look… your first baby picture !
    36. 37. Vertebrates: Fish <ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>body structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>bony & cartilaginous skeleton </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>jaws & paired appendages (fins) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>scales </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>body function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>gills for gas exchange </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>two-chambered heart; single loop circulation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ectothermic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reproduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>external fertilization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>external development in egg </li></ul></ul></ul>salmon, trout, sharks 450 mya gills body
    37. 38. Transition to Land <ul><li>Evolution of tetrapods </li></ul>Tibia Femur Fibula Humerus Shoulder Radius Ulna Tibia Femur Pelvis Fibula Lobe-finned fish Humerus Shoulder Radius Ulna Pelvis Early amphibian
    38. 39. Vertebrates: Amphibians <ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>body structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>legs (tetrapods) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>moist skin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>body function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lungs (positive pressure) & skin </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>for gas exchange </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>three-chambered heart; 2-loop </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>circulation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>ectothermic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reproduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>external fertilization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>external development in aquatic egg </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>metamorphosis (tadpole to adult) </li></ul></ul></ul>frogs salamanders toads 350 mya lung buccal cavity glottis closed
    39. 40. Vertebrates: Reptiles 250 mya dinosaurs, turtles lizards, snakes alligators, crocodile embryo leathery shell chorion allantois yolk sac amnion
    40. 41. Vertebrates: Birds (Aves) <ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>body structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>feathers & wings </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>thin, hollow bones </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>body function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>very efficient lungs & air sacs </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>four-chambered heart </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>endothermic </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reproduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>internal fertilization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>external development in amniotic egg </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>parental care </li></ul></ul></ul>150 mya finches, hawk ostrich, turkey trachea anterior air sacs lung posterior air sacs
    41. 42. <ul><li>Characteristics </li></ul><ul><ul><li>body structure </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>hair </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>specialized teeth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>body function </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>lungs, diaphragm; negative pressure </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>four-chambered heart </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>endotherms </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>reproduction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>internal fertilization </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>mammary glands make milk </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>parental care </li></ul></ul></ul>Vertebrates: Mammals 220 mya / 65 mya mice, ferret elephants, bats whales, humans
    42. 43. Mammals <ul><li>220 million years ago – evolved from therapsids </li></ul><ul><li>3 types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Placental </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Young develop within placenta </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Marsupials </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Young are born and then develop further in the mothers pouch </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Monotremes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Lay eggs </li></ul></ul></ul>Placental (Human) Monotreme (Duck-billed Platypus) Marsupial (Koala)
    43. 44. Vertebrate quick check… <ul><li>Which vertebrates lay eggs with shells? </li></ul><ul><li>Which vertebrates are covered with scales? </li></ul><ul><li>What adaptations do birds have for flying? </li></ul><ul><li>What kind of symmetry do all vertebrates have? </li></ul><ul><li>Which vertebrates are ectothermic and which are endothermic </li></ul><ul><li>Why must amphibians live near water? </li></ul><ul><li>What reproductive adaptations made mammals very successful? </li></ul><ul><li>What characteristics distinguish the 3 sub-groups of mammals? </li></ul>
    44. 45. That’s the buzz ! Any Questions?