Aids In 2010 Where Are We

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HIV/AIDS, data, recent trends, treatment, prevention,

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Aids In 2010 Where Are We

  1. 1. AIDS in 2010: where are we? Alan Whiteside Health Economics and HIV/AIDS Research Division Presentations Berlin 25th September 2009
  2. 2. Outline • Key dates: – 2010 Universal access – 5 years left to MDG deadline • Events of the past 2 years – Changes of leadership; political – US, UK; UN and in health governance WHO, UNAIDS. – Attack on AIDS exceptionalism, call for mainstreaming – Global economic crisis • The big issues in 2010 – Nuanced responses – Prevention – Treatment: when; who; how
  3. 3. Key dates • 2010 Universal access (to more than treatment) • 5 years left to MDG deadline • Goal 4 reduce child mortality • Goal 5 Improve Maternal Health • Goal 6 Combat HIV/AIDS, Malaria and other diseases
  4. 4. Events of the past 2 years • Changes of leadership • political – US Obama replaces Bush but PEPFAR was Bush achievement; UK Brown replace Blair • International – Moon at UN; Chan at WHO; Sidibe at UNAIDS • Attack on AIDS exceptionalism, calls for mainstreaming • Global economic crisis
  5. 5. Lancet editorial 18/10/08 It is time to unwind the rhetoric, and reposition the responses to HIV/AIDS as one of several important health challenges. …. UNAIDS needs to abandon AIDS exceptionalism.
  6. 6. Important publications
  7. 7. Funding and the Economic Crisis Economic Crisis Reduction in Govn‟t Reduced Revenues Household Income Cuts in External Aid Reduced delivery of HIV Service Lower demand for HIV services Increased morbidity and mortality Increased # of infections Source: UNAIDS and World Bank. The Global Economic Crisis and HIV Prevention and Treatment Programs: Vulnerabilities and Impact. Geneva: UNAIDS, 2009
  8. 8. The Big Issues in 2010 • Nuanced responses • Prevention • Treatment – when – who – how (sustainability) • Things to look out for
  9. 9. Global numbers living with HIV and adult HIV prevalence Source: UNAIDS 2008
  10. 10. 2007 Global HIV Infection 33 million people [30–36 million] living with HIV 2.2
  11. 11. 2007 HIV Prevalence, African Adults (15–49) 2.8
  12. 12. DHS HIV Prevalence Swaziland 2006
  13. 13. HIV and AIDS Country Population Number living with HIV/AIDS 18.8% prevalence rate Swaziland 1,200,000 225,600 USA 301,140,000 56,614,320 UK 60,776,000 11,425,888 EU 492,964,000 92,677,000
  14. 14. Prevention: cholera to swine flu
  15. 15. AIDS: Mopping the Floor while the tap is running
  16. 16. We know what is needed: Prevention • Prevention efforts must be targeted to most-at-risk- „For every one person populations. that you put in • Example: in Ghana sex therapy, six new workers prevalence 78% people get infected. percent; they account for So we’re losing that 76% of transmission game, the numbers sources, yet 99.2% of game.’ funding is targeted to Dr Anthony Fauci general population.
  17. 17. The big issues in 2010 • Treatment – when – who – how (sustainability) • Things to look out for
  18. 18. Number of people receiving ART in low- and middle-income countries, by region, 2002–2008 4.5 4.0 North Africa and the Middle East Europe and Central Asia 3.5 East, South and South-East Asia 3.0 Latin America and the Caribbean Millions 2.5 Sub-Saharan Africa 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 end 2002 end 2003 end 2004 end 2005 end 2006 end 2007 end 2008 Souteyrand Y. Late Breaker
  19. 19. HAART as Prevention? • Granich Lancet 27/11/09 - Models taken up mainly in the west • “By reducing morbidity, mortality and transmission the concept of ART as prevention has to be redefined as HAART is prevention, of avoidable disease, deaths and new infections” Cahn, IAS Cape Town 2009
  20. 20. The use of HAART reduces malaria…. Incidence of malaria in HIV patients on ART Prospective cohort study 700 Rate of malaria (per 600 591 N=1020 adults in a 500 476 1000pys) high endemic area 400 300 259 200 Followed for 4 years 153 100 0 1 2 3 4 Kasirye et al Follow up (years) TUPDB104
  21. 21. Vertical Transmission is Unacceptable: HIV Transmission during Breastfeeding • Significant reductions in transmission during breastfeeding with either – HAART for the mother – or NVP prophylaxis for the baby • Longer HAART or infant prophylaxis is better • Absolute reduction in transmission rates greater with lower CD4 counts • All data being compiled for review of WHO ARV and infant feeding guidelines later in2009
  22. 22. Per capita health expenditure Country Health Expenditure Cost of ARV Per capita (USD) treatment per person/year (USD) Botswana 171 1500* Swaziland 66 168 Mozambique 11 960** Rwanda 11 400 Source: Summary country profiles for HIV/AIDS treatment scale up, WHO 2005. *ARV treatment publicly funded. Source: Introducing ARV Therapy in the Public sector in Botswana Case study, 2004. ** Mozambique offers subsidized ARV therapy at approx. 80 USD/month. Source: Provision of Antiretroviral Therapy in resource limited settings: a review of experience. WHO/DFID 2003
  23. 23. What we know is needed: Int‟l and domestic capabilities • Domestic sources supply roughly one third of AIDS financing, the rest has to come from international sources. Source: UNAIDS
  24. 24. What we know vs. what we do 10 9 8 7 6 US$ Billions 5 Commitments Disbursements 4 3 2 1 0 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 Source: UNAIDS
  25. 25. What we know is needed: 2010 commitments $25.1 billion for low and middle income countries  $11.6 billion for prevention  $7 billion for treatment Source: UNAIDS
  26. 26. Look out for … • HAART as prevention (WHO) • AIDS Security and Conflict Initiative report • Emphasis on choices & making money work • Issues of sustainability in poor and rich countries • The IAS 2010 confernce and IDUs • The „no sex/safe sex‟ campaign • G8 elections • An interesting year ahead
  27. 27. HEARD: who we are, what we need Who we are • Applied research unit located in Durban • Working regionally and nationally • PhD programme and capacity development What we need • People and support • Money – Project (Boehringer Ingelheim, Merck) – Core (Merck in the past) • Friends to support us and use our research www.heard.org.za
  28. 28. Cost-effectiveness Data for HIV prevention Low-level Concentrated Generalized Generalized Intervention epidemic epidemic low-level high-level Blood safety 1 study 1 study 4 studies 2 studies ART to reduce MTCT 2 studies 4 studies 3 studies Sterile injection 1 study 2 studies 1 study 1 study VCT 1 study 2 studies 1 study Peer-based programs 1 study 4 studies 4 studies STI treatment 4 studies 1 study 2 studies ART for prevention and postexposure prophylaxis 1 study 2 studies 1 study Condom promotion, 1 study 2 studies 1 study distribution and IEC School-based education 1 study Harm reduction for IDU 3 studies * Condom social marketing Surveillance 1 study * * IEC Abstinence education MTCT, feeding substitution Drug substitution for IDU No cost-effectiveness studies found Universal precautions * Behavior change for HIV+ Sources: Bertozzi et al. 2006. HIV/AIDS prevention and treatment. In: DCP2; Galarraga et al. 2008. Systematic Review of HIV Prevention Cost Effectiveness. Working Paper, INSP. New studies (2006-2007), Galarraga et al, 2008
  29. 29. The Natural History of HIV Infection Clinical Latency? Pantaleo G, et al. N Engl J Med 1993

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