Ab0401 sem 4 group 10 co2 australia e learning


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Xue Ying
Hui Ying
MIn Hui

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  • Very thorough presentation of carbon footprint analysis, with a rich set of alternatives. The proposed shift from classroom to online learning may indeed be viable, but its risks demand careful thought and mitigation, such as potential impact on our international accreditation and on the market for our graduates (missing from stakeholder list). Current online education often appears to be little more than a video of a lecture, accompanied by an assignment. If we envision a future in which teams collaborate across the Internet to solve complex problems, we’ll have to prepare our students by building learning environments that simulate this. Nice executive summary.
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Ab0401 sem 4 group 10 co2 australia e learning

  1. 1. AB0401 Seminar 4 Group 10 Lee Min Hui Noel Ng Tan Angeline Tan Xue Ying Teo Hui Ying
  2. 2. Overview • • • • • • Carbon footprint estimation Objectives Decision criteria Main contributors to carbon footprint in NTU Identifying relevant stakeholders Options/ alternatives o E-learning o Buying carbon offset credits • • • o Other viable alternatives Comparison of options/ alternatives Recommendations Executive summary
  3. 3. Carbon Footprint Estimation 4 Steps: 1. Create a process map 2. Define the boundaries of the analysis 3. Collect the data necessary to calculate the carbon footprint 4. Calculate the carbon footprint
  4. 4. Carbon Footprint Estimation 1. Create a process map Identify all the processes, materials and activities in NTU that contribute to the carbon emissions. These include: • Electricity consumption • Heat generated • Transportation of members to the university
  5. 5. Carbon Footprint Estimation 2. Define the boundaries of the analysis We should include all direct emissions and the indirect emissions from all individuals and goods to get to NTU.
  6. 6. Carbon Footprint Estimation 3. Collect the data necessary to calculate the carbon footprint  Collect the relevant and complete activity data and emission factors
  7. 7. Carbon Footprint Estimation 4. Calculate the carbon footprint — total CO2 emission of the university can be calculated by multiplying emission The factors and activity data for all the categories; taking the sum of these multiplications gives the total CO2 emission of the university. CO2 emission = Activity data (kg/ km / litres / etc) * Emission factor (CO2 per unit). The degree of uncertainty of the calculations can be assessed by doing a sensitivity analysis
  8. 8. Carbon Footprint Estimation Scope Source Scope 1 Campus-generated electricity Campus-owned transport Scope 2 Total emissions (kg), C02 Negligible 2,155.40 25,484,680.00 Heat/ Air-conditioning Scope 3 Purchased electricity 18,723,120.00 Faculty Commuting 2,697,869.20 Student Commuting 6,343,091.30 Financed Travel Paper consumption 145,003.95 Waste Total 488,023.90 175,100.90 54,059,044.65
  9. 9. Carbon Footprint Estimation (con’t) Students 32,862 Employees 4,214 Total per student (kg) Total per employee (kg) 1407.23 1854.43
  10. 10. Objectives • • Short term - reduction of carbon emissions Long term - achieve carbon-neutrality
  11. 11. Decision Criteria 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Ease of Implementation Cost of Implementation Impact on Carbon Footprint Impact on Stakeholders Long Term vs Short Term
  12. 12. Main Contributors to Carbon Footprint in NTU • Electricity consumption (schools + hall of residences) o o o • o Transportation (staff and students) o • • Air con Lighting IT Water heating o Shuttle bus Public transport Paper Waste
  13. 13. Identifying Relevant Stakeholders Stakeholders Values & Interests Students - To learn relevant values and skills, including soft skills - Convenience - Cost of studying School (NTU) - Reputation of school (ranking of school) - Good studying environment Staff (Including professors) - Welfare & employees’ benefits - Good teaching environment Government - Grooming of future leaders - A better economy Environment - Corporate Social Responsibility - Efforts in sustaining/ improving the environment
  14. 14. Options 1. E-learning 2. Buying carbon offset credits 3. Other viable alternatives Analysis method: Apart from analysing the impact of the options on carbon emissions, a more holistic approach would be taken in analysing the overall impact of the options on relevant stakeholders
  15. 15. 1. Impact of E-learning on Carbon Footprint Reduction of carbon footprint through • • • Transportation - Students and teachers cut down on travelling to and fro Physical Course Material - Less materials ie paper, will be printed with digitising Reduced Provision of Student Housing - Less need for student housing reduces energy consumption
  16. 16. 1. Impact of E-learning on Carbon Footprint Possible increase of carbon footprint through…. • • Failure of e-learning - May result in double classes ie, when the e-learning classes fail another physical class must be rearranged, incurring additional carbon costs of the physical class Usage of home computers - Desktop PCs burn at least 0.125 kwh/hour. Question then arises if the energy consumption of everyone using a personal computer is more energy efficient as compared to conventional delivery methods
  17. 17. 1. Impact of E-learning on Carbon Footprint Energy consumables held constant • Electricity - Electricity consumption for most part remains constant as the systems are usually centralised hence consumables such as airconditioning are left running despite the rooms being unused. The question arises whether decentralising such systems is cost efficient enough for the universities to avoid this unnecessary increase in carbon emissions
  18. 18. 1. Impact of E-learning on Stakeholders Stakeholders Pros Cons Students - Increased convenience, can learn from home - Reduce cost of studying – save on transportation costs - Learning may be less effective (may get distracted when learning from home) - Less opportunities to develop soft skills – no real-life communication/ networking School (NTU) - More recognised – unique way of - Need to spend large sum implementing conducting lessons the e-learning systems - Cut down on utilities expenses Staff (Including - Increased convenience, can teach - Need to adapt to the change in teaching professors) from home environment - Increase flexibility as can easily - Might not get full attention from students conduct lessons anytime, anywhere (no need to book physical classrooms)
  19. 19. 1. Impact of E-learning on Stakeholders (con’t) Stakeholders Pros Cons Government - Future leaders will be more IT - More funds may be required to savvy fund the education sector - Tapping on to the advanced technology (essential in future) Environment - Sustain the environment by - Increase usage of electricity from cutting down on CO2 emissions households in school
  20. 20. 2. Buying carbon offset credits from CO2 Group Carbon offset credits A credit for reductions achieved by one party that can be purchased and used to offset the emissions of another party Works for the school in that if it produces too much pollutant emissions, it can offset its carbon footprint by buying credits from providers, such as the CO2 Group CO2 Group Limited Provides carbon-credits via the CO2 AUSTRALIA Carbon Sequestration Program Helps clients reduce their carbon footprints and meet their carbon offset demands • • • •
  21. 21. 2. Impact of Buying carbon offset credits from CO2 Group on Stakeholders Stakeholders Pros Students - School (NTU) Staff (Including professors) Cons - Gives the “right to pollute”; school with sufficient funds can simply buy the credits, rather than change their behavior to Can remediate the effects of reduce emissions exceeded inevitable carbon - School: money spent on purchasing the emissions by buying offsets credits could be used for more important uses - Government Can simply settle the total amount of permitted emission according to the environment’s ability to absorb the pollutants Environment Short term measure to control Not sustainable in the long run in cutting the overall emission by firms down emissions
  22. 22. 3. Other Viable Alternatives Leading to a CarbonNeutral Future a. Convert the campus into a green building
  23. 23. a. Converting the campus into a green building Suggestions relevant to NTU: Feature Benefits/Rationale Motion-detectors(lights) - Easy to implement - Large number of rooms this can be implemented in (Larger impact) Solar Panels - Easy to implement - Ntu has many buildings with roofs this can be installed in (Larger impact) Wind Turbines - Easy to implement - Ntu has many buildings with roofs this can be installed in (Larger impact) - NTU’s higher grounds would increase the usage rate of wind trubines
  24. 24. 3. Other Viable Alternatives Leading to a CarbonNeutral Future b. Giving incentives for going green According to the incentive theory, if a reward is presented after the occurrence of an action, one would associate positive meaning to the behaviour. The repetitive action-reward combination can cause the action to become habit. • e.g. Reward staff with bonus for reducing use of papers
  25. 25. 3. Other Viable Alternatives Leading to a CarbonNeutral Future c. Introducing tree planting offset • Plant more trees around the campus to offset our carbon emission d. Extension of tablet-loaning system to all students • Reduces the amount of paper used in printing of course notes
  26. 26. Comparison of Alternatives Pros Greener Buildings in NTU Short term benefits only • Easy to implement • • • • Buy Carbon Credits Easy to implement Costly only at the beginning when obtaining software Lowers carbon footprints • • E-Learning • • Cons Root of problem not addressed Costly Carbon footprint not reduced Short term measure Brings about long term benefits Lowers carbon emission • • Costly Takes time to implement Easy to implement Not too costly Ranges from short term to long term • Impact on carbon footprint not as big • • Implement 3Rs • • •
  27. 27. Comparison of Alternatives Pros Cons Giving incentives • Relatively easy to implement • Can be costly if many people are motivated by incentives • Impact on carbon footprint not as significant • Short term benefits Introduce tree planting • Long term benefit to achieve carbon neutrality • Not easy to implement • Costly Tablet-loaning system • Reduces reliance on paper • Reduces carbon footprint • Easy to implement • Costly • Short term
  28. 28. Recommendations (Part 1) E-Learning • Implement in stages ie, test drive on less popular courses with lower class numbers to go fully e-learning based Carbon Offset Credits • Use only when campus is unable to meet the carbon offset requirements on short-term basis
  29. 29. Recommendations (Part 2) Greener Buildings • This is an option most likely to provide substantial carbon emission reductions over the long run for a one time cost, making it a sustainable option.
  30. 30. Executive Summary Everyone knows the disastrous impact of ever-increasing carbon emissions as well as the importance of contributing towards environmental sustainability. However there is no one formula to achieve this huge goal. There are, however, many effective ways every individual or entity can contribute to achieving this. Students are our future leaders and this makes schools a great and effective place to start off in. In encouraging schools to adopt relevant CO2 measures this social responsibility can be inculcated into not only the students but staff as well. NTU is one of the biggest presence on the local education scene, and in reducing its carbon footprint, Singapore would be making a big step towards setting the future path for the ‘green environment’ that is crucial to a sustainable growth as a nation. To achieve a reduction in the carbon footprint, the main contributors to carbon emissions are first identified. Options such as e-learning, carbon offset credits and other viable alternatives are explored and analysed according to how they can make a difference in the various contributors identified as well as their impact on stakeholders. Lastly recommendations are made based on feasibility decided with a holistic decision criteria combining financial and environmental sustainability elements. With the recommendations, in the long run, NTU can lead future leaders towards a carbon-neutral and sustainable environment