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Microhybrid Goes Mainstream: Battery Selection and Trends


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Microhybrid Goes Mainstream: Battery Selection and Trends

  1. 1. Microhybrid Goes Mainstream: Battery Selection and Trends Eckhard Karden Ford Motor Company, Powertrain Research and Advanced Engineering (Ford Forschungszentrum Aachen) [email_address] Advanced Automotive Battery Conference, AABC Europe Mainz, Germany, June 2011
  2. 2. Presentation Outline <ul><li>Microhybrid: Definitions and Market Forecast </li></ul><ul><li>12V Lead/Acid Batteries in Gen-1 Microhybrids: Specifications, Technologies, Standardization </li></ul><ul><li>Dynamic Charge Acceptance (DCA): Toward a Simple Test and Definition </li></ul><ul><li>DCA and Throughput: Will Lead/Acid Have a Future in Gen-2 Microhybrids? </li></ul>Page
  3. 3. 4 Basic Functions of Electrified Powertrains Page Vehicle Speed [km/h] Time [sec] Electric only drive Brake Energy Recuperation Engine Stop / Start Electric Boost ECE city cycle repeated 4 times in NEDC 600 800 1000 1200 140 120 100 80 60 40 20 0 Time (sec) Vehicle Speed (km/hr)
  4. 4. Levels of Powertrain Electrification Page Increasing Electrical Capability IC Engine Stop/Start Brake Energy Recovery Electric Motor Assist Pure Electric Drive Micro-Hybrid   Mild/Medium Hybrid    Full-Hybrid     Plug-In Hybrid     Range Extender    Electric Vehicle  
  5. 5. Powertrain Electrification – A Technical Evolution Fuel Substitution Page 10% 20 % 70 % 100 % CO 2 Emission Reduction Increasing Cost Battery Electric Vehicle (incl. FCV) Mild Hybrid Full Hybrid Electric Vehicle Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle Micro Hybrid 5% Fuel Efficiency Improvement
  6. 6. Ford Hybrid Vehicles <ul><li>165,000 Ford HEVs already on the road (since 2004) </li></ul>Ford Escape Ford Fusion Mercury Milan Ford Powersplit Transaxle
  7. 7. Ford Electrification Products HEV Hybrid Electric Vehicles BEV Battery Electric Vehicles PHEV Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles 2004 CY 2011 CY 2013 CY 2018+ CY Escape Fusion Next Generation HEV Next Generation HEV C-MAX Hybrid Next Generation HEV C-MAX Energi C-MAX Energi Transit Connect Electric Focus Electric Transit Connect Electric Focus Electric NA EU NA EU NA EU
  8. 8. Ford Technology Migration Strategy 2011 2020 2030 <ul><li>Continue near-term strategy </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of BEVs </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of Hybrid Technologies in Europe </li></ul><ul><li>Introduction of Plug-In Hybrids </li></ul><ul><li>Market share of internal combustion engines dependent on renewable fuels </li></ul><ul><li>Increasing market share of Hybrid, Plug-In Hybrid and BEVs </li></ul><ul><li>Optimize conventional powertrains </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce EcoBoost Technology </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce dedicated ECOnetic models with lowest CO 2 emissions in each class </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce Auto Start/Stop and smart regenerative charging </li></ul><ul><li>Reduction of driving resistances </li></ul><ul><li>Lightweight technologies </li></ul><ul><li>CNG/LPG / Flex Fuel vehicles depending on market demands </li></ul><ul><li>Introduce “ECOnetic Technologies” as umbrella for green technologies </li></ul>
  9. 9. Powertrain Technology Trends Europe Page Source: EUCAR Electrification Task Force, New Passenger Cars & Light Commercial Vehicles Enhanced conventional powertrains are predicted to dominate the market till 2030!
  10. 10. Micro-Hybrid: The Fastest Growing Mass Market for Powertrain Electrification! Page Source: G. Fraser-Bell, D. Prengaman; 12th European Lead Battery Conference; Istanbul, Sept. 2010 <ul><li>Beginning in, but not limited to, Europe, micro-hybridization will become a standard feature. </li></ul><ul><li>European CAFE/CO 2 Legislation (source: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Passenger Car average car 1289 kg (2006) limit 2015: 130 g/km (–19%) target 2020: 95 g/km (–59%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Light Truck average van 1706 kg (2007) limit 2017: 175 g/km (–14%) target 2020: 147 g/km (–28%) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Additional Drivers e.g. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>brand image </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>tax incentives (national) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>fleet customers </li></ul></ul>mill. p.a.
  11. 11. Modern Electric Power Supply Systems Demand Throughput & Charge Acceptance <ul><li>Ah Throughput / Shallow Cycle Life </li></ul><ul><ul><li>More start events than in conventional use case (up to 10x) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Increased overall capacity turnover (2...3x), majority during engine idle-off </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Voltage stability during automated restart – battery internal resistance at end of life crucial </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Regenerative Braking / Dynamic Charge Accptance (DCA) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Full effectiveness determined by dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Battery intentionally not fully charged: Partial State-of-Charge application (PSOC: SOC ~70...85%) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>DCA strongly depending on short-term history of battery before regenerative braking event </li></ul></ul>Page
  12. 12. Single-PbA: Mainstream for Gen-1 Micro-Hybrids <ul><li>technology alternatives: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Improved = Enhanced Flooded Battery (IFB, EFB) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Absorptive Glass Fibre Mat (AGM) Battery </li></ul></ul><ul><li>shallow-cycling throughput </li></ul><ul><ul><li>standard flooded: stratification/undercharge, lug thinning/corrosion </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>IFB & AGM: avoid early failure  400...1000 Cn @ ~ 1% DOD </li></ul></ul><ul><li>DCA degrades early during service life (IFB & AGM) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>battery limits regenerative braking benefit with standard alternator </li></ul></ul><ul><li>voltage quality during restart </li></ul><ul><ul><li>small (~200 W) dc/dc converter for critical loads </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>battery internal resistance crucial </li></ul></ul>Page
  13. 13. Development Targets for Gen-2 (≥2013) Microhybrid PbA Batteries <ul><li>significantly improve DCA (both IFB and AGM)! </li></ul><ul><ul><li>alternator could provide ~1.5CA rate, battery to absorb robustly over service life, at least for temperature >10°C </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>new materials (carbon?) have to maintain very low water consumption </li></ul></ul><ul><li>shallow-cycling throughput: close the IFB – AGM gap? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>even for mainstream (compact) car applications, demand will grow >500 Cn (auto transmission, higher loads, free rolling, ...) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>keep internal resistance low </li></ul><ul><ul><li>further reduction demanded to keep single-battery topology attractive </li></ul></ul><ul><li>cost reduction </li></ul><ul><ul><li>IFB: verify need for ~2kg more lead and extra components </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>AGM: reduce manufacturing cost, e.g. by reduced scrap rates </li></ul></ul>Page
  14. 14. <ul><li>Micro-Hybrids are part of all carmakers’ European CO 2 roadmaps and will soon get high market share (standard fit for mainstream powertrains). </li></ul><ul><li>Single PbA batteries (IFB, AGM) are the mainstream storage solution for gen-1 (≥2008) micro-hybrids. </li></ul><ul><li>To maintain this position for gen-2 (≥2013) micro-hybrids, IFB and AGM need significantly improved dynamic charge acceptance (DCA) while (at least) maintaining resistance, water consumption, cycle life. </li></ul><ul><li>Dual storage systems may employ supercapacitors, dc/dc converters, and/or Li-ion batteries – all at significant on-cost, meeting higher demands for DCA (fuel economy) and/or voltage quality (safety) . Their market share will depend on the limits reached by gen-2 IFB and AGM. </li></ul>Conclusions Page