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  1. 2. <ul><li>PRESENTED BY </li></ul><ul><li>MUHAMMAD JUNAID ABBASI </li></ul>
  2. 3. SYSTEM CLOCK <ul><li>It is an ELECTRONIC component & generates ELECTRIC signals at a fast speed. </li></ul><ul><li>It controls all functions of computer using clock ticks, These ticks are known as CLOCK CYCLE . </li></ul>
  3. 4. <ul><li>The speed at which CPU executes instructions is called CLOCK SPEED. </li></ul><ul><li>Processor speed is measured in MHz and GHz. </li></ul>SYSTEM CLOCK
  4. 5. MIPS <ul><li>MIPS stands for Millions Of Instructions Per Second. </li></ul><ul><li>Speed of workstations and some server computer is measured in MIPS. </li></ul><ul><li>Computer can operate up to several thousand MIPS. </li></ul><ul><li>Workstations can perform 100 or more and mainframes can perform 200-1,200 MIPS. </li></ul>
  5. 6. FLOPS <ul><li>FLOP stands for Floating Point Operations Per Second. </li></ul>
  6. 7. MEMORY <ul><li>Data and Instructions are stored in memory to be executed. </li></ul><ul><li>They are stored in memory as bytes during execution. </li></ul><ul><li>Each byte in the memory has its unique address that identify its location. </li></ul><ul><li>It is also called Primary storage . </li></ul>
  7. 8. MEMORY <ul><li>Memory Stores the following three items: </li></ul><ul><li>Operating system and other system software. </li></ul><ul><li>Application programs </li></ul><ul><li>Data </li></ul>
  8. 9. MEMORY <ul><li>There are two types of Memory. </li></ul><ul><li>VOLATILE Memory: </li></ul><ul><li>Loses its contents when computer is turned off. </li></ul><ul><li>NON VOLATILE Memory: </li></ul><ul><li>Doesn't loses its contents when computer is turned off. </li></ul>
  9. 10. Random Access Memory <ul><li>Random access means that each individual byte in the entire memory is directly accessible. </li></ul><ul><li>RAM is used to store an ever changing parade of programs and data. </li></ul><ul><li>A program must be loaded into the RAM before execution. </li></ul><ul><li>It is also called VOLATILE memory. </li></ul>
  10. 11. TYPES OF RAM <ul><li>Memory comes in variety of forms. There are two main types of RAM . </li></ul><ul><li>Static RAM </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic RAM </li></ul>
  11. 12. Static RAM <ul><li>The memory cells are made of digital gates. </li></ul><ul><li>Each cell can store its value without any need to refresh the data as long as the power is available. </li></ul><ul><li>CPU doesn't wait to access data. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s normally used to build a very fast memory known as CACHE memory. </li></ul>
  12. 13. Dynamic RAM <ul><li>It is the type of memory that is used in most computers. </li></ul><ul><li>DRAM requires an electric current to maintain its electrical state. </li></ul><ul><li>The electric charge of DRAM decrease with time that may result in loss of data. </li></ul><ul><li>The processor cannot access the data of DRAM when it is being refreshed. </li></ul>
  13. 14. Difference b/w SRAM n DRAM <ul><li>It is slower than SRAM. </li></ul><ul><li>It is faster then DRAM. </li></ul><ul><li>It utilizes more power. </li></ul><ul><li>It utilizes less power. </li></ul><ul><li>It has to be refreshed after each read operation. </li></ul><ul><li>It does not need to be power-refreshed. </li></ul><ul><li>It is less expensive. </li></ul><ul><li>It is more expensive. </li></ul>DRAM SRAM
  14. 15. Memory Module <ul><li>RAM is mounted on a small circuit board called MEMORY MODULE. </li></ul><ul><li>This memory is mounted on the mother board. </li></ul><ul><li>There are three types of memory module. </li></ul><ul><li>SIMM </li></ul><ul><li>DIMM </li></ul><ul><li>RIMM </li></ul>Types of memory module
  15. 16. <ul><li>SIMM Stands for Single Inline Memory Module. </li></ul><ul><li>In this Module pins on the opposite sides of the circuit board are connected together to form a single set of contacts . </li></ul>SIMM
  16. 17. DIMM <ul><li>DIMM stands for Double Inline Memory Module. </li></ul><ul><li>In this module the pins on opposite sides of the circuit do not connect and form two set of contacts. </li></ul>RIMM <ul><li>RIMM stands for Rambus Inline Memory Module. </li></ul><ul><li>It houses SDRAM chips. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Read Only Memory <ul><li>Rom stores data instructions permanently. </li></ul><ul><li>These stored instructions cannot be changed or deleted. </li></ul><ul><li>When the power is switched off the instructions stored in it are not lost, that’s why it is also called NON-VOLATILE memory. </li></ul><ul><li>It contains small set of instructions called ROM BIOS. </li></ul>
  18. 19. Types of ROM <ul><li>Different types of ROM are as follows: </li></ul><ul><li>PROM </li></ul><ul><li>EPROM </li></ul><ul><li>EEPROM </li></ul>
  19. 20. PROM <ul><li>PROM stands for programmable Read Only Memory. </li></ul><ul><li>This form of ROM is initially blank, user can write data on it using special devices. </li></ul><ul><li>If there is any error in writing the instructions, the error can not be removed from the PROM . </li></ul>
  20. 21. EPROM <ul><li>It stands for Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory. </li></ul><ul><li>User can erase data stored in EPROM chips by exposing the chip to ultra violet light. </li></ul>
  21. 22. EEPROM <ul><li>It stands for Electrically Erasable Programmable Read only Memory . </li></ul><ul><li>In this memory user can read & write instructions using ELECTRICAL PULSES . </li></ul><ul><li>If there is any error, the user can erase the contents ELECTRICALLY . </li></ul>
  22. 23. Difference b/w RAM n ROM <ul><li>Data can not be changed or deleted. </li></ul><ul><li>Data can be changed or deleted. </li></ul><ul><li>It enables data to only read to memory. </li></ul><ul><li>It enables data to be both read & written to memory. </li></ul><ul><li>It is Permanent memory. </li></ul><ul><li>It is temporary memory </li></ul>ROM RAM
  23. 24. Difference b/w RAM n ROM <ul><li>It’s non-volatile memory. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s volatile memory. </li></ul><ul><li>It is not possible to write new instructions on RAM. </li></ul><ul><li>Instructions in Ram are continuously changing. </li></ul><ul><li>Instructions are written at manufacturing time. </li></ul><ul><li>Instructions are written at the time of execution. </li></ul>ROM RAM
  24. 25. Difference b/w PROM n EPROM <ul><li>The user can write instructions on EPROM many times. </li></ul><ul><li>The user can write instructions on PROM only once. </li></ul><ul><li>If there is an error while writing on EPROM, it can still be used again. </li></ul><ul><li>If there is an error while writing on PROM, it becomes unusable. </li></ul><ul><li>Instructions written on it can be erased. </li></ul><ul><li>Instructions written on it can not be erased. </li></ul>EPROM PROM
  25. 26. REFRENCES <ul><li>The concepts of Information Technology </li></ul><ul><li>BY……….. IT SERIES </li></ul><ul><li>Information Technology </li></ul><ul><li>“ THE BREAKING WAVE” </li></ul><ul><li>BY………… </li></ul><ul><li>IRWIN </li></ul><ul><li>MCGRAW-HILL </li></ul><ul><li>WWW.GOOGLE.COM </li></ul><ul><li>WWW.ENCYCLOPEDIA.COM </li></ul>
  26. 27. THANK `s ANY QUESTION?