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Vijaynagara architecture HOA ppt

Vijaynagara HOA ppt

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Vijaynagara architecture HOA ppt

  2. 2. HISTORY • Vijayanagara (1336- 1570) • Harihara I to Rama Raya • Golden era of Vijayanagar dynasty - under the rule of Krishnadeva Raya • Victory of Muslim rulers of Bijapur , Golconda, Ahmedanagar, Bidar over Rama Raya in 1565- this followed by savage destruction by the victors for the next 6 months that Hampi could never again restablish its lost glory
  3. 3. GEOGRAPHY AND GEOLOGY • Location -Hampi on the banks of Tungabhadra river • Building material was available on the site- accounts for many piers of the temple being monolithic • Two types of rock was available- granite ,dark green chlorite stone • Granite-more crude and rugged cut appearance • Dark green chlorite stone-sharply cut and skilfully modelled
  4. 4. • Most of the important structures and ruins of Vijayanagara are located in two -the Royal Centre and the Sacred Centre. • The Royal Centre in the southwest part of the site - palaces, baths, pavilions, royal stables, and temples for ceremonial use. • The Sacred Centre is situated on the northern edge of the city along the banks of the holy Tungabhadra River
  5. 5. FEATURES •Modest structures of low height •Spans large areas and courtyards are present •Huge compound walls •Use of granite, dark green chlorite, brick •Intricately decorated temples •Pillars having- horse capitals, different shapes, pillars decorated by small pillars •Drops made more interesting •Shrines-Amman shrines,kalyana mandapa
  9. 9. East end of the temple complex , looking west. From front to back we see a square platform, the east face (rear) of a Garuda shrine which faces the temple, and the star- shaped mahamandapa (great pillared hall, 1554) of the temple itself. The 16th century temple is dedicated to Vitthala, a form of Vishnu. THE COURTYARD
  10. 10. The stone chariot is a Garuda shrine which faces west towards Vishnu's temple (plan). Garuda is the mount of Vishnu, and as usual the mount faces the god. The building north of the shrine is a pillared hall used for religious ceremonies. South face of the Garuda shrine. The stone chariot is drawn by a pair of miniaturized elephants, which are not original; they date from the 19th century. It is said that the wheels were once able to turn on their axles, although they are currently cemented in place. The shrine had a pyramidal brick tower, visible in early photographs, which was removed at the end of the 19th century; the elephants were also added at that time.
  11. 11. The Kalyana Mandapa, or "Marriage Hall", was used for ceremonies involving the symbolic marriage of the temple's divinity to his consort. Part of the temple and Garuda shrine can also be seen, in the photo right. Restoration is visible in the form of modern, square-bricked pillars supporting some of the colonettes.
  12. 12. The Kalyana mandapa is as an open pavilion. Its interior, surrounded by impressive columns, contains a platform in the center (very slightly raised circle, inside a square) for the performance of sacred dances. Massive pillars, decorated with soldiers riding yalis, carry the large brackets and roof beams. This is very similar to the pillar and bracket construction inside the main temple. The method of construction allowed for impressively large roof spans.
  13. 13. Vishnu's mount Garuda is shown in his usual worshipful, flying attitude. The simplicity of Vijayanagara relief sculpture is in great contrast to the more ornate style which is so common in India.
  14. 14. The pincushion-like turban, worn by this rider, indicates that he is a Muslim in the service of the court. Many buildings such as the Queen's Bath in the Royal Center also bear witness to a substantial Muslim population at the site.
  15. 15. This is the entrance (east face) of the main temple. Considerable restoration is evident.
  16. 16. This south view of the entrance porch illustrates some of the original splendor of the building. One thing to notice here is the Chinese- style "S"-curved roof, which contains stone loops at the corners (underneath the tips of the eves) for the insertion of flagpoles. Three such loops are visible here, one at the upper left corner and two at the upper right of the photo.
  17. 17. This view of the temple's pillared hall, with its corner piers cut out into clusters of numerous colonettes, illustrates why Vitthala Temple is considered the finest of the Vijayanagara series. Apparently the colonettes, when lightly tapped by a wooden stick, produce "musical" tones.
  18. 18. This elaborately worked column is typical of many inside the temple. The rampant horse and rider, supported by other animals and figures, is a favorite Vijayanagara-era motif. A nice additional touch is the group of ganas supporting the colonette base in the lower photo right
  19. 19. This drummer is one of the statues that graces the "Hall of Music" inside the temple.
  20. 20. The monkey kings appear to be arm-wrestling. Perhaps this pair represents Vali and Sugriva. When Vali, king of the monkeys, exiled his brother Sugriva from the kingdom, the faithful Hanuman follo wed his friend into exile. Ramayana stories are especially appropriate at Vijayanagara, the legendary site of the monkey kingdom.
  21. 21. Virupaksha Temple is located in Hampi 350 km from Bangalore, in the state of Karnataka in southern India. It is part of the Group of Monuments at Hampi, designated a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Virupaksha Temple is the main center of pilgrimage at Hampi and has been considered the most sacred place over the centuries. It is fully intact among the surrounding ruins and is still used in worship. The temple is dedicated to Lord Shiva, known here as Virupaksha, as the consort of the local
  22. 22. 1 2 3 1 2 3 Covered walkway (15th Century) Triple-shrined Shiva temple (14th Century) Virupaksha Temple (with tower)
  23. 23. A line of ventilation holes opens just below the roof. These allow for the escape of smoke from the kitchen fires.
  24. 24. Detached colonettes such as these, are an innovation and a hallmark of the Vijayanagar style. Although appearing at first glance to consist of two pillars, each compound column is actually cut from a single piece of stone.
  25. 25. The column at photo left is covered top to bottom with cut reliefs in the shape of miniature shrines. Also notable is the compound column at photo right, which consists of a square pillar backing several detached colonettes, the whole resting on a curved base. In the middle relief of the square pillar, a devotee worships the Linga.
  26. 26. Additional examples of the finely executed columns. The near column bears reliefs of GANESH (top) and ASURA-SUNDARI  (bottom), with a sculpted vali.
  27. 27. This panel bears decoration in the typical 15th century Vijayanagar style, most notable in the "classical" isolation of the figures. The middle right panel shows a Shiva devotee putting out his eye with an arrow (close-up) as a sacrifice to the god.
  28. 28. This shrine is just outside the temple walls. It is quite early, probably 10th century or before. The painted Mandapa, however, is modern.
  29. 29. Shiva's mount NANDI is depicted here in an unusual, three-headed, form.
  31. 31. The The Royal Centre occupies the western end of the Urban Core. The Royal Centre is where the Vijayanagara kings and their private households lived and conducted the daily business of ceremony and government. This is subdivided into irregular interlocking compounds by high slender walls built of tightly fitted granite blocks that face a rubble core.
  32. 32. HAZARA RAMA TEMPLE • Situated in the middle of the Royal Centre, this religious monument was used as a private chapel by the Vijayanagara rulers and their private family members. A smaller version on the Great Vittal temple in the Sacred eclosure.
  33. 33. • The main temple is approached through an open mandapa and to a assemble hall. • There are other entraces to this assembly hall, one on each side and each provided with a porch. • At the far end of the hall is the door to the santum sanctorum. • The sikhara consists of regular grouping of replicas of itself in three tiers surrounded by a cupola(50 feet in height).
  34. 34. • The main building is remarkable for its vimana , with its lower story of stone and its pyramidal sikhara of brick rising above.
  35. 35. Assembly Hall • The main feature is group of four massive black stone pillars, one at each corner. • Shafts are built up of contrasting geometrical shapes alternated between cube and fluted cylinder.
  36. 36. Shrine Exterior The brick tower of the shrine has been incompletely restored, which accounts for the unfinished look of its upper roof.
  37. 37. North Shrine This smaller shrine is located north and east of the main temple.
  38. 38. Reliefs: Hazara Rama Temple
  39. 39. Court Scene From the temple wall, This appears to be a court scene. The king sits under a canopy beside his consort, who holds a fly- whisk. He is flanked by an attendant paying homage on the left, and another attendant, on the right, holding two hard-to- identify items; perhaps a sword or staff in his right hand, and a spear or banner in his left.
  40. 40. Among other images on the temple wall is this well-known relief of baby Krishna.
  41. 41. Panel of Hanuman This charming relief of the monkey general is located just outside the temple enclosure. Contrary to appearances, he is not waving goodbye to the visitors. His right hand is upraised in a gesture of smiting (Architecture and Art of Southern India, p. 157) while his left hand holds an uprooted branch. The holes drilled into the panel are for the attachment of garlands. The slab was cut from another location and moved here; a similar relief is displayed in the on-site
  42. 42. This link with royalty is expressed in the reliefs covering the outer face of the compound walls inside which the temple itself stands. They portray the processions of elephants, horses with attendants, military contingents, and dancing women, exactly as in the Mahanavami
  43. 43. AQUEDUCT • An aqueduct runs through much of the Royal Enclosure and into the Great Tank where water was brought for special events. • Water was Probably manually fed to it during its operational days. • Larger blocks of rectangular granite were used at the lower levels and the block size gradually reduces as it goes up.
  44. 44. •The Bath is 15m square and 1.8m deep and surrounded by delicately decorated arched corridors and projecting balconies. • The carved stucco ornamentation on the ceilings and vaults above each of the arched bays is characteristic of Islamic architecture QUEENS BATH
  45. 45. •Stepped Tank built in chlorite schist, tank is about 22 square meters and about 7 meters deep •The mason marks on the individual blocks indicating the direction, the row and the location of the steps reveal that the layout of this stepped tank was well thought out in advance and all the different block stones were prepared in accordance . . Stepped tank
  46. 46. The granite platform platform was constructed in stages from the 14th to the 16th centuries. It consists of three stacked squares, whose dimensions are respectively 38m (127ft), 28m (93ft), and 22m (73ft) on a side. The height of the platform is about 10m (30ft). The platform is traditionally identified as the Mahanavami-dibba (House of Victory) Among the carvings found here are fragmentary war scenes, with warriors mounted on elephants and horses. Here, too, are seen courtly male figures with their favorite consorts and female attendants, some at play holding squirts for colored waters, such as those used during the Vasantotsava, or spring festival. GREAT PLATFORM
  47. 47. LOTUS MAHAL The building is an open pavilion on the lower level and built up with windows and balconies on the upper level. beautifully recessed archways set in geometric regularity and opening out to the sun and the wind like the petals of a flower
  48. 48. The stables comprise a long line of eleven chambers, all with lofty arched doorways opening onto a large open space. This must have served as a maidan, or parade ground for the imperial troops and animals. Domes on corner squinches roof exactly in the manner of a Muslim tomb. ELEPHANT STABLES
  49. 49. Thankyou