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AB0401 Sem2 group5 CO2 Australia


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Elearning task

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  • A thoughtful proposal that rests on careful data gathering and analysis. However, stakeholder analysis needs to place more attention on the potential labor market response to a change in teaching methods. The 'dogfooding' tag adds humor.
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AB0401 Sem2 group5 CO2 Australia

  1. 1. A Carbon-Neutral NTU AB0401 Sustainable Enterprises Seminar 2 Project Group 5 Chew Wenhan, Reuben ChooHao Jie Aaron Lim Chun Wei Loh Qi Hui, Joan Tan Zhong Jie (Zac) U1210277J U1211090C U1210145H U1210649F U1210996L
  2. 2. Agenda NTU’s Business Canvas Model NTU’s Carbon Footprint Evaluation of Recommendations Overall Evaluation of Recommendations Conclusion Executive Summary 2
  3. 3. NTU’s Business Canvas Model Key Partners Key Activities • Teaching • Research • Students • Teaching Staff Key Resources • Partner Universities • Research Partners • People • Government • Infrastructure • Utilities Provider • Reputation • Retail Operators Value Proposition Customer Relationships • To be a great global university founded on science and technology Cost Structure • Staff Salaries and Benefits • Investment/Maintenance in Campus Facilities andInfrastructure • Research, Teaching and Scholarships • Student Service, General Administration • Public Service • Holistic Education • Low Rental for Operators Channels • Physical Classes •edveNTUre • Physical Research • Online Research Studies Customer Segments • Undergrads • Post-grads • Retail Operators in NTU Revenue Streams • Tuition Fees • Accommodation • Research Grants and Cost Recoveries • Other Sales and Services 3
  4. 4. NTU’s Carbon Footprint • Estimation based on: – Transportation within NTU – Purchased Electricity – Commuting to and from NTU • Foreign Student Air Travel • Student Travel (to/from home)  8.8 metric tonnes  78.8 metric tonnes  10,498.2 metric tonnes  10,268.9 metric tonnes • Net Emissions ≈ 22,148.2 metric tonnes Calculation is shown in Appendix A: NTU Carbon Footprint Breakdown 4
  5. 5. Evaluation of Recommendation 1: Physical Activities  e-Learning People (Stakeholders) Benefits: University • Increase enrolment due to lesser space constraints Students • More time spent on learning and less on travelling • Increase accessibility to courses Profits • Higher Revenue • Cost Savings from • Labour • Utilities • Printing of Documents Planet Lower Carbon Emissions from: • • Reduction in use of paper Reduced need for transportation Faculty • Can teach more in less time as students can easily pause lectures to absorb content Government • Better crisis management (learning can still go on in the event of another SARS-like crisis) 5
  6. 6. Evaluation of Recommendation 1: Physical Activities  e-Learning People (Stakeholders) Costs: University • Over-reliance on IT platform • Non-optimal use of existing physical infrastructure • Lose attractiveness to foreign online universities Students • Lack of personal interaction • Quality of instruction may be diminished • Need to posses high-quality broadband connection and their own personal computer Profits IT Development Costs • • Maintenance of IT Infrastructure High quality multimedia products Planet Higher Carbon Emissions from: • Increased usage of IT infrastructure resulting in higher electricity consumption Food and Utilities Providers • Less sales Staff • Retrenchment 6
  7. 7. Evaluation of Recommendation 2: Purchasing Carbon Credits People (Stakeholders) Benefits: University • Less reliance on just one channel • Do their part for the environment without having to change any existing processes (change entails resistance which may be costly to overcome) General Public • Purchased carbon credits can be used in green projects which benefit the environment Profits • Heavy investment in IT development for online classes not required Planet • Proceeds from carbon credit purchases could be spent on environmental research which may result in a greater reduction in greenhouse gases in future Students • More interaction and ‘live’ learning compared to e-Learning 7
  8. 8. Evaluation of Recommendation 2: Purchasing Carbon Credits People (Stakeholders) Costs: University • Student enrolment size continues to be physically constrained • Reputation may be affected as it may seem to be merely taking the easy way out Students • Tuition fees will inevitably increase as university needs to offset monetary cost Energy Researchers in ERI@N • Lose credibility as it shows that NTU has not come up with a viable solution but has resorted to purchasing credits instead Profits • Costly to purchase carbon credits given NTU’s carbon footprint • May resort to increasing tuition fees, reducing attractiveness • Planet • NTU still produces the same carbon emissions • Merely an offset of carbon burden than a genuine reduction of carbon footprint Funds used to purchase credits would deprive funding in other important areas like research and education 8
  9. 9. Recommendation 3: Generating Own Source of Electricity NTU ENERGY CENTRE Generate clean source of energy within NTU ‘Dogfooding’ by putting NTU’s energy research to use within campus Improve NTU’s reputation in field of energy research 9
  10. 10. Evaluation of Recommendation 3: Generating Own Source of Electricity People (Stakeholders) Benefits: University • Achieve aim of being a selfsustaining campus • Increase reputation of its energy research institute (ERI@N) Profits • Potentially cheaper than buying carbon credits • Higher profits in the long-run as variable costs decrease • Lower Carbon Emissions from: • Use of renewable energy to generate electricity If highly successful, could re-sell excess energy for an additional revenue stream Students • Minimal disruption to existing system compared to e-Learning Government • Provides an exemplary example of Singapore’s technical prowess in energy research Planet 10
  11. 11. Evaluation of Recommendation 3: Generating Own Source of Electricity People (Stakeholders) Costs: University • May be space intensive, resulting in suboptimal use of limited land area • May impact reputation if programme fails or does not meet energy targets Utilities Provider • Loss of revenue from NTU Profits • High initial capital costs (equipment and land) • Funding used for this programme may deprive funding from other programmes including energy research Planet • Switch to renewable energy may lead to complacency whereby internal stakeholders do not see the need to save electricity Government • May have to allocate precious land area to NTU in order to house such generators 11
  12. 12. Overall Evaluation on Recommendations Direct Transportation Online Classes Carbon Credit Generating energy source Purchased Electricity Transportation outside NTU 70%of CO2 saved 70% of CO2 saved (classroom), but increase of 30% for providing eclasses 35% of CO2 saved from students commuting to class and back Offset the CO2 depending on how much is bought. No direct impact 60% of CO2 saved No direct impact 12
  13. 13. Conclusion Any solution alone would be inadequate All three recommendations should be used in tandem Implement recommendation 1 and 3, and Recommendation 2 to offset the remaining carbon footprint. 13
  14. 14. Conclusion However, main issue lies in Scope 3 costs Largely out of our control Air travel by foreign students takes up half our carbon footprint Not easily mitigated Other ‘smaller recommendations’ that could greatly reduce carbon footprint Utilising fuel-cell instead of diesel for our shuttle buses Using energy-efficient LED lights instead of fluorescent bulbs 14
  15. 15. Conclusion Reducing carbon footprint emissions is a long-drawn process. With commitment and effort, Carbon-neutrality is ACHIEVABLE! 15
  16. 16. Appendix A: NTU Carbon Footprint Breakdown Year 2013 Energy Consumptio n MMBtu Scope 1 Campus Security Vehicles 119.6 Scope 2 Purchased Electricity 967,009.7 Scope 3 Faculty / Staff Transport 72,168.7 Student Travel (Campus) 31,280.5 Staff Air Travel 1,345.4 Foreign Student Air Travel 53,633.4 Student Travel (to/from 143,954.8 Home) Paper Scope 2 T&D Losses 95,638.3 Totals Scope 1 119.6 Scope 2 967,009.7 Scope 3 398,021.1 All Scopes 1,365,150.4 All Offsets *Using Campus Carbon Calculator Back CO2 CH4 N2O eCO2 kg kg kg Metric Tonnes 8.8 263.4 10,498.2 10,268.9 8,536.8 1.8 78,808,613.0 5,307,329.5 2,313,402.1 262,402.4 2.6 10,460,122.2 103.7 10,110,655.2 1,136.3 0.6 3.0 119.2 435.8 7,794,258.4 8,536.8 1.8 78,808,613.0 36,248,169.9 1242.6 115,065,319.7 1224.7 0.6 558.0 560 1,030.1 8.8 78.8 22060.6 22148.2 - Net Emissions:22148.2
  17. 17. Appendix A Assumptions Scope 1 Costs (Campus Security Vehicle) Only noticeable university fleet is the Campus Security Vehicle Based on 30 trips around NTU (~ 5km) per day and fuel consumption of 56.85km/gallon (Toyota VIOS) Total Fuel Consumption: 963 gallons Scope 2 Costs (Purchased Electricity) Current power consumption is 71.43kWH/m2/year Assuming this figure is based on land area and not floor area, electricity usage will be 142,860,000 kWh per year (based on a 200 hectare campus size) 17
  18. 18. Appendix A Assumptions Scope 3 Costs (Faculty / Staff Transport) Assume all faculty (1682) and 30% of staff (4930) drive to work Assume average distance travelled everyday is 16km for those who drive to work Their mileage would be 7,195,258 miles The remaining staff population take public transport to work Assume 8km travelled by bus and 16km by train per pax every day Their mileage per year would be 3,927,687 miles by bus and 7,855,373 miles by train Assume air travel for faculty/staff is set at an arbitrary 500,000 miles per year 18
  19. 19. Appendix A Assumptions Back Scope 3 Costs (Student Travel) Hall places amount to about 10,200 Assume all of them travel 4km by shuttle bus everyday An additional 5,000 students (including non-hall residents) take the Pioneer shuttle bus every day for 9km Thus, average within-school commute distance is 7,201,980 miles For non-hall resident population of 22,891, assume 8,000 travel by car every day for 16km, remaining travel 8km by bus and 16km by train daily Thus, 9,991,116 miles by bus, 19,982,233 miles by train and 10,735,200 miles by car is travelled every year 19
  20. 20. Appendix A Assumptions Scope 3 Costs (Student Travel) For the foreign student population of 4,290, assume that they each fly 4,646 miles on average every year Thus, 19,931,450 miles travelled per year Scope 3 Costs (Paper) Assuming the total population of 39,673 uses on average 2,500 sheets of 70gsm paper every year, the total weight of paper used is 956,637 lbs 20
  21. 21. Executive Summary This presentation outlines methods in which NTU could adopt in achieving carbon neutrality within our campus. With NTU’s emphasis on energy research and sustainability, ‘walking the talk’ could be the best evidence of our commitment, starting by implementing sustainable practices within our campus itself. At present, based on our analysis and initial estimates, NTU generates a whopping 22,730 metric tonnes of CO2 equivalents every year. We believe this number can be brought down significantly by adopting the practices detailed in this presentation. We suggest three main alternatives NTU could adopt: converting the majority of the course delivery into online platforms, purchasing equivalent carbon offset credits, and generating our own clean source of energy, with the use of relevant technology that has been researched by our very own Energy Research Institute @ NTU. This presentation evaluates extensively the pros and cons of these three alternatives and shows how these alternatives may be implemented, either separately or in tandem, in helping NTU reach a carbon-neutral future. Of course, this is often easier said than done, as many uncontrollable variables may impact our projected targets. In addition, other issues need to be considered too, from our stakeholders’ perspective. At the end of the day, while implementing the alternatives may not be easy initially, we believe that the benefits outweigh the cost, as if done successfully, NTU will not only be globally recognised for its commitment to environmental sustainability, but also do its part in making the world a greener place.