SEM Group 3 Michelle, Daniel, Kueifu, Cindy, Janise, Melissa


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SEM Group 3 Michelle, Daniel, Kueifu, Cindy, Janise, Melissa

  1. 1. AB0401 – Sustainable Enterprise Changing our World: do we plant trees or create online courses? A project by Greenie – Daniel Cher, Yeo Kuei Fu, Michelle Lai, Cindy Yeo, Janise, Melissa Foo
  2. 2. Assessment Criteria Criteria Financial capacity of implementation Description Analyze NTU’s ability to pay up the costs needed to implement the project Ease of Implementation Analyze if the implementation can be done easily in NTU Accurate measurements Analyze for the accuracy of data between preimplementation and post-implementation Real Reduction In carbon emission Analyze for any actual reduction in carbon emission Long-term feasibility Analyze whether it will be feasible after taking into the account the final outcome
  3. 3. Carbon Footprint Estimation 4 Steps 1. Create a process map 2. Defining the boundaries of the analysis 3. Collecting the data necessary for calculating the carbon footprint 4. Actual calculation of the footprint
  4. 4. Carbon Footprint Estimation 1. Create a Process map A process map is a map that contains all of the different processes, materials and activities of the product’s life cycle that could possibly result in emissions.
  5. 5. Carbon Footprint Estimation 2. Defining the boundaries of the analysis Defines the scope for the product carbon footprint, i.e. inputs and outputs that should be included in the assessment (Carbon Trust & Crown, 2008)
  6. 6. Carbon Footprint Estimation 3. Collecting the data necessary for calculating the carbon footprint Data should be: -relevant -complete -consistent -accurate -transparent Activity data and emission factors are, as discussed before, the data that is necessary for calculating the carbon footprint.
  7. 7. Carbon Footprint Estimation   Actual calculation of the footprint According to PAS 2050:  sum of all activity data factors  Total mass of the input of all the materials should equal the total mass of the output emission factors
  8. 8. Carbon Footprint estimate Scope 1 Source Co2 Emissions 2,157.40 Electricity 25,534,720,00 Heat/Air-conditioning 19,613,128.00 Faculty commuting 2,702,669.45 Student commuting 6,468,011.30 Travel 472,045.82 Paper consumption 139,021.87 Waste 3 - Transport within campus 2 Campus-generated electricity 176,125.70 Total 55,097,879.54 Students 33,500 Employees 4,257 Total per student (kg) 1,644.71 Total per employee (kg) 12,942.89
  9. 9. Relevant Stakeholders Stakeholder Main interest in this issue Government Organizations eg. NEA To promote and encourage green activities NTU investors To achieve high revenue/profits by reducing expenses Employees To have a conducive environment to work in and entitled to reasonable salary and employee benefits NTU To create a conducive learning environment for its students. Students To have a conducive learning environment while being charged with a low school fees
  10. 10. Taking into consideration the various interests that the stakeholders have, we will now evaluate the alternatives by weighing the pros and cons with respect to those interests.
  11. 11. Alternative 1: Classroom  Online format Pros Cons Less hassle for travelling of the students and reduce overall carbon emissions into the environment (personal cars etc.) which will benefit the school ratings and NEA’s goals Students who are stays in Hall of Residences in NTU will end up viewing the online classes in their own Halls. - Distorted view that there is a lowering of the carbon emissions - Simply a diversion - Ultimately, it will be higher emission of carbon due to the higher amount of electrify (fans, airconditioning) that is COLLECTIVELY being used in all the rooms Reduction of use materials – printing of notes, which will help the school save paper. Reduction of electricity – light and air-conditioner usage in classrooms More interactive and unconventional ways of learning through applications online that an facilitate better learning and understanding Every student will require the program and necessary technology to use the online program. IT infrastructure of the school will also have to be very strong.
  12. 12. Alternative 2: Buying an equivalent amount of carbon offset credits from CO2 Australia Example of the proposed situation: X University has a total emission of 600 tonne of CO2 this year. This exceeded the allowed emission by 100 tonne. Therefore, the university can choose to purchase carbon credit from CO2 Australia in order to offset the exceeded emission.
  13. 13. Alternative 2: Buying an equivalent amount of carbon offset credits from CO2 Australia Pros Ease of implementation (Do not require any modification to current school practices) Cons Gives a distorted view. Carbon credit leads people to believe that as long as they pay to offset the pollution, they are still being green. Reduction is the main goal. Not offsetting. The use of carbon credit is relatively new, no true regulation. No real way of tracking if the emissions are being offset appropriately.
  14. 14. Alternative 3: Extension of the installation of Motion Sensors Pros There will be greater conservation of electricity as when the motion sensor will automatically turn on the power in the room when it detects that there is someone. Cons Costly to improvise in every classroom and lounges This will reduce the carbon emission entirely given the basis that a lot of electricity has been wasted as the students do not turn off the electricity upon leaving the place. This installations are already in placed in some washrooms and lounges of Hall of Residences in NTU, thus, it will be an easy system to implement into the classrooms as well Given that it is by motion sensor, it may result in the power going off when someone may still be in the room or toilet but not near the range of the motion sensor Helps in the overall reduction of carbon footprint which is in line with the National Environmental Agency’s goals
  15. 15. Alternative 4: Rewarding favorable variance Pros Cons Provides a motivation for departments to use and develop more environmentally friendly processes so as to achieve favorable variances. Difficult to ascertain how much carbon is produced by each departments With the incentive given to reduce the variances, one will be more motivated to do something that is more efficient and thus, will reduce the overall carbon emission. Difficult to ascertain the true cost of the impact of emission on environment and therefore what really is favorable.
  16. 16. Other possible alternatives: As the list of alternatives are not exhaustive, the following are other possible alternatives that can be adopted: - - Raising Awareness of the need to conserve the environment and reduce the carbon foot print emitted by the school.  Through posters  Through roadshows Encourage participation in school clubs that promotes ‘green’ activities and initiatives Partner recycling companies Use alternate energy generating resources – Solar panels
  17. 17. Comparison of Alternatives Alternative 1 Alternative 2 Alternative 3 Alternative 4 Financial capacity of implementation ✓ ✗ ✗ ✗ Ease of Implementation ✗ ✓ ✓ ✓ Accurate measurements ✗ ✗ ✓ ✗ Real Reduction In carbon emission ✗ ✗ ✓ ✓ Long-term feasibility ✓ ✗ ✓ ✗
  18. 18. Action to take by NTU: Rubrics Evaluation Motion Sensor Reason Financial capacity of implementation ✗ In the short-run, it will be very costly due to the high start-up cost. However, in the longrun, with the overall decrease in carbon emission, there will be greater electricity savings and thus, higher cost reduction. Ease of Implementation ✓ Pilot tests has been carried out and it has been installed in washrooms and lounges. Thus, the implementation will be smoothflowing. Accurate measurements ✓ Comparison of past data (electrical bills) can be done for both pre and post implementation of the sensor. Real Reduction In carbon emission ✓ There is actual reduction as there is a correlation between electricity usage and carbon emissions Long-term feasibility ✓ It will be feasible as despite the initial high start-up cost, in the long-run, the school will be able to achieve long-term cost savings.
  19. 19. Action to take by NTU: Stakeholder Evaluation Stakeholder Detailed Impacts Government Organizations eg. NEA It keeps National Environmental Agency (NEA) on track towards their goal of reducing carbon emissions in Singapore, specifically in Singapore’s pledge to reduce greenhouse gas emissions by 16% below Business-as-Usual levels in 2020 and accession to the Kyoto Protocol. This improves their reputation as it shows that they are effective in promoting green activities and are on track to achieving their goals. NTU investors The investments in the motion sensors will lead to the financial loss (short term). However, there will also be long term financial benefits because of the reduction in expenses (eg. electricity bills). Overall, there will be shareholder wealth maximization. Employees The employees may suffer when their remuneration is affected due to the diversion of funds to the research and education project. However, they are compensated (non-monetary) with a cleaner environment to work in.
  20. 20. Action to take by NTU: Stakeholder Evaluation Stakeholder Detailed Impacts NTU It allows NTU to reach the goal of providing a conducive environment for the students. There will be short term financial loss due to implementation of Alternative 3. However, there will be long term financial benefits as it helps to save on unnecessary electricity costs. In a similar implementation in a New York University, it installed motion sensors in their hallway and saved approximately 1620.6 – 2,226.5 kWh per year per hallway. The average electricity cost in Singapore is 26.08 cents per kWh in 2013 Quarter 4. Assuming that NTU is able to implement this alternative successfully, it will also be able to achieve cost savings of between $422.65 $580.67 per year. This improves its reputation when it works towards the carbonneutral goal through the implementation of Alternative 3. Students There might be increments in their school fees to subsidize the costs incurred when NTU implement the alternative.
  21. 21. Executive Summary Considering the harmful effects of the carbon emissions to our environment, we realised the importance of calculating our carbon footprint and find ways to reduce the carbon emissions. NTU being a well established organisation, should play a part in being environmentally-friendly. By calculating the major components that emit carbon, the carbon footprint of NTU is high thus, there is a need to reduce the carbon emissions. By considering the proposed alternatives, NTU would be able to go green and create a more sustainable organisation. Lastly, we compared the 4 different alternatives and concluded on the best alternative that NTU should adopt.