• Vijayanagara (1336- 1570)
• Harihara I to Rama Raya
• Golden era of Vijayanagar dynasty - under
the rule of Krishnadeva Raya
• Victory of Muslim rulers of Bijapur ,
Golconda, Ahmedanagar, Bidar over Rama
Raya in 1565- this followed by savage
destruction by the victors for the next 6
months that Hampi could never again
restablish its lost glory
GEOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY
• Location -Hampi on the banks of
• Building material was available on the site-
accounts for many piers of the temple being
• Two types of rock was available- granite ,dark
green chlorite stone
• Granite-more crude and rugged cut appearance
• Dark green chlorite stone-sharply cut and
• Most of the important structures and ruins of
Vijayanagara are located in two -the Royal Centre
and the Sacred Centre.
• The Royal Centre in the southwest part of the site
- palaces, baths, pavilions, royal stables, and
temples for ceremonial use.
• The Sacred Centre is situated on the northern
edge of the city along the banks of the holy
•Modest structures of low height
•Spans large areas and courtyards are present
•Huge compound walls
•Use of granite, dark green chlorite, brick
•Intricately decorated temples
•Pillars having- horse capitals, different shapes,
pillars decorated by small pillars
•Drops made more interesting
•Shrines-Amman shrines,kalyana mandapa
OF DIFFERENT SHAPES
DROPS MADE MORE INTERESTING
COLUMN WITH HORSE MOTIF
East end of the temple complex , looking west.
From front to back we see a square platform, the
east face (rear) of a Garuda shrine which faces
the temple, and the star-
shaped mahamandapa (great pillared hall, 1554) of
the temple itself.
The 16th century temple is dedicated to Vitthala, a
form of Vishnu.
The stone chariot is a Garuda shrine which faces west
towards Vishnu's temple (plan). Garuda is the mount of
Vishnu, and as usual the mount faces the god. The building
north of the shrine is a pillared hall used for religious
ceremonies. South face of the Garuda shrine. The stone
chariot is drawn by a pair of miniaturized elephants,
which are not original; they date from the 19th century.
It is said that the wheels were once able to turn on their
axles, although they are currently cemented in place. The
shrine had a pyramidal brick tower, visible in early
photographs, which was removed at the end of the 19th
century; the elephants were also added at that time.
The Kalyana Mandapa, or "Marriage Hall", was
used for ceremonies involving the symbolic
marriage of the temple's divinity to his consort.
Part of the temple and Garuda shrine can also
be seen, in the photo right.
Restoration is visible in the form of modern,
square-bricked pillars supporting some of the
The Kalyana mandapa is as an open pavilion. Its
interior, surrounded by impressive columns,
contains a platform in the center (very slightly
raised circle, inside a square) for the performance
of sacred dances.
Massive pillars, decorated with soldiers riding yalis,
carry the large brackets and roof beams. This is
very similar to the pillar and bracket
construction inside the main temple. The method of
construction allowed for impressively large roof
Vishnu's mount Garuda is shown in his usual
worshipful, flying attitude. The simplicity of
Vijayanagara relief sculpture is in great contrast
to the more ornate style which is so common in
The pincushion-like turban, worn by this rider,
indicates that he is a Muslim in the service of the
court. Many buildings such as the Queen's Bath in the
Royal Center also bear witness to a substantial
Muslim population at the site.
This is the entrance (east face) of the main temple.
Considerable restoration is evident.
This south view of the
illustrates some of the
original splendor of the
building. One thing to
notice here is the Chinese-
style "S"-curved roof,
which contains stone
loops at the corners
(underneath the tips of the
eves) for the insertion of
flagpoles. Three such loops
are visible here, one at the
upper left corner and
two at the upper right of
This view of the temple's pillared hall, with its
corner piers cut out into clusters of numerous
colonettes, illustrates why Vitthala Temple is
considered the finest of the Vijayanagara series.
Apparently the colonettes, when lightly tapped
by a wooden stick, produce "musical" tones.
This elaborately worked
column is typical of
many inside the temple.
The rampant horse and
rider, supported by
other animals and
figures, is a favorite
A nice additional touch
is the group
of ganas supporting the
colonette base in the
lower photo right
This drummer is one
of the statues that
graces the "Hall of
Music" inside the
The monkey kings appear
to be arm-wrestling.
Perhaps this pair
represents Vali and
Sugriva. When Vali, king
of the monkeys, exiled his
brother Sugriva from
the kingdom, the
faithful Hanuman follo
wed his friend into exile.
Ramayana stories are
especially appropriate at
legendary site of the
Virupaksha Temple is located in Hampi
350 km from Bangalore, in the state
of Karnataka in southern India. It is part of
the Group of Monuments at Hampi, designated
a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Virupaksha Temple is the main center of
pilgrimage at Hampi and has been considered
the most sacred place over the centuries. It
is fully intact among the surrounding ruins
and is still used in worship. The temple is
dedicated to Lord Shiva, known here as
Virupaksha, as the consort of the local
A line of
just below the
allow for the
as these, are an
innovation and a
hallmark of the
appearing at first
glance to consist
of two pillars,
from a single
piece of stone.
The column at photo
left is covered top to
bottom with cut
reliefs in the shape of
Also notable is the
compound column at
photo right, which
consists of a square
pillar backing several
the whole resting on
a curved base.
In the middle relief of
the square pillar, a
devotee worships the
examples of the
of GANESH (top)
(bottom), with a
This panel bears
the typical 15th
most notable in
isolation of the
The middle right
panel shows a
putting out his
eye with an
as a sacrifice to
This shrine is just outside the temple walls.
It is quite early, probably 10th century or before.
The painted Mandapa, however, is modern.
is depicted here
in an unusual,
The The Royal Centre occupies the western end of the Urban Core. The Royal Centre is where the Vijayanagara kings and their
private households lived and conducted the daily business of ceremony and government. This is subdivided into irregular
interlocking compounds by high slender walls built of tightly fitted granite blocks that face a rubble core.
HAZARA RAMA TEMPLE
• Situated in the middle
of the Royal Centre,
this religious monument
was used as a private
chapel by the Vijayanagara
rulers and their private family
A smaller version on the
Great Vittal temple in the
• The main temple is approached through an open mandapa and to a assemble hall.
• There are other entraces to this assembly hall, one on each side and each provided
with a porch.
• At the far end of the hall is the door to the santum sanctorum.
• The sikhara consists of regular grouping of replicas of itself in three tiers surrounded
by a cupola(50 feet in height).
• The main building is remarkable for its vimana ,
with its lower story of stone and its pyramidal
sikhara of brick rising above.
• The main feature is
group of four
stone pillars, one
at each corner.
• Shafts are built up
between cube and
The brick tower of
the shrine has been
accounts for the
unfinished look of
its upper roof.
This smaller shrine
is located north
and east of the
From the temple wall, This
appears to be a court
scene. The king sits under
a canopy beside his
consort, who holds a fly-
He is flanked by an
attendant paying homage
on the left, and another
attendant, on the right,
holding two hard-to-
identify items; perhaps a
sword or staff in his
right hand, and a spear
or banner in his left.
Among other images on the temple wall is
this well-known relief of baby Krishna.
Panel of Hanuman
This charming relief of
the monkey general is
located just outside the
temple enclosure. Contrary
to appearances, he is not
waving goodbye to the
visitors. His right hand is
upraised in a gesture of
smiting (Architecture and
Art of Southern India, p. 157)
while his left hand holds an
uprooted branch. The holes
drilled into the panel are
for the attachment of
The slab was cut from
another location and moved
here; a similar relief is
displayed in the on-site
This link with royalty is expressed in the reliefs covering the outer face of the compound walls
inside which the temple itself stands.
They portray the processions of elephants, horses with attendants, military contingents, and
dancing women, exactly as in the Mahanavami
• An aqueduct runs through much of
the Royal Enclosure and into the
Great Tank where water was
brought for special events.
• Water was Probably manually fed
to it during its operational days.
• Larger blocks of rectangular
granite were used at the lower
levels and the block size gradually
reduces as it goes up.
•The Bath is 15m square
and 1.8m deep and
surrounded by delicately
decorated arched corridors
and projecting balconies.
• The carved stucco
ornamentation on the
ceilings and vaults above
each of the arched bays is
characteristic of Islamic
•Stepped Tank built in chlorite schist, tank is about 22 square
meters and about 7 meters deep
•The mason marks on the individual blocks indicating the
direction, the row and the location of the steps reveal that the
layout of this stepped tank was well thought out in advance and all
the different block stones were prepared in accordance
The granite platform platform was
constructed in stages from the 14th to
the 16th centuries.
It consists of three stacked squares,
whose dimensions are respectively 38m
(127ft), 28m (93ft), and 22m (73ft) on a
The height of the platform is about 10m
(30ft). The platform is traditionally
identified as the Mahanavami-dibba
(House of Victory)
Among the carvings found here are
fragmentary war scenes, with warriors
mounted on elephants and horses. Here, too,
are seen courtly male figures with their
favorite consorts and female attendants, some
at play holding squirts for colored waters,
such as those used during the Vasantotsava,
or spring festival.
The building is an open
pavilion on the lower
level and built up with
windows and balconies
on the upper level.
archways set in
geometric regularity and
opening out to the sun
and the wind like the
petals of a flower
The stables comprise a long line of eleven chambers, all with lofty
arched doorways opening onto a large open space.
This must have served as a maidan, or parade ground for the
imperial troops and animals.
Domes on corner squinches roof exactly in the manner of a Muslim