अर् श्वभषगाश्वदत एव श्वभषजा प्रष्टव्योऽष्टश्ववधं भवश्वत - तन्त्रं,
तन्त्रातवः,स्र्ानं, स्र्ानार्वन्, अध्यायं, अध्यायार्ावन्,
प्रश्नं,प्रश्नार्ावन् शेश्वत प्रुष्टेन चतद्वक्तव्यशेषेण वाक्यशो
वाक्यार्वशो ऽ र्ाववयवशेछेश्वत।
GURU SUTRA: Statements made
by the teacher
SISHYA SUTRA: Statements or
enquiries made by the disciple
Statements of the redactor
EKIYA SUTRA:Statements made
by individual scholars
Sootrasthana Origin and propagation of Ayurveda
Nidana sthana Causation and Pathology of predominant diseases
Vimana sthana Fundamental principles of drug administration
Sharira sthana Philosophical aspects (Srishti utpatti, moksha,upadha etc.,),anatomical
Indriya sthana Fatala signs, prognosis
Chikitsa sthana Treatment aspects
Kalpa sthana Formulations used in Purificatory measures
Siddhi sthana Instructions of purificatory measures and the management of
complications of procedures
SOOTRA STHANA 30
िं रयिं च रीण्यष्टकका्ेु समा
चतष्ााः ुट् क्रमेणोक्तााः सिमश्चान्नपात्िकाः||४४||
द्वौ चान्त्यौ सङ्ग् रहाध्यायात्ित्त त्रिंशकमथथित्|
श्लोकस्थाििं समत्ि्टकिं तन्त्रस्यास्य त्शिाः शभम्  ||४५||
चतष्ाणािं महाथाथिािं स्थािेऽप्तिि् सङ्ग् रहाः क
ृ ताः| (Cha.su,30)
• First section dealing with fundamental principles of Ayurveda.
• Foundation for the whole samhita
• The sutra sthana contains various sutrasshlokas related to other sthanas , hence also
known as shloka sthana.
The sutra sthana lies as the nectar of knowledge, which has been stored in the form of sapta
These chathushkas are the heart of the text providing nourishment to the rest of the
Samhita and evidence of the practical access of Charaka Samhita as a text of therapeutics.
Chatushka study can be analyzed as:
CELL : whole Samhita
NUCLEUS ; Sutra sthana
GENES : Chathushka
CHROMOSOMES: 4 Adhyayas
In a Chathushka , the four chapters speaks about the same subjects in different angles.
1.TITLE OF CHAPTERS : The title of
chapters are based on the first word
occurring in the chapters, which are also
suggestive of its contents.
In some other cases, the name of a
chapter is based upon the subject matter
discussed. For eg., the 9th chapter is
named as KHUDDAKA
10 TH chapter : MAHA
20TH CHAPTER : MAHA
NAME CHAPTERS CONTENTS
(Quadrate on drugs)
Aragvadheeyam, Shadvirechana Shataasriteeya Tridosha (Vata, Pitta and Kapha), Rasa(taste), Shad padartha siddhanta (six
basic principles), etc.
Phalini Dravya (therapeutically useful fruits as drugs),
Moolini Dravya(therapeutically useful roots as drugs), Mahasneha (four
kinds of fats), Lavana(salts), various types of mutra(urine)
herbs and medicines to be used during and after Panchakarma (five methods
use of topical medications, or medicines to be applied externally,
i.e.,lepa etc. details of fifty Mahakashaya
(quadrate on regimens)
Principles of personal & social hygeine
( guidelines for health care
four aspects of therapeutics (Chathushpada), classification of diseases on the
basis of prognosis, Trividha eshanas
(quadrate on therapeutic
Sneha Adhyaya, Sweda Adhyaya
Preparation of Patient
Specialized shodhana chikitsa
(quadrate on classification of
Kiyantah Shiraseeya, Trishotheeya
Ashtodariya, Mahaaroga adhyaya
Kiyantah shiraseeya: Shiroroga,hridroga, eighteen types
of kshaya, vidradhi and madhumeha.
Trishotheeya: various types of edema.
Ashtodareeya: 48 diseases that are caused by a combination of doshas.
Maharoga adhyaya: diseases caused by single dosha(vata, pitta, or kapha).
(Guidelines for management of
Ashtau ninditeeya, Langhana brmhaneeya
Association of diseases and therapeutics
ANNAPANA Yajjapurusheeya, Atreyabhadrakapiya
Annapaana vidhi, Vividha ashita pitiya
Dietetics and nutrition in health as well as diseases
े पेण हेतुश्वलङ्गाश्वभधायक
ं सूर्त्रस्र्ानमनु प्र
ते; हेतुश्वलङ्गज्ञानपूश्वववका श्वह श्वचश्वकत्सा साध्वी
सम्प्राद्धि: पूववमुत्पश्वि: सूर्त्रमार्त्रं
Nidana sthana acts as a model for remaining
Samprapti vighatanam - chikitsa
deals with principles of diagnosis of diseases.
The term Nidana is applied for knowing the origin of
and comprehensive information of disease
(vyadhibodhaka). [Chakrapani on Cha.Sa.Nidana
Complete cure in curable diseases and management
of palliable diseases can only be achieved after Nidana
Parivarjana (removing the cause). If the cause is
removed, then half the treatment is done.
PANCHA LAKSHANA NIDANA
VIKALPA SAMPRAPTI – AMSHA AMSHA KALPANA
CHIKITSA SUTRAS IN BRIEF
VIKARA VIGHATA KARA BHAVA ABHAVA
त्िदािाथथकिो िोगो िोगस्याप्यपलभ्यते||१६||
िक्तत्पत्ताज्ज्विस्ताभ्यािं शोुश्चाप्यपजायते  ||१७||
प्लीहात्भिृद्ध्या जठििं जठिाच्छोथ एि च|
अशोभ्यो जठििं दाःखिं गल्मश्चाप्यपजायते||१८||
प्रत्तश्यायाद्भिेत् कासाः कासात् सञ्जायते क्षयाः|
क्षयो िोगस्य हेतत्वे शोुस्याप्यपलभ्यते||१९||
VIKARA VIGHATA KARA
Specific interaction of the
etiological factors with
doshas and dushyas, as
well as the presence or
absence of the disease
influences the outcome
manifestation of the
VIKARA VIGHATA BHAVA-Factors hindering
the disease is present-no disease
VIKARA VIGHATA ABHAVA-Factors
supporting the disease is present-disease
ं श्ववमानस्र्ानं ब्रूते|
श्ववशेषेण मीयते ज्ञायते दोषभेषजाद्यनेनेश्वत श्ववमानं, दोषभेषजादीनां प्रभावाश्वदश्ववशेष इत्यर्वः
ृ श्वतवयसां  मानमवश्वहतमनसा यर्ाव
ज्ज्ञेयं भवश्वत श्वभषजा, दोषाश्वदमानज्ञानायित्वात्  श्वियायाः|
न ह्यमानज्ञो दोषादीनां  श्वभषग् व्याश्वधश्वनग्रहसमर्ो भवश्वत|
तस्माद्दोषाश्वदमानज्ञानार्ं  श्ववमानस्र्ानमुपदेक्ष्यामोऽश्विवेश!||३||
Vimana sthana is a connecting link between Sootra,Nidana and
A unique contribution by Acharya charaka.
Deals with the quantification of dosha vitiation.
Aaturaparijnana Hetawah mentioned in Vimana Sthana that all the factors are pre-
arranged in a chronological order to understand an individual according to
one’s Desha as from birth till grown up stage, and also to understand about the illness
and most common disorders.
RASA VIMANAM Ashta ahara vishesha ayatana,
pippali, kshaara, lavana – not to be used in excess
TRIVIDHA KUKSHEEYAM Maatraavat aahaara, Aama pradoshaja vyadhis (alasaka and vishuchika)
JANAPADODWAMSAM prevention of various epidemic disorders caused due to polluted air, water, soil and season. Pranjaaparadaa as a
kaarana for janapadodwamsa.
The lifespan and its gradual decrease according to change in era is predicted here.
TRIVIDHA ROGA VISHESHA
PRAMANAS as a means for roga pareeksha: aptopadesha (authentic scriptural knowledge or knowledge given by
authority), pratyaksha (direct perception by senses) and anumana (perception based on logical reasoning).
SROTO VIMANAM detailed description of 13 srotas (transportation and perfusion channels) in the body.
Moolasthana, Viddha lakshana, Chikitsa.
ROGANEEKAM VIMANAM five categories of diseases based upon prognosis (curable, incurable), severity (mild, severe), origin (psyche or soma),
etiology (endogenous, exogenous) and site of origin (amashaya, pakvashaya). It further describes
the anubandhya (independent disease) and anubandha (dependent upon other disease). The differentiation of disease
based upon predominant dosha and its management principles are described.
VYADHITA ROOPIYAM Guru vyadhita and Laghu Vyadhita. The second part of the chapter is about krimi (micro-organisms and parasites)
and their management. Since the field of microbiology has mostly developed in the last one hundred years, the
treatment of krimi is not adequate but prevention methods are comprehensive.
ROGA BHISHAGJITEEYAM Adhyayana , Adhyapana and Tadvidya Sambhasha
Dasa vidha pareeksha bhaavas and Dasa vidha Pareekshya bhaavas
Fundamentals of Research Protocol
JANAPADODHWAMSA : (Current Pandemic –COVID19)
Agnivesha’s query: How do all individuals having dissimilar physical
constituition etc.,(prakriti,ahara,desha,kala …) suffer from the same
Atreya’s reply : Factors which are common for all the inhabitants of the
country- Vayu, Udakam, desham, kaalam.
Cause : pranjaaparada---adharma
Trividha njaanopaayas: Adhyayana, Adhyapana and Tadvidya
sambhasha (Paedagogical aspects)
Vaadamaargas- Academmic debates
Dasavidha pareeksha bhaavas & Dasavidha pareekshya bhaavas
HIGHLIGHTS OF VIMANA STHANA
शरीरं श्वचन्त्यते सवं दवमानुषसम्पदा सववभावयवतस्तस्माच्छारीरं
Shareera is narrated from all the perspectives i.,e, Daivi(
supreme divinity) and manusha(human level) .
The components of life as a whole has been explained not the
physical body alone.
This section offers a birds – eye view of very highly evolved
philosophical concepts to practical aspects of human body
Review of description of this section clearly explains that the
human being includes physical body, mind and consciousness.
Knowledge of :
Srushti utpatti,Purusha, atma, manas, pranjaaparada, yoga, moksha.
ATULYA GOTRIYAM Micro composition of basic units of reproduction Shukra and Shonita and their
role in formation of healthy (physically as well as mentally) child . Factors
constituting sex abnormalities .
Matruja, pitrujaadi bhaavas.- Shad bhaavas
Heriditary abnormalities—beeja,beeja bhaga,beeja bhaga avayava
Maasanumasika garbha vrudhi (month wise fetal development)
PURUSHA VICHAYAM LOKAPURUSHA SAAMYA SIDDHANTA
SAREERA VICHAYAM Analytical study of the body, deals with knowledge of the human body.
SHARIRA SANKHYA Anthropometry is the core subject of seventh chapter.
JATISUTRIYA PUMSAVANA, Ante natal, Post-natal , Garbha paata, Garbha srava,Neo
natal care, Dhaatri, Stanya.
न च ररष्टप्रश्वतपश्विमन्तराऽसाध्यत्वप्रश्वतपश्विररश्वत ररष्टप्रश्वतपादकश्वमद्धियस्र्ानमेव
श्वचश्वकत्सास्र्ानात् प्रागु्यते  | इिशब्देन प्राण उ्यते, तस्यान्तगतस्य श्वलङ्ग
यदुक्तं व्याकरणे- “इद्धियश्वमिश्वलङ्ग
ं ” (पा.अ.५.२.१३) इत्याश्वद; तस्येद्धियस्य स्र्ानश्वमद्धियस्र्ानम्|
तर्त्राश्वप चेद्धियस्र्ाने वक्तव्ये व्यक्ततमररष्टाश्वभधायकतया (Chakr.comm.)
Indriya Sthana deals with the observation of signs predicting lifespan and signs indicative of reduced
duration of remaining life (also called arishta lakshana).
The word Indriya literally means organ, sense, force, vigor. In the present context, it means prana or
vital life force. [Chakrapani on Cha.Sa.Indriya Sthana 1/1-2] .
Indriya (sense organs) are said to be the linga (organs) of prana. An important concept discussed in this
section is termed Indriyadushti (damage to the sensory system).
•Signs and symptoms (arishta) of imminent death can be perceived by specific changes in
(e.g., varna (color), swara (voice), gandha (smell), rasa (taste), sparsha(touch),along
with chhaya (complexion) and prabha (radiance)) are addressed .
•Clinically useful early warning signs have been mentioned.
• examples of arishta that could be perceived on the physical level (or, are Bahyakarana)
as well as on the mental, intellectual, and emotional levels (or, afflicting the Antahkarana ),
with references to shakun( good / bad consequential happening)), doota(
messenger), swapna ( dreams) and miscellaneous occult sciences.
•Astrological predictions has been given importance.
these signs and symptoms could serve as important indicators of prognosis of disease
and therefore, would be helpful in prompt management to save life of patients.
इश्वत सवव श्ववकाराणामुक्तमेतद्धिश्वकद्धत्सतम्। स्र्ानमेतद्धि तन्त्रस्य रहस्यं परमुिमम्।
त्चत्कप्तितिं व्यात्धहििं पथ्यिं साधिमौुधम्|
प्रायत्श्चत्तिं प्रशमििं प्रक
ृ त्तस्थापििं त्हतम्||३||
यात्भाः  त्क्रयात्भजाथयन्ते शिीिे धातिाः समााः|
सा त्चत्किा त्िकािाणािं कमथ तप्तद्भुजािं िृतम्||३४||
It is important to note that the status of health and etio-pathogenesis of disease depends
upon status of Agni (digestion and metabolism). [Cha.Sa.Chikitsa Sthana 15/4] Therefore,
the treatment is based upon correcting the digestion and metabolism.
RASAYANA AND VAJEEKARANA has been mentioned in the beginning focusing on the
concept of “swasthasya swaasthya rakshanam and aaturasya vikaara prasamanam”
The first principle of treatment (chikitsa sutra) of that particular disease is given in terms
of langhana or brimhana, snehana or rukshana, swedana or stambhana and related
measures of shodhana .
It is followed by description of single or compound preparations along with their
constituents, method of preparation and indications.
The drugs are mentioned in the form of fresh juice and paste, powder, tablet,
decoctions, avaleha (jam), asava (fermented preparations mainly from
juices), arishta (fermented preparations mainly from decoctions), medicated ghee and oil
Being primarily a treatise of kayachikitsa (medicine), twenty three chapters in
the Chikitsa Sthana deal with medical therapeutics.
Due importance has been given to Grahani chikitsa. Focusing on the concepts of
Other aspects of therapeutics like preservation and promotion of physical, mental,
spiritual and sexual health is dealt in the first two chapters of Rasayana
Chikitsa and Vajikarana Chikitsa.
The chapter Dwivraniya Chikitsa pertains to wound management and briefs about
surgical procedures (shalya).
The chapter Visha Chikitsa on the management of poisoning (visha) deals
with agada-tantra (toxicology).
In Ayurveda, psychiatry is dealt with under the heading of bhuta-vidya and two
chapters viz. Unmada Chikitsa and Apasmara Chikitsa focus on this aspect of
The last chapter Yonivyapat Chikitsa describes disorders of male and female
infertility, gynecological disorders with paediatrics diseases. The chapter also
mentions important principles of time of administration of medicine i.e. chrono-
pharmacology and factors for deciding dose i.e. posology.
अर् खलु वमनश्ववरेचनार्ं  वमनश्ववरेचनद्रव्याणां सुखोपभोगतमः सहान्यद्रवव्यश्वववश्ववधः
कल्पनार्ं भेदार्ं श्ववभागार्ं चेत्यर्वः  , तद्योगानां च श्वियाश्ववधेः सुखोपायस्य सम्यगुपकल्प
Kalpa Sthana deals with the study of formulations used in therapeutic purification procedures.
vamana and virechana drugs are first described in Kalpa Sthana before the description
of basti therapy, which is described in detail under Siddhi Sthana.
VAMANA KALPA -6 VIRECHANA KALPA - 9
600 recipes prepared from these drugs (Total 15 Drugs)
different dosage forms
like kashaya (decoction), svarasa (juice), kalka (paste), churna (powder), peya (drinks), lehya (lickable
), and bhojya (foods).
Salient features of Kalpa Sthana
Factors responsible for therapeutic efficacy
Pharmacokinetics of Drugs
Similarities/ Dissimilarities of virya
Modification of drug activity
Weight and measures
Snehapaka (preparation of medicated oil or ghee)
Purification of drugs
Siddhi Sthana deals with the standardization and successful administration of
various therapeutic purification procedures.
imparts knowledge regarding successful modes of therapeutic administration.
Siddhi Sthana deals with the scientific explanations of Panchakarma procedures
and details the optimal response of each procedure, major pitfalls in diagnostic
outcomes along with possible complications and their management strategies.
Major share has been devoted in explaining various aspects of basti, its importance,
types, clinical relevance and practical aspects.
Basti has been equated to half of the whole treatment or as the whole treatment
The list of tantrayukti described in the last portion explains the richness of literary
perfection possessed by the contributor of the text.
Tantrayukti is the methodology or technique or systemic approach of studying a Tantra
(science) to interpret its correct, unambiguous meaning for the precise practical
Charak categorically states that
the concept of siddhi is
established on the basis
of yukti principle. Yukti itself is
dependent on matra (posology)
and kala (time of administration).
Ascertaining the optimal dose at
optimal time is the key to
successful outcome in
therapeutics. Hence Siddhi
Sthana can be considered as the
portion where the philosophical
principle of yukti associates with
siddhi, the pragmatic success.
मार्त्राकालाश्रया युद्धक्तः, श्वसद्धियुवक्तौ प्रश्वतश्विता|
श्वतित्युपरर युद्धक्तज्ञो द्रव्यज्ञानवतां सदा||१६||
यश्वदहाद्धस्त तदन्यर्त्र यन्नेहाद्धस्त न तत्क्वश्वचत्|
इदमद्धखलमधीत्य सम्यगर्ावन् श्ववम्रुशश्वत योऽश्ववमना: प्रयोगश्वनत्या:।
सा मनुजसुखजीश्ववतप्रदाता भवश्वत ध्रुश्वत स्म्रुश्वत बुश्वध धमव व्रुि:॥
( Cha.Si 12)
AGADATANTARA: 23rd chapter of
BHUTAVIDYA:9th& 10th chapters of
chikitsa sthana, 7 th & 8th
Chapters of Nidana
KAUMARA BHRUTYA:8th chapter
RASAYANA: 1st chapter of Chikitsa
VAJEEKARANA: Last chapter of
STREEROGA: Last chapter of