TEN PHASE HISTORY OF INDO PAK MUSLIMS
June 1, 2010
TEN Â PHASE HISTORY OF INDO PAK MUSLIMS
MAJOR AGHA H AMIN (RETIRED)
I find analysis of the Indo Muslim history by singling out extremism or Ahmadis or
Mullahs as superficial and a classic case of losing oneslf in trees rather than seeing the
whole wood or mosaic of many woods from a classic vantage point.
I hold the view that much of responsibility of the present ongoing Muslim extremism
with the so called educated and feudal classes of Indo Pak Muslims.
MUSLIMS ATTACK INDIA AND FINALLY SUBJUGATE MOST OF IT 711 AD TO
Muslims attacks on India start in 711 by Arabs.A foothold is established in Sindh and
South Punjab then known as Multan.
Muslim attacks under Turks start from around 1000 AD first major attacker being
Mahmud of Ghazni and a Muslim kingdom being established in Lahore and later at
Delhi by Ghauri general Aibak in 1206.
Expansion and conquest of India by Tughlaqs ,various Delhi Sultans and Mughals till
1605 by Akbar.
Consolidation of Mughal Empire by Jahangir and Shahjahan.
Muslim Primacy is challenged 1670-1737
The first serious challenge to Muslim primacy came in person of Sivaji in 1670.Sivaji
established a successful blue print of military success against Muslim military power
long before Indira Gandhis so called epic triumph in 1971 in a situation in which the
odds were far higher against him than in 1971.
Without doubt the real reason of the decline of Mughal Empire was Sivajis and his
successors guerrilla wars from 1670 to 1737 when the Marathas raided suburbs of
Between 1737 and 1761 the Marathas dominated the Muslim political centre of Delhi
and after 1770 till 1803 it was the Marathas who controlled Delhi and the Muslim
primacy in India after 1770 had ceased to exist.
The Muslims of Delhi were however saved by the private army of English East India
Company in 1803 , as were the Muslims of Punjab and Frontier in 1845 and 1849.
The Muslims re-discover Islam 1761 to 1857
as their supremacy is challenged and India is conquered by English East India
While Aurangzebs enforcement of Islam was act of a monarch , Maratha
occupation of Delhi and Sikh occupation of Punjab and Frontier did produce a
significant Islamic political reaction in intellectual terms as signified by Shah
Waliullah and Syed Ahmad Barelvis Jihad Movement.
Although Syed Ahmad failed in mortal terms he established a blue print of Holy
War , since then replicated in various forms.
The Muslim centred 1857 Rebellion is defeated and Muslim Elites are faced with
the European system of democracy and competitive examinations and their re-
discovery of Islam as a political weapon -1858-1940
Faced with a system of European education , and competitive examinations the Indo
Pak Muslim elite under Syed Ahmad Khan re-discovered Islam.They lobbied for job
quotas successfully on communal basis although Syed Ahmad dismissed many Islamic
concepts like Miraj etc.
Using Islam as a tool of class interests the Muslim elite lobbied for a separate political
entity which came to be known as separate electorate based on votes according to
religious divisions,Muslims voting for Muslims and Hindus voting for Hindus.
The British found the Muslims a useful tool in their Roman policy of Divide et Impera.
The Muslim Elite devise a geographical slogan known as Pakistan to achieve a
position of unfair advantage in which division of India would eliminate non
Muslims from a new Muslim state
Till 1940 the Muslims had no clear slogan although the British top bureaucrats
notably O Dwyer had already given the concept of an autonomous Pakistan like
Muslim province in North west India in 1930s.
At Lahore in 1940 the Muslim solution to the Indian British Hindu political
problem was devised as Pakistan.
The Congress had already annoyed the British with non cooperation in the war
effort in 1939 and was punished by the British by adopting a favourable view
towards a possible division of India.
PAKISTAN IS CREATED AND THE WEST WING MUSLIM ELITE STRUGGLES TO
SIDELINE THE MAJORITY EAST WING MUSLIMS FROM POLITICAL SUPREMACY
BY VIRTUE OF HAVING A PREPONDERANT POSISTION IN THE ARMY ,INDUSTRY
AND CIVIL SERVICE-1947-56
The Muslim elite thanks to division of India gained an unfair advantage in Industry by
occupying the business vacuum created by departure of Hindus , Memons and other
Gujrati castes and Chinioti Punjabis in the forefront.
These in league with the majority West wing bureaucrats manoeuvred to create unfair
monopolies known as 21 families etc.
The West Pakistani politicians used the mili.tary and civil service and threats of
dissolution of provincial assembly into making the East Pakistani Bengalis their 55 %
majority into surrender to a 50 % parity level in 1956
PAKISTAN REDUCED TO A WEST WING DOMINATED STATE AND A PUNJAB
DOMINATED STATE BY ONE UNIT AND 1956 CONSTITUTION WITH THE SAME
STATUS CARRIED FORWARD BY IMPOSTION OF MARTIAL LAW IN 1958
LASTING TILL 1969
The West Wing politicians used an unfair majority in military and civil service into
making the Bengalis surrender their majority in poulation into a parity.This was not seen
as sufficient and still fearing a progressive government the West Wing majority army
imposed martial law in 1958.After 1958 the East Wing was literally reduced to a colony
by the West Wing.
THE BENGALIS DISCOVER THAT THEY WERE FOOLED BY THE UP AND
PUNJAB DOMINATED MUSLIM ELITE IN NAME OF RELIGION FROM 1906 TILL
1969 AND DECIDE TO SECEDE
The East Pakistani Bengalis realised soon after 1947 that they would not be allowed a
political voice.This feeling intensified after 1969 Martial law was parity in votes was
replaced by actual representation as per population.
The result was the 1971 Crisis as a result of which the country called Pakistan was
divided into Pakistan and Bangladesh.
AN ATTEMPT TO REFORM THE SOCIETY WITH MIXING SOCIALISM AND
POPULISM WITH ISLAM
a great leader attempted reform by nationalisation of industry and land reforms.
He was misled by characters like Hafeez Pirzada who influenced him into declaring
Ahmadis non Muslims.
His progressive regime was sabotaged by an unwilling military and civil service class
from within and international sabotage by US who was angryb with him because of his
role in the oil embargo of Arabs and his attempts to pursue a military nuclear
ISLAM IS RE-DISCOVERED AS A POLITICAL TOOL 1977-2001
As a reaction of ZA Bhuttos political reforms the urban classes in Lahore,Karachi and
Pakistan reacted to create a psuedo religious centrist alliance known as PNA
demanding an Islamic system known as Nizam e Mustafa.
The US aided this political movement.
The Afghan leftist coup of 1978 brought in the USSR and the USA also picked Islam
as a useful tool of politics and state craft.
Pakistan was Islamised to suit the military junta of Zia then acting as a political vassal
of USA and Saudi Arabia in the Soviet Afghan war.
The school syllabus was reformed and Islamic ideas of Jihad projected a propaganda
After the USSR withdrawal the same Islamic card was used like a chewing gum by
Pakistans military in Kashmir and post 1989 Afghan civil war.
is no longer fashionable and Pakistan needs to be more secular- September 2001 till
Kicked by USA and also given carrots of US Dollars Pakistans shameless rulers
abandoned Islam as a political tool.As shamelessly as they had picked it in 1977 !
After 9/11 Pakistans military rulers decided to abandon ideology at least outwardly.
The result was Pakistani civil war between Islamic Extremists and the Pakistani state
which continues till to date.
Islam was used as a political tool by Muslim elites to achieve their class
interests all along from 1858b till 1901.
This inadvertently and without a design created Islamic extremism in
Pakistan.While Muslim elites were fooling Muslim masses in order to achieve
class advantages the Muslim common man actually started believing that
Pakistan is an Islamic ideological state.This however was not the aim of the
Jihad was picked as a useful tool by the Pakistani military for institutional
aims.When under US pressure this contradiction was exposed Pakistan became
witness of a civil war.
Islamic Extremism as witnessed today is result of misuse of Islam as a political
tool by Muslim elite and educated classes.The Islamic extremists did not produce
this situation but were produced as a result of this promiscuous mixing of
political opportunism with religion.
The Pakistani elite classes including the so called secular PPP used religion as
a tool to get political mileage , most notorious of this effort being the
constitutional second ammendment declaring Ahmadis as non Muslims in
1974.The direct result of this is the present Ahmadi massacres in Lahore.
The Pakistani military and all politicians shamelessly used Islam as a political
tool by embarking on a full timer so called Jihad in Afghanistan,Kashmir ect.This
includes all Pakistani political and military regimes from 1977 till 2001 including
The present political and military crisis in Pakistan is a direct result of misuse of
religion as a cheap political slogan by Pakistans so called most educated Military
and Political Classes.
The hard reality is that so called Islamic extremists have a large number of
sympathisers in Pakistan and are not a small minority as many in Pakistan would
like the world to believe.
The final result of this ongoing crisis may be Pakistans Balkanisation in the next