AB0401 - Changing our World: do we
plant trees or create online courses?
Sem 2 Group 4 The Tree Huggers
Team Members: Koh ...
Brief Overview
• Calculating NTU’s Carbon Footprint
• Stakeholder Analysis

• 3 Initiatives to Reduce Carbon Footprint
• E...
Calculating NTU’s Estimated
Carbon Footprint
Methodology:
Scope

Description

Relevant Activities

1

Direct emissions res...
Calculating NTU’s Estimated
Carbon Footprint
Key Statistics:

• NTU’s total population size in 2012 (undergraduates,
gradu...
Calculating NTU’s Estimated
Carbon Footprint
Assumptions:
Scope

Categories

Assumptions

Scope 1

Departmental fleet

- 6...
Calculating NTU’s Estimated
Carbon Footprint
Assumptions:
Scope

Categories

Assumptions

Scope 3

Private
transportation
...
Calculating NTU’s Estimated
Carbon Footprint
CO2 IN TONS (NTU) AS SEPERATED INTO 3 SCOPES
Scope 3,
20,630
Tons, 23%

Scope...
Calculating NTU’s Estimated
Carbon Footprint
NTU’s CO2 Emission Output For 2012:
Scope

Categories

Carbon Emissions (kg)
...
Stakeholder Analysis
Stakeholders

Key Interests

NTU

To nurture future sustainable leaders

Students

To develop a holis...
3 Initiatives To Reduce
Carbon Footprint
1)From Classroom to E-learning
2)Buying Carbon Offset Credits
3)Alternative Measu...
3 Initiatives to Reduce Carbon
Footprint
Decision Criteria:

• Reduction in Carbon Footprint
• Cost/unit over Time
• Impac...
1) From Classroom to E-learning
Reduction in Carbon Footprint
Assumptions:

• Neither students nor staff stay in hall
• Se...
1) From Classroom to E-learning
Reduction in Carbon Footprint
Classroom
•
•
•
•
•

Usage of air-con, lights, screen projec...
1) From Classroom to E-learning
Reduction in Carbon Footprint
• Study

conducted by the Open University found that
product...
1) From Classroom to E-learning
Operating Costs Per Semester
Classroom
•
•
•
•
•

Electricity = 6 x 1.2x $0.12 = $0.864
Tr...
1) From Classroom to E-learning
Impact on Stakeholders
Stakeholders

Pros

Cons

NTU

In line with NTU’s Mission
of 3P-les...
1) From Classroom to E-learning
Viability in the Long Term
• Not feasible as it is not in line with NTU’s goal of
nurturin...
2) Buying Carbon Offset Credits
• Definition: Measuring carbon emitted and purchasing
carbon credits to offset environment...
2) Buying Carbon Offset Credits
• Definition: Measuring carbon emitted and purchasing
carbon credits to offset environment...
2) Buying Carbon Offset Credits
Offset in Carbon Footprint (from earlier calculations)

•

NTU’s 2012 carbon footprint = 9...
2) Buying Carbon Offset Credits
Impact on Stakeholders
Stakeholders

Pros

Cons

NTU

Boost NTU’s reputation and Whole NTU...
2) Buying Carbon Offset Credits
Viability in the Long Term
• Feasible as it is easily implemented and readily available
in...
3) Alternative Measures
• Measures are targeted at 3 groups of
stakeholders - NTU, students, and staff
• Designed to be im...
3) Alternative Measures – NTU
Measures

Reduction in
Cost
Carbon Footprint Savings

Feasibility in
Long Term

Promote use ...
3) Alternative Measures – Students
Measures

Reduction in
Carbon Footprint

Cost
Savings

Feasibility in
Long Term

Practi...
3) Alternative Measures – Staff
Measures

Reduction in
Cost
Carbon Footprint Savings

Feasibility in
Long Term

Introduce ...
Evaluation of Initiatives
Factors

E-learning
(Ranked 1-3, 1
being the best)

Buying Carbon
Credits
(Ranked 1-3, 1
being t...
Evaluation of Initiatives
Buying Carbon Offset Credits

•
•
•
•
•

Fallacy that the no. of credits will offset the amount ...
Evaluation of Initiatives
Alternative Measures

•
•
•

Population in NTU may not be receptive to the proposed
changes , e....
Final recommendation
Combination of E-learning & Buying Carbon Offset Credits

•

•
•

•
•

E-learning’s carbon savings mi...
Executive Summary:
The key to a carbon neutral future of NTU is to implement more of its lessons in elearning weeks, doing...
References
•
•
•
•

•
•
•

http://forest-trends.org/publication_details.php?publicationID=3960
http://www.reuters.com/arti...
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Ab0401 sem 2 grp 4 CO2 australia

1,111 views

Published on

The Tree Huggers Sem 2 Group 4
Rodion Lim Shi'Ang
Koh Chongyi
Tan Yong Hwaa
Abigail Tan Huimin
Esther Lim Keen Tze

Published in: Education, Technology
1 Comment
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Agree that E-learning certainly isn't a magic solution! Balanced proposal, good research effort, though would like to see your team take a clear stand on 'what to do when we leave the room,' which I didn't see here.
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total views
1,111
On SlideShare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
1
Comments
1
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

No notes for slide
  • Calculating emission by private transportationAssumption: staff and students travel from city hall to boon lay, as we are unable to ascertain the postal codes. Assumed that people travel to NTU taking the same distance. Total number of student season parking passes issued= 566Total number of staff season parking passes issued= 114Distance travelled from city hall to boon lay=34kmNo of days during academic period= 18 weeks*5=90 daysTotal distance travelled by students during academic period= 566* 34km*2*90 days= 3,463,920kmNo of working days during 1 working year= 365-10-104=251 working daysTotal distance travelled by staff and faculty during academic period= 114* 34km*2*251 working days=1,945,752kmTotal distance travelled=1,945,752km+3,463,920km=5,409,672kmTotal C02 emissions by bus=1,210,109kg of C02Calculating emission by public transportAssumption: staff and students travel from city hall to boon lay, as we are unable to ascertain the postal codes. Assume all staff and student take mrt from city hall to boon lay, and bus from boon lay to ntuDistance from city hall to boon lay (MRT)= 22kmDistance from boon lay to NTU (BUS) = 12kmTotal distance travelled=34kmEst. total number of undergrad and post grad students who take public transport as at 2012=(23,518+9,468) – 566= 32,420Est. total number of staff and faculty population who take public transport as at 2012= 6,612- 114= 6,498Total distance travelled by undergrad and post grad students who take mrt as at 2012= 22km*32,420= 713,240kmTotal distance travelled by students who take mrt (1 academic period)= 713,240km*2*90 days=128,383,200kmTotal distance travelled by staff who take mrt as at 2012= 12km* 6,498= 77,976kmTotal distance travelled by staff who take mrt (1 working year)= 77,976*2* 251 days=39,143,952kmTotal distance travelled by mrt= 128,383,200km+39,143,952km=167,527,152kmTotal C02 emissions by bus=s=7,453,004kg of C02Total distance travelled by undergrad and post grad students who take bus as at 2012= 12km* 32,420=389,040kmTotal distance travelled by undergrad and post grad students who take bus as at 2012 (1 academic period)= 389,040km*2*90 days=70,027,200kmTotal distance travelled by staff who take bus as at 2012= 12km* 6,498=77,976kmTotal distance travelled by staff who take bus as at 2012 (1 working year)= 77,976km*2*251 working days=39,143,952kmTotal distance travelled by bus=70,027,200km+39,143,952km=109,171,152kmTotal C02 emissions by bus=11,939,101kg of C02Calculating emission by staff/student air travel (ignoring since there is insufficient data)Calculating emission by internal bus shuttle servicesAssuming average waiting time of 15 minsTotal distance travelled by Campus Loop Blue per day= 60 trips* 1.4km=84kmTotal distance travelled by Campus Loop Blue per working year= 84*2*365 working days=61,320kmTotal distance travelled by Campus Loop Red per day= 60 trips* 1.1km=66kmTotal distance travelled by Campus Loop Red per working year= 66*2*365 working days=48,180kmTotal distance travelled by Campus Rider per day= 62 trips* 3.2km=198.4kmTotal distance travelled by Campus Rider per working year=198.4*2*(365-52*2) working days=103,564.8kmTotal distance travelled by Campus Weekend Rider per day= 62 trips* 3.2km=198.4kmTotal distance travelled by Campus Weekend Rider per working year=198.4*2*(52*2) working days=41,267.2kmTotal distance travelled by internal bus shuttle service=41,267.2km+103,564.8km+48,180km+61,320km=254,332kmTotal C02 emissions by bus=27,814kg of C02 Scope 1 emission:Assume 65 fleets departmental carsDistance travelled= 65*5*1.4*2*365 days= 332,150kmTotal C02 emissions by bus=74,300kg of C02 Scope 2 emission:Energy consumption in FY 12 = 164 million kWhTotal C02 emissions by bus=70,520,000kg of C02
  • https://services.spservices.sg/elect_audit_frameset.asp
  • “Towards Sustainable Higher Education: Environmental Impacts of Campus-Based and Distance Higher Education Systems,”
  • Choose to implement the first option.
  • Effects of 3Rs are summed up.
  • Ab0401 sem 2 grp 4 CO2 australia

    1. 1. AB0401 - Changing our World: do we plant trees or create online courses? Sem 2 Group 4 The Tree Huggers Team Members: Koh Chongyi Esther Lim Keen Tze Abigail Tan Huimin Tan Yong Hwa Rodion Lim Shi’Ang 1
    2. 2. Brief Overview • Calculating NTU’s Carbon Footprint • Stakeholder Analysis • 3 Initiatives to Reduce Carbon Footprint • Evaluation of Initiatives • Final Recommendation • Executive Summary 2
    3. 3. Calculating NTU’s Estimated Carbon Footprint Methodology: Scope Description Relevant Activities 1 Direct emissions resulting from direct combustion of fuel from sources owned by the NTU Departmental fleet owned by NTU 2 Purchased heat and electricity consumed by NTU Energy consumption 3 Emissions that are not the result of university-owned assets, but university’s activities Public and private transport, internal bus shuttle service (Adapted from EUR case study and NUS Greenhouse Gas Inventory) 3
    4. 4. Calculating NTU’s Estimated Carbon Footprint Key Statistics: • NTU’s total population size in 2012 (undergraduates, graduates, staff and faculty) = 39,598 • Energy consumption in FY 12 = 164 million kWh (Adapted from ISCN Gulf Charter Report NTU 2013 and NTU website) 4
    5. 5. Calculating NTU’s Estimated Carbon Footprint Assumptions: Scope Categories Assumptions Scope 1 Departmental fleet - 65 departmental cars (derived from N TU’s annual report 2012) Scope 2 Energy consumption NTU - Figures taken from ISCN Gulf Charter Report NTU 2013 are accurate Scope 3 Public transportation - Students and staff take MRT from City Hall to Boon Lay, and take Bus 179 into NTU 5
    6. 6. Calculating NTU’s Estimated Carbon Footprint Assumptions: Scope Categories Assumptions Scope 3 Private transportation - Students and staff travel from City Hall to NTU - 566 student season parking and 114 staff season parking rights are issued - Students travel to NTU for 90 days in 1 sem - Staff travel to NTU for 251 days in a year Scope 3 Internal shuttle - Average waiting time of 15 mins bus service 6
    7. 7. Calculating NTU’s Estimated Carbon Footprint CO2 IN TONS (NTU) AS SEPERATED INTO 3 SCOPES Scope 3, 20,630 Tons, 23% Scope 1, 74.3 Tons, 0% Scope 2, 70,520 Tons, 77% 7
    8. 8. Calculating NTU’s Estimated Carbon Footprint NTU’s CO2 Emission Output For 2012: Scope Categories Carbon Emissions (kg) Scope 1 Departmental fleet 74,300 kg Scope 2 Energy consumption NTU 70,520,000 kg Scope 3 Public transportation 19,392,105 kg Scope 3 Private transportation 1,210,109 kg Scope 3 Internal shuttle bus 27, 814 kg Estimated total 91,224,328 kg Total estimated carbon footprint for NTU = 91,224 tons of CO2 (Breakdown of figures are shown in notes) 8
    9. 9. Stakeholder Analysis Stakeholders Key Interests NTU To nurture future sustainable leaders Students To develop a holistic education and an understanding of sustainability issues Government To encourage organizations to promote sustainable practices Community To secure theirs and their future generation’s well-being by sustaining the environment 9
    10. 10. 3 Initiatives To Reduce Carbon Footprint 1)From Classroom to E-learning 2)Buying Carbon Offset Credits 3)Alternative Measures 10
    11. 11. 3 Initiatives to Reduce Carbon Footprint Decision Criteria: • Reduction in Carbon Footprint • Cost/unit over Time • Impact on Stakeholders • Viability in the Long Term 11
    12. 12. 1) From Classroom to E-learning Reduction in Carbon Footprint Assumptions: • Neither students nor staff stay in hall • Seminar (50 pax) is approximately 3h long • Significant proportion = 7 lessons 12
    13. 13. 1) From Classroom to E-learning Reduction in Carbon Footprint Classroom • • • • • Usage of air-con, lights, screen projectors and LED TVs (2) per room for one class Carbon Footprint= 4kg + 2kg = 6kg Emission of CO2 from travelling E-learning • • Carbon Footprint= approx. 7kg/student Printing cost (approx 20 pages) Carbon Footprint= 20 X 50 = 1,000 pages Total carbon footprint for one class = 6kg + (7x50)kg of CO2 = 356kg and some trees Total carbon footprint for 7 lessons = 356 kg X 7 = 2,492 kg and more trees • • Each computer/ laptop used consumes 0.05417kg of CO2/hour =0.05417 X 3h = 0.16251kg of CO2 Consumption of Electricity (in terms of CO2) in the room they are in, assuming usage of 1 fan and 1 light for 3 hrs =0.07kg +.0125kg =0 .0825kg of CO2 Total carbon footprint for one class : 0.24501 X 50 = 12.25kg Total carbon footprint for 7 lessons = 12.25kg x 7= 85.75kg of CO2 *Reduction of 2.41 tons of CO2 13
    14. 14. 1) From Classroom to E-learning Reduction in Carbon Footprint • Study conducted by the Open University found that production and provision of distance learning courses consumed nearly 90% less energy and produced 85% fewer CO2 emissions per student than conventional campus-based university courses. • This is approximately consistent with our calculations for the reduction in carbon footprint from the previous slide (Towards Sustainable Higher Education: Environmental Impacts of Campus-Based and Distance Higher Education Systems Report) 14
    15. 15. 1) From Classroom to E-learning Operating Costs Per Semester Classroom • • • • • Electricity = 6 x 1.2x $0.12 = $0.864 Transportation cost = $3.0/student Printing cost (approx 20 pages) = 20x50x$0.05 = $50 E-learning • • Total cost for one lesson = $0.864 + 3x50 + $50 = $200.864 • Total cost for 13 lessons = $200.864 x 7 = $2,611.23 • Each computer/ laptop used= 0.16251 x 1.2 x $0.12 = $0.0234 Consumption of electricity, assuming usage of 1 fan and 1 light = 0.0825 x 1.2 x $0.12 = $0.01188 Total cost for one lesson = $(0.01188+0.0234) X 50 = $1.764 Total cost for 7 lessons (e-learning) and 6 lessons (classroom) = $1.764 x 7+ $200.864 x 6= $1,217.53 *Savings of $1,393.70 15
    16. 16. 1) From Classroom to E-learning Impact on Stakeholders Stakeholders Pros Cons NTU In line with NTU’s Mission of 3P-less i.e. Print-less, Paper-less, Pay-less Reduces student-professor interaction which is key to University rankings Students Lesser traveling time, flexibility of study hours Learners with low motivation may fall behind, lesser peer-to-peer interaction Government Lesser carbon emissions for Make certain changes in Singapore in general the current robust education system Community Better impression of NTU Some may be skeptical about the results of this education method 16
    17. 17. 1) From Classroom to E-learning Viability in the Long Term • Not feasible as it is not in line with NTU’s goal of nurturing creative and entrepreneurial leaders through a broad education in diverse disciplines , where the development of soft skills is an essential component • E-learning does not facilitate the development of soft skills, including communication skills • • Minimal interaction among peers and professors Students do not get a chance to conduct presentations 17
    18. 18. 2) Buying Carbon Offset Credits • Definition: Measuring carbon emitted and purchasing carbon credits to offset environmental impact • Carbon credits will be used to fund sustainable projects • Assumption: Buying carbon credits from CO2 Australia 18
    19. 19. 2) Buying Carbon Offset Credits • Definition: Measuring carbon emitted and purchasing carbon credits to offset environmental impact • Carbon credits will be used to fund sustainable projects • Assumption: Buying carbon credits from CO2 Australia 19
    20. 20. 2) Buying Carbon Offset Credits Offset in Carbon Footprint (from earlier calculations) • NTU’s 2012 carbon footprint = 91,224 tons of CO2 Cost per year • Market price of carbon offsets (Voluntary purchase) = $5.9 per ton of CO2 in 2012 • Total cost per year = $538,224 (Adapted from Bloomberg New Energy Finance Report 2013 for Voluntary Carbon Market) 20
    21. 21. 2) Buying Carbon Offset Credits Impact on Stakeholders Stakeholders Pros Cons NTU Boost NTU’s reputation and Whole NTU population other universities may even bear the increased cost, follow suit approximately $14 per year Students Benefit from the enhanced school reputation Government Lesser carbon emissions for Does not reduce but merely Singapore in general offsets carbon emissions Community No clear benefit Not all students are willing to pay for the premium No clear detriment 21
    22. 22. 2) Buying Carbon Offset Credits Viability in the Long Term • Feasible as it is easily implemented and readily available in the markets • By doing an estimate of the scope 1,2 and 3 emissions, we can reliably offset the total amount of carbon emissions produced by NTU • Further evaluation can be found in our final recommendation 22
    23. 23. 3) Alternative Measures • Measures are targeted at 3 groups of stakeholders - NTU, students, and staff • Designed to be implemented on a regular basis • Measure highlighted in green is “recommended” 23
    24. 24. 3) Alternative Measures – NTU Measures Reduction in Cost Carbon Footprint Savings Feasibility in Long Term Promote use of bicycles and reduce shuttle bus frequency Medium-High Medium Medium NTU Green Hour – switch off unnecessary lights once per week from 8-10pm Low Medium High Loan tablets to students to reduce printing of notes Medium Low Low 24
    25. 25. 3) Alternative Measures – Students Measures Reduction in Carbon Footprint Cost Savings Feasibility in Long Term Practice the 3Rs (Reduce, Reuse, Recycle) Medium Medium Very High Reduce – Make an effort to print double-sided notes Low Low High Reuse – Clubs can organize textbook fleas to reuse old textbooks Low Low High Recycle – Classify waste and recycle them at recycling bins in school Low Low High 25
    26. 26. 3) Alternative Measures – Staff Measures Reduction in Cost Carbon Footprint Savings Feasibility in Long Term Introduce an annual Green Innovation Award for the employee who comes up with the best method to reduce energy consumption Low High Low 26
    27. 27. Evaluation of Initiatives Factors E-learning (Ranked 1-3, 1 being the best) Buying Carbon Credits (Ranked 1-3, 1 being the best) Alternatives (Ranked 1-3, 1 being the best) Cost of implementation 1st 3rd 2nd Offset/Reduction in CO2 emissions 1st 2nd 3rd Feasibility 3rd 1st 2nd Overall Ranking 1st 2nd 3rd 27
    28. 28. Evaluation of Initiatives Buying Carbon Offset Credits • • • • • Fallacy that the no. of credits will offset the amount of carbon one generates However, reduction usually spreads over the life of the project. At times, reduction in greenhouse gases may only start upon successful completion of the project Inconsistent verification and auditing procedures on information provided by offset providers Calculation of greenhouse reductions depends on how much carbon would have been emitted without the project, which can be subjective Land purchased for growing trees can be put to better productive uses (opportunity costs incurred) 28
    29. 29. Evaluation of Initiatives Alternative Measures • • • Population in NTU may not be receptive to the proposed changes , e.g. reduced shuttle bus frequency 3Rs are often encouraged but there are no substantial actions taken to practice what we preach Difficult to justify how much we can reduce for our carbon footprint 29
    30. 30. Final recommendation Combination of E-learning & Buying Carbon Offset Credits • • • • • E-learning’s carbon savings might be minute compared to NTU’s total carbon emission However, it tackles the root cause by preventing carbon emissions in the first place This will create the opportunity for potential scalability (greater reduction) in the future Carbon emissions that cannot be prevented will be mitigated partially with purchasing Carbon Offset Credits Alternatives will be implemented in tandem 30
    31. 31. Executive Summary: The key to a carbon neutral future of NTU is to implement more of its lessons in elearning weeks, doing it for 3 weeks per semester instead of existing arrangements and buying carbon offset credits from a provider to offset the amount that cannot eliminated. This approach tackles the root cause of carbon emission and demonstrate commitment to the environment. As of 2012, NTU is producing 91,224 tons of CO2 per year and this is contributing to the global warming crisis and the consequent climate shift. If left unchecked, it would have dire consequences for mankind. Therefore, we believe that it is an opportunity to showcase strength in numbers. The entire NTU population could play its part, especially the management, by adopting our recommendations. NTU could be a pioneer in Singapore by advocating a more proactive e-learning approach, instead of reserving the strategy for lesson delivery during times for crisis. NTU could also champion efforts to do more for the environment and be an exemplary role model in encouraging universities to do the same. The advantage of such a strategy is that NTU would be able to control and monitor the implementation of the programme, instead of sole reliance on buying carbon offsets from providers such as CO2 Australia as well as share its expertise on the delivery methods. We strongly believe that our recommendations would lead to a more sustainable path for NTU development and confident that the $538,217 invested to roll-out 31 our strategy will be a good investment.
    32. 32. References • • • • • • • http://forest-trends.org/publication_details.php?publicationID=3960 http://www.reuters.com/article/2011/08/22/us-australia-carbonidUSTRE77L1AF20110822 http://news.hiltonworldwide.com/index.cfm/newsroom/detail/22177 http://www.ntu.edu.sg/odfm/usefulinfo/greenWebsite/Pages/NewBuil dings.aspx http://www3.ntu.edu.sg/3p-less/ourgreeninitiatives.asp http://www.distancesfrom.com/sg/travel-from-Boon-Lay-MRT-topasir-ris-mrt/TravelFromHistory/1172494.aspx http://www.nus.edu.sg/oes/resources/carbonfootprint_calculator.html 32

    ×