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Introduction to Project Management:
Processes, Tools, & Techniques
Presented by the
PMI Pitts...
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Section 1:
Introduction
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This study will provide an introduction to
the primary processes and knowledge
areas of appli...
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INITIATING PLANNING
CONTROLLING EXECUTING
CLOSING
PMBOK® - 5 Major Project Management
(PM) Pr...
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Executing
Process
PROJECT
S T A R T
PROJECT
F I N I S HTI ME
LEVELOFACTIVITY
Closing
ProcessC...
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1. Introduction
2. Project Management Overview
3. Project Initiating
4. Project Planning
5. P...
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Section 2:
Project Management
Overview
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A temporary endeavor undertaken to create
a unique product, service, or result.
PMBOK Definit...
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Definition of “Operation Activity”
• On-going task
• Repetitive / cyclical
• Produces deliver...
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PMBOK Definition of a Program :
“ . . . a group of related projects managed
In a coordinated ...
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PMBOK Definition of Project Management:
The application of knowledge, skills, tools, and
tech...
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Benefits of Project Management :
• Meeting/Exceeding Customer Expectations
• Meeting Project ...
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Liabilities of Project Management :
• Added Processes/Guidelines/Projects
• Increased Overhea...
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What’s the key role/responsibility of the Project Manager?
Business Level
Program Level
Work ...
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Who’s a Project Stakeholder?
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The Project Communications Plan:
• Contacts Listing
• Meetings Listing
• Reports Listing
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Project Success Factors
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5 Key
Project
Variables
ResourcesScope
Cost
Time Quality
PM
The Five (5) Project Variables
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Organization Approaches
To Managing Projects:
• Functional Organization
• Matrix Organization...
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XYZ
ENG OPR MKT SVC
FUNCTIONAL
Organization Structures
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MATRIX
XYZ
ENG OPR MKT SVC
PL1
PL3
PL2
Organization Structures
PM
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PM1
ENG
OPR
MKT
SVC
PM2
ENG
OPR
MKT
SVC
PM3
ENG
OPR
MKT
SVC
XYZ
P
R
O
J T
E E
C A
T M
I
Z
E
D...
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Maintenance
Enhancement
New Product
(Strategic)
Functional Matrix Projectized
Priority
H
L
Pr...
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1. Introduction – Sam Provil, PMP
2. PM Overview – Sam Provil, PMP
3. Project Initiation – Mi...
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Section 3:
Initiating Projects
Initiation is successfully beginning the
project to create suc...
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Objectives
• Describe the purpose of the initiation
process
• Discuss managing expectations
•...
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Initiating Planning
Controlling
Executing
Closing
PMI Framework Document
Process Groups
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PMI Framework Document
Purpose of Initiation Process
• To commit the organization to a projec...
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Process OutputInput
Tools and Techniques
1. Project description
2. Strategic plan
3. Project ...
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Managing Expectations
• Projects are:
– Limited in scope, resources, time, and money
– Intend...
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How to manage expectations
• Communication
• Involvement of all parties
• Focus on strategic ...
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Creating communication among project
stakeholders to achieve consensus
Project Proposal
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Project Proposal Content
• Scope definition
• Project objectives and benefits
• Project deliv...
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Benefits of the Project Proposal
• Trade-offs between objectives and scope can be
negotiated....
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More Proposal Benefits
• Acceptance criteria for the project can be agreed to
by key stakehol...
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Results of Initiation Process
• Acceptance of Project proposal
• Project manager identified
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Project Lifecycles
Project life cycle: The natural grouping
of ideas, decisions, and actions ...
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How to choose a lifecycle
• Fixed or variable requirements
• Who controls the scope?
• Projec...
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Concept and
Proposal
Development
Implementation
Termination
Verification
Final PhaseIntermedi...
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McConnell, 1996
Waterfall Lifecycle
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McConnell, 1996
Spiral Methodology
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McConnell, 1996
Prototyping
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Summary
• Set Expectations of Customer and
Management
• Establish Clear Objectives for the pr...
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Case Study Description
The project for the class is the building of a garage.
The requirement...
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Exercise
Determine scope statement for your garage.
Your scope statement should be clear on
w...
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Section 4:
Project Planning
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Goal: Introduce the Project Management skills for
planning projects focusing on critical area...
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INITIATING PLANNING
CONTROLLING EXECUTING
CLOSING
PMBOK® - 5 Major Project Management
(PM) Pr...
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The Project Plan is...The Project Plan is...
Where all of the pieces of the
puzzle come toget...
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Review Project
Knowledge areas
Scope
Cost
Time
Quality
Facilitative functions:
 Human Resour...
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Work Breakdown - Overview
What is it?
A structured method for defining the work of the
projec...
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Work Breakdown Structure
How
Goal
Deliverable
Deliverable
DeliverableDeliverable
Deliverable
...
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WBS Planning Techniques
• Facilitated sessions
- Brainstorming technique
- Facilitator helps ...
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WBS Workshop
10 Minutes
• Class participation with the instructor to
produce a WBS for buildi...
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Activity Analysis
What is it?
Identifying information necessary to determine the amount
of wo...
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Activity Analysis
• Create Activity list
– Produce list of activities that will be performed ...
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Activity Analysis
• Identify Resource Requirements
– Identify skills needed to complete each ...
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Responsibility Assignment MatrixResponsibility Assignment Matrix
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Activity Analysis
• Estimate Activities
– Include indication of accuracy (e.g. ± percent or O...
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Activity Analysis
• Estimate Activities (cont.)
– Determine experts and project team members ...
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Schedule Development
What is it?
Developing a plan that describes the order and
timing of all...
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What can scheduling software do?
• Planning:
– Creates a record of the WBS
– Automatically ca...
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Order to build a schedule when using scheduling tools
1. Setup Project Information (Calendar,...
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Schedule Example Using MS ProjectSchedule Example Using MS Project
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Compressing the schedule:
• Examine the schedule for ways to reduce the total
duration of the...
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Risk ManagementRisk Management
What is it?
Identifying threats and opportunities that can aff...
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OverviewOverview
Total Project Life Cycle
Initiate /
Define
CloseExecutePlan
INCREASINGRISK
$...
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Risk IdentificationRisk Identification
Identify the risk event(s)
• Keep them realistic
• Add...
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Qualitative Risk AnalysisQualitative Risk Analysis
1. Estimate Probability
10% through 90%
2....
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• Ensures proactive planning to deal with risk events
• Response must be appropriate for the ...
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Budget Development
What is it?
Budget development is the process by which an estimate
for the...
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A Project Budget is…A Project Budget is…
a project cost and cash flow estimate based upon the...
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Identify Budget Items (for each deliverable in the WBS)Identify Budget Items (for each delive...
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Identify Budget ItemsIdentify Budget Items (for each deliverable in the WBS)(for each deliver...
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Class Participation!Class Participation!
Identify budget items for the following…
3.0
Roof
3....
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Budget Worksheet ExampleBudget Worksheet Example
Be sure to find out how your
company and/or ...
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Additional Tips For IT Projects
• Document your project strategy...
• Document project perfor...
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Provides place to document project specific
details such as:
• Phases of the project
• Team O...
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Document Project Performance MetricsDocument Project Performance Metrics
Why have them in a p...
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Key Points about Metrics...
• All metrics should be:
Specific
Measurable
Attainable
Realistic...
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ReferencesReferences
1. A guide to the Project Management body of Knowledge, PMBOK
Guide, 200...
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Sections 5 and 6:
Project Execution and
Control
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Project Management Life Cycle
• Project Management Institute
Initiation Planning
Execution
Co...
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Project Execution/Control
• Project Execution: Implementing the project
plan and doing the wo...
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Project Execution/Control
• Interaction of key processes to ensure
successful project deliver...
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Project Execution
• The process of coordinating the people and
other resources to carry out t...
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Project Plan
• Completed during planning phase.
• Identifies the “how’s” of a project.
• Is p...
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Project Plan
• Comprised of:
– Communications Plan
– Quality Management Plan
– Change Managem...
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Project Communications
• Critical to project “control” and “execute” phases.
• What do we nee...
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Communications Planning
• Determining the information and
communication needs of the stakehol...
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Sample Communications Plan
Description / Purpose Frequency Media/Distribution Audience/Distri...
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Communications Tools
PM can enhance project communications and
team effectiveness by:
– Devel...
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Additional Communication Tools
• Standardized Email distribution lists
– “cc’s” to team membe...
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Additional Communication Tools
• Documentation needs and conventions
– Naming, storage, retri...
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Project Execution Exercise
• Create a Communications Plan to determine
what, how, when and to...
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Additional Project
Execution Needs
• Issue resolution
– What is an issue?
• Steps for issue r...
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Issue Escalation
Issue Project Team
Team Lead
(Project Sponsor)
Issue
resolved?
Issue
resolve...
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Project Control
• The process of ensuring that the project objectives
are met by monitoring a...
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First “Law” of Change Control –
Changes to One Affect Changes to All!
Scope
Cost
Time
Quality
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Change Control Management
• Concerned with:
– Influencing the factors which create changes to...
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Change Requests
• Most change requests are the result of:
– An external event
– An error or o...
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Change Control
• The PM must be concerned with:
– Influencing the factors that affect change
...
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Change Control System
• A collection of formal, documented
procedures, paperwork, tracking sy...
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Change Control System
• Design of system depends upon:
– What is important to the organizatio...
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Key Points
• Control should be exercised over what is
considered to be important (to client,
...
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Inputs to Scope Change Control
• Performance reports - provide information on
scope performan...
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Performance Reports
• What are the qualities/characteristics of a
good performance report?
– ...
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Project Report Template
Project Name:
Prepared by:
Date:
Status of Project Relative to Projec...
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Project Change Request Template
Project Name:
Prepared by:
Date:
Changes are being made to th...
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Scope Change Control
• Scope Change Control:
– Establish and use a change control plan/proces...
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Scope Change Control
High-level Scope
Definition
Requirements
Gathering
Scope Validation/
Ver...
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Communications Channel for
Project Changes
If Change Impacts: Need to Notify:
Schedule or Bud...
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Change Control Example
Priority of Change is
Considered:
If It Impacts:
High Milestone or sig...
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Scope Creep
• What do we mean by “scope creep”?
– Changes to the project that result in addit...
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Scope Creep
• Contributing factors:
– Poorly defined/understood customer requirements
• Tryin...
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Requirements Gathering
• Talk to ALL project stakeholders to ensure a
thorough understanding ...
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Baselines
Baseline = the original, approved plan (for a
project, work package or activity)
– ...
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Baselines (cont.)
• Scope, schedule and cost baselines
• Are established after a formal walk ...
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Avoiding Scope Creep
• It is the Project Manager’s responsibility to
take the lead on control...
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Avoiding Scope Creep
• Document, document, document!
– Anticipate areas of miscommunication.
...
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Risk Management
What is project risk?
• What could go wrong with your project?
• What could k...
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Risk Management
• Risk = the probability that a given process,
task, or activity cannot be ac...
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Risk Management
• Risks are classified as internal (under the
control of the project team) or...
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Potential Risk Factors
• Areas to consider when identifying project
risks:
– Resources (gener...
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Potential Risk Factors
• Risk Factors to consider (cont.):
– Product stability
– Dependence o...
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Exercise for Controlling a Project
• You now have a change in the project.
• As the project i...
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Summary – Project
Execution and Control
• So what have we learned?
– Communications – at ALL ...
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Section 7:
Project Closing
Don’t believe everything you think.
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Goal: Introduce the final PMI process group necessary for
successful project management imple...
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Process Focus – Closing
Initiating
Planning
Controlling Executing
ClosingCLOSINGCLOSING
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Project Closing – Elements:
• Administrative Close Out – Generating, gathering, disseminating...
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Administrative Close Out Activities:
• Collect all project records
• Document performance mea...
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Contract Close Out Activities:
• Verify product/service acceptance
• Update records based on ...
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Input
Tools
Output
OutputInput
1. Project Charter
2. Project Scope Statement
3. Project Plan
...
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Closing – Why This Process is Important
“Only by examining our mistakes and applying the
less...
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What is the Number One Reason
Projects Fail?
38%
43%
11%
8% Project Team Politics
Lack of Res...
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Closing - Why This Process is Hard
to Get
• Requires Speaking Truth to Power about the projec...
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Business Values Derived from Use of
Project Management Processes:
• Increases Your Company’s ...
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Section 8:
Summary
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To paraphrase one of the old Heinz slogans (remember
– we are in Pittsburgh):
“How do you get...
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Also,
“ How do you get 5 major Project
Management Processes into a single
day?”
Initiating
Pl...
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Primary Objectives
• Introduction to Project Management
• Identification of Primary Process &...
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A Project Manager’s Observations:
• Success
• Focus on the Important Things (the
responsibili...
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Project Management
• A continuous process of learning and
improving
• Leadership
• Accountabi...
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Continuous Improvement
• Questions – call/email the presenters
• Project Management Institute...
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  • INTRODUCTION TO PROJECT MANAGEMENT PROCESSES, TOOLS, & TECHNIQUES PREPARED & PRESENTED BY THE PROJECT MANAGEMENT INSTITUTE PITTSBURGH CHAPTER
  • Projects are only successful when started well
  • The objective of this seminar is to introduce the key project management processes, tools, and techniques presented in A Guide to the Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK ® Guide) 2000 Edition, the Project Management Institute’s (PMI ® ) sanctioned standards for Project Management Professional (PMP ® ) Certification. PMBOK 9 KNOWLEDGE AREAS PMI” is a service and trademark, “PMP” is a certification mark, and “PMBOK” is a trademark of the Project Management Institute, Inc. which are all registered in the United States and other nations. SCOPE TIME COST QUALITY INTEGRATION RISK COMMUNICA- TIONS PROCUREMENT HUMAN RESOURCES
  • Using the PMBOK processes, knowledge areas, and definitions, this seminar introduces and demonstrates some proven, practical tools/techniques that are applied for managing projects. The PMBOK five (5) major project management (PM) processes, including Project Initiating, Planning, Executing, Controlling, and Closing, serve as the framework for presentation of this seminar. Reference: Provil & Associates’ Seminar “Essentials for Effective Project Management” at www.iet.duq.edu
  • It is important to note that these 5 major PM processes are iterative and over-lapping throughout the project life cycle. They are not one-at-a-time, step-by-step processes. For example, Project Planning is not a one-time process. Planning is an iterative process that becomes more detailed and refined as the project progresses. In addition, these processes may overlap throughout the project life cycle, as illustrated above. Depending on the nature of the project, it may be necessary to repeat these processes over periods of time and at varying levels of effort throughout the project. In fact, these processes are usually reiterated within each phase of the project life cycle. Reference: Integrated Management Associates’ Seminar “A Practical Approach to Planning & Controlling Projects” at www.iet.duq.edu
  • Above is the outline for presentation of this seminar. Following is a list of key deliverables (i.e. tools/techniques) that will be introduced and provided throughout this seminar, including but not limited to: Project Communications Plan Project Charter Sample Responsibility Matrix Sample Risk Log Budget Worksheet Project Change Request Project Report Scope Change Request Project Archives Checklist Formal Acceptance & Closure Meeting Agenda Planner Project Issues & Changes Log
  • Projects are only successful when started well
  • Above is the PMBOK definition of a project. More specifically, a project is defined as a temporary endeavor that consumes resources, incurs cost, and produces deliverables over a finite period of time to achieve a specific goal(s). What are the three (3) basic reasons (i.e. general root causes) why we create projects? Projects come in various types and sizes. They may vary in length or complexity, but the above mentioned definition of a project applies to all of them. Projects are distinguished by having a finite start and end date. Project managers should be able to prioritize work based on their ability to forecast the end date for the project. Reference: Integrated Management Associates’ Seminar “A Practical Approach to Planning & Controlling Projects” at www.iet.duq.edu
  • Operation activities are similar to project activities, because they also produce deliverables, consume resources and incur costs. However, they are on-going or repetitive in nature, which distinguishes them from project activities/tasks. What are some examples of operation activities? Reference: Integrated Management Associates’ Seminar “A Practical Approach to Planning & Controlling Projects” at www.iet.duq.edu
  • Programs are made up of many projects as well as ongoing operation type activities, including repetitive/cyclical activities such as administration, routine maintenance work, material warehousing, etc. Programs are funded typically on a fiscal year basis. Project funding is generally more time (i.e. duration) focused. The tools and techniques presented in this seminar are typically applied to planning and managing projects. However, many of the planning and management concepts presented can be extended to the development and management of programs. Reference: Integrated Management Associates’ Seminar “A Practical Approach to Planning & Controlling Projects” at www.iet.duq.edu
  • Like any profession, project management is the combination of both: 1. and 2. Reference: Provil & Associates’ Seminar “Essentials for Effective Project Management” at www.iet.duq.edu
  • Some key benefits derived from implementing project management are listed above. These benefits may vary across industries, businesses within industries, organizations within businesses as well as programs/projects within organizations. Reference: Provil & Associates Seminar’ “Essentials for Effective Project Management” at www.iet.duq.edu
  • Likewise, the liabilities derived from implementing project management may be very subjective. Reference: Provil & Associates’ Seminar “Essentials for Effective Project Management” at www.iet.duq.edu
  • What is the most significant and, perhaps, the most challenging responsibility of the Project Manager? How does a Project Manager ensure successful accomplishment of this key role/responsibility? Reference: Integrated Management Associates’ Seminar “A Practical Approach to Planning & Controlling Projects” at www.iet.duq.edu
  • The PMBOK Definition of a Stakeholder includes Individuals or Organizations who: Are actively involved in the project. Or 2. May be positively or negatively affected by the project. Or May exert influence over the project and its results. What are some tools that best serve to support more effective communications to project stakeholders? Reference: Provil & Associates’ Seminar “A Practical Approach to Projects Communications Management” at www.iet.duq.edu
  • The PMBOK recognizes that every project should have a Communication Management Plan (CMP), which includes the following: Project Stakeholders Contact Listing Data / Information Collection & Filing Information / Reports Listing Reports Content & Formats Reports Production Schedules Methods for Information / Report Access Method for Updating the CMP For more practical application, we recommend application of a simple Project Communications Plan, including listings of all key project contacts, meetings, and reports (see Deliverable – PROJECT COMM PLAN Spreadsheet). Reference: Provil & Associates’ Seminar “A Practical Approach to Projects Communications Management” at www.iet.duq.edu
  • How is Project Success measured in your organization? Reference: Provil & Associates’ Seminar “Essentials for Effective Project Management” at www.iet.duq.edu
  • Project success or failure is determined by the outcome of the project variables, including: Scope : Simply stated: The deliverable(s) and the work to be done, represented by the end product as well as all the necessary work activities/tasks to produce it. Time : The time frame or duration for the project represented by the total time elapsed between the defined start and end date of the project as well as individual project milestones/events. Cost : The project budget, simply represented by the available funding for the project. Resources : Represented by the human resources, materials and/or equipment necessary to deliver the project. Quality : The performance criteria of the end product, represented by the expectations of the customer/end-user(s). In order to have any chance of achieving project success, the project manager and the project team must understand the key stakeholder’s expectation/ranking of these project variables. Reference: Integrated Management Associates’ Seminar “A Practical Approach to Planning & Controlling Projects” at www.iet.duq.edu
  • There are three (3) basic ways that organization’s organize to perform projects, including: The Functional Project Team Organization The Matrixed Project Team Organization’ The Projectized Team Organization In the following pages, we’ll discuss each approach, including the advantages and disadvantages of each. Reference: Integrated Management Associates’ Seminar “A Practical Approach to Planning & Controlling Projects” at www.iet.duq.edu
  • In this type of organization structure resources are grouped by functional units or disciplines. Project leadership is executed by designated leaders within each discipline, typically referred to as Project Coordinators. What are the advantages of the Functional Project Team? What are the potential disadvantages? Reference: Integrated Management Associates’ Seminar “A Practical Approach to Planning & Controlling Projects” at www.iet.duq.edu
  • In this type of organizational structure, resources are also grouped by their functional skills or discipline, however, work is primarily accomplished through application of a cross-functional project team. A project manager / project leader is assigned to each project. This individual is usually responsible for the successful delivery of the project. What are the advantages of a Matrix Project Organization? What are the potential disadvantages? Reference: Integrated Management Associates’ Seminar “A Practical Approach to Planning & Controlling Projects” at www.iet.duq.edu
  • In the projectized organization the focus of all resources is on “the project”. Typically, resources are assigned full-time to one project, and one project only. The project manager has overall responsibility for the project scope, budget, quality, schedule, and resources (i.e. the project variables). What are the advantages of a Projectized Organization? What are the potential disadvantages? Reference: Integrated Management Associates’ Seminar “A Practical Approach to Planning & Controlling Projects” at www.iet.duq.edu
  • In many organizations, there may be application of various project organization approaches, including Functional, Matrix, and Projectized Organizations. Furthermore, it is not unusual to find hybrid approaches, as well. Reference: Integrated Management Associates’ Seminar “A Practical Approach to Planning & Controlling Projects” at www.iet.duq.edu
  • Projects are only successful when started well
  • Describe each of the process groups and where initiation fits into thepicture Be sure to describe how each phase of a project my have initiation in it Figure 3-1 2000 PMBOK Helps keep project focused on business needs by initiating at the begining of each phase
  • Self-explanitry Reference PMI Project Management Framework- slide 40
  • Project Management Framework - Slide 41 Describe each section and explain how this works
  • Limiting scope helps make a project more successful Chaos report from standish group states that any project over $3 M has 0% chance of success
  • Pass out or reference template for project proposal Add graphic
  • Project Management Framework Slide 28
  • This is a sample work breakdown structure. When creating the WBS start with the goal and start breaking it down into Smaller & smaller deliverables. After you’ve identified your deliverable, list the activities that must be done to complete that deliverable. Deliverables define WHAT you are going to do Activities define HOW you are going to accomplish it A WBS does not show the sequence in which work is performed. That will come later, the idea at this point is just to break it down. The WBS can highlight missing items. Hierarchical view is typically seen on a wall with stickies At this point address level of detial to be included in a WBS. Level of detail to allow you to estimate time and cost and assign a resource.
  • Use Post-it Notes to construct a WBS with the class participating. - Post the goal at the top = “Build a garage for …” (Pick someone from the class) - Facilitate the class to brainstorm the deliverables and activities to build a garage. * Deliverables = Nouns Activities = Verbs
  • This would be a good time to give an example. Ask the class how long it takes to make a 3 minute egg. Direct them to all of the tasks required to prepare, cook, and clean-up from the egg. This show the value of breaking down the work (WBS) then estimating.
  • PERT – Program Evaluation & Review Technique This is just one part of PERT –.
  • Point out that “resources” is ALL resources – work as well as material in scheduling tool
  • Discuss what this is and why you care. Critical Path is: The longest path through a project network Determines the project finish date. The set of activities on a single path that have zero or the smallest float Critical Path Benefits All activities on the critical path MUST be completed as scheduled or the project slips! Focuses the project team’s efforts Critical Path shifts during execution If all the float is used up on an activity, it becomes part of the critical path
  • Fast tracking – Compressing the project schedule by overlapping activities that would normally be done in sequence. Crashing – Decreasing the duration – how to get the maximum duration compression for the least cost. (like adding resources) Talk to the point that doing this introduces risk into the project - you as a PM just need to be aware of it and ensure that it is acceptable to the team and the stakeholders.
  • Speak to the fact that every company has its own method for budget planning. In addition, government contracts have their own requirements. What we are introducing here is one technique to help more accurately identify tangible items that should be included in the budget.
  • Emphasize that this is an estimate. Just like the schedule.
  • Do mention that Microsoft Project can also be a place to record and monitor the project budget.
  • Good afternoon! My name is Susan Keaney and I’m here today to talk about 2 of my favorite subjects…execution and control! We’ve initiated and planned our project – now it’s time to get down to business and “just do it”! It may seem like a maze to many of you, but when you understand the tools of the trade, you’ll be able to navigate your project’s twists and turns effectively and productively!
  • Just an overall reminder of where we are in the overall PM lifecycle….
  • Now that we’ve planned the project, it’s time to enter into the next phase – and that deals with the actual execution of the project. This is where you actually start working on the project and working towards achieving the milestones and creating the deliverables associated with the project.
  • You will recall that Sam provided an example of a Communications Plan earlier today….your Communications Plan can be in any form, any tool that you feel comfortable in using. We’ve provided a template in your deliverables “take away” to help you develop your own format.
  • Here’s another example of a communications plan – it explains who gets what/when and who is responsible for providing the information. It doesn’t have to be an elaborate tool/plan – this was done as an Excel spreadsheet! The important thing is to have one and to use it!
  • The answer is not just to hold more meetings! How many meetings do you attend in just one week? The average PM attends XX.
  • Solicit other ideas from attendees – what other ideas have they used or have seen used that seemed to work well?
  • Ok – let’s go back to our working project. We’re now going to construct a Communications Plan for our garage project. Let’s break back into our teams and take 10 minutes to develop a Plan for our project. We’ll then get back together and share our plans….
  • This is a HUGE responsibility for both the PM and the team….. Team members MUST be comfortable to raise issues and/or potential issues; it is not acceptable to “ignore the moose on the table” Many people are afraid to raise an issue and appear that they can’t resolve it themselves….the PM needs to ensure that he/she establishes an open communications “policy” so that issues can be identified and resolved early on – before they cause significant damage or impact to the project. Process for issue identification needs to be reviewed with the team and documented so that as issues arise, team members know what to do…. Now, what happens if you or your team cannot resolve the issue yourself? Let’s talk about issue escalation…
  • Sometimes teams can’t resolve issues on their own – this can be due to a variety of reasons (limited resources, competing priorities, etc) These issues need to be raised and escalated so that they can be resolved quickly and in a timely manner…again, so that project progress is not impeded and that client expectations can be met/managed. This flow chart illustrates the escalation process at a company I consulted for. Let’s briefly walk through it to ensure that we all understand how/when issues need to be escalated. How do we define “significant”? You’ll need to decide for your project; it could be 1 day, 1 week or even an hour!
  • Now let’s move on to the subject of project control – some people are bothered by the “control” word so it you’d prefer, you can think about this section as the management portion of your project.
  • The basic concept behind all project management is understanding the triple constraint… .Talk about balancing the triangle and having a complete triangle. Successful projects may be defined many different ways – Some companies aren’t as concerned with the costs as with the time. Others must keep the costs to a minimum and are willing to allow the schedule to slip if needed. You must work with your clients to determine what their definition of success is.
  • Purpose What changes are potentially beneficial ? Key Point Stress the importance of identifying a real change (test that doesn’t go as planned) or a requested change (I need the inner diameter of the pipe to be ¾” not ½” NOW) , as soon as possible
  • Tie in to requirements definition discussion later in session…..
  • You and your team need to know the impacts of a proposed change on your project so that you can make the “right” decision. You may need to go back to your project sponsor or the customer and to do so, you must be able to tell them the potential impacts ($$ and time)
  • One thing your project needs to have is a formalized change control system…. What is it?
  • Be careful about responding to oral requests. Initial request can be made orally but it MUST be documented!
  • Performance reports == “dare to open your kimono” Top question – should be addressed in your project communications plan Performance reports can be indicative that something is wrong on the project and that changes need to be made – ie., are we chronically behind schedule? Are milestones being missed – and why? Was there a change that we did not anticipate (and was it documented?!)
  • Project performance/status reports can take a lot of forms – here’s an example of one for your consideration. We’ve provided this in your deliverables package… Your project performance/status report needs to address what is important to your stakeholders, your client, your sponsor, etc.
  • The major input into your change control system is a change request form. Here’s an example of a change request form…we’ve included it in your package of deliverables for your consideration and potential use on your projects.
  • Let’s spend some time discussing scope control in a little more depth…..
  • Here is a proposed change control process for your consideration…..
  • As you might suspect, change control and communications are tightly interwoven. Here’s an example of a communications “hierarchy” for a change control process/procedure…..
  • Another thing you need to consider is “how high is high” when you are setting your priorities….the criteria need to be identified and documented to ensure all team members understand.
  • Now let’s move on to the subject of scope creep – this is different from a formal change request…and it is much more difficult to control! I’m working with a company right now who is really struggling with this because they constantly want to make their product “better” --
  • Can you think of instances on your project where this has occurred? What were the consequences? Who “paid” for the enhancements?
  • So, how do we avoid scope creep? First line of defense – identifying, understanding and documenting ALL project requirements. That includes ALL stakeholders!
  • Another way to control scope creep is through the establishment and use of baselines.
  • This is HUGE!
  • Once you have a solid requirements document (this can be in the form of a formal requirements document, technical/functional specification or even a requirements log in Excel), in order for it to be effective and help you control scope creep, it must be reviewed and signed off by your key stakeholders – who might you want to sign-off on this? Discuss who and why they might be important….
  • Another key element of project control is the area of Risk Management. I want to refresh your memory from earlier this morning – Jack spoke about the importance of your project risk plan. I want to bring this up again because you often need your risk plan while you are executing/controlling your project. Your risk plan should not become “shelf ware” – it needs to be revisited throughout the life of your project to ensure that it is applicable and ready to be implemented should one of your identified risks occur.
  • Look at your risk plan to determine what has changed since you created it? What do you know now that you didn’t know then? Make adjustments to your plan…it should be a living breathing document and a vital part of your overall project plan.
  • OK, you’ve been sitting a long time now – let’s now try and put all of this theory into practice. Your garage project is coming along – the walls are up, the pad is poured and suddenly……. Let’s take 10 minutes and decide how you would manage this change request…..Please be prepared to share your response with the other groups when we reconvene….
  • Thank them for their time…. Complex subjects – we could spend entire days on the topics of execution and control. References provided at end of our literature. We’ll also talk more about how you can get additional assistance and information at the conclusion of our training today. This concludes my portion of the session. Any questions?????? I’d now like to introduce Betsy who will talk about the Project Closing Phase of the PM lifecycle…. Betsy……
  • Projects are only successful when started well
  • 1. ALL 5 PROCESS AREAS USED IN EACH PHASE OF PROJECT JUST ENOUGH PROCESS JUST IN TIME ANSWERS QUESTIONS ABOUT THE PROJECT - WHAT WE DID, WHEN, WHY , WHOM, HOW THE 4 P’s OF PROJECT MANAGEMENT – PEOPLE PERFORMING PERFECT PROCESS 3. ESSENCE OF MY PRESENTATION – THE CLOSING PROCESS INFORMS ON OPERATIONAL RESULTS & PREDICTS FUTURE PROJECT PERFORMANCE 4. HELPS PM MOVE FROM REACTIVE…..CREATIVE REACTIVE RECATIVE RCEATIVE CREATIVE From Sam’s Introduction WHY WE DO PROJECTS? – FIX A PROBLEM EXLORE AN OPPORTUNITY MEET A BUSINESS NEED
  • This section will focus on the final PMI Process Group – Closing Mention this is following previous sections: SAM – INTRODUCTION; MIKE – INITIATING; JACK – PLANNING; SUSAN – EXECUTING & CONTROLLING Arrows represents flow of documents and documentable items
  • 1. Project Closure is a Prime Process from PMBOK 2. Two Parts: Contract and Administrative 3. Contract can be both internal and external – get examples of each 4. TEMPLATES AVAILABLE IN YOUR HANDOUTS – - ARCHIEVE CHECK LIST - FORMAL CONTRACT ACCEPTANCE AND CLOSE OUT
  • Administrative Close Out – INCLUDES CELEBRATION Collect project records – for each phase/process and is on-going through out entire project - place where records go can include web repository - WHEN CLOSE OUT IS DONE AS PART OF EACH PHASE, DON’T NEED ENTIRE PROEJCT TEAM TO DO THIS PHASE - IF NOT DON’T AS PART OF EACH PHASE, GET OUTPUT FROM EACH TEAM MEMBER – THESE ARE THE DELIVERABLES OF THE PROJECT 3. Lessons Learned includes best practices, identification & capture & dissemination to stakeholders 4. Remember Cultural Awareness of your organization is key to success 5. ON PUNCH LIST – MANY PMs CREATE FOR EACH PHASE & KEEP IT A DYNAMIC DOCUMENT THROUGHOUT LIFE OF PROJECT
  • Contract Close Out is often captured in legal documents - FORMAL - LEGAL - WRITTEN 2. May include looking at a review of procurement process
  • EXERCISE – IF TIME PERMTIS – ask them to tell me what Inputs/Tools & Techniques/Outputs they created/used for the Garage Project Key Message: Each phase of project generates outputs which are part of the Closing process What you put in = what you put out as archives, project records All project records signed off internally & w/end-user Signed contract documents w/ end-user; payment - S/W delivered, Eq. Installed, etc. 6. Documented Lesson Learned to S. Mgmt Looking for continuous improvement by - Application of lessons learned, i.e., co-location, >regression testing, >customer mtgs w/Account Mgr. MISSING DOCUMENTATION = VAPOR PAPER EXPERT = PERSON FORMALLY ASSIGNED RESPONSIBILITY FOR THAT AREA; OR, THE MONTY PYTHON DEFINITION: “NOT COVERED WITH SHIT” PROJECT MANAGER ALSO BRINGS IN HIS/HER EXPERT JUDGETMENT = YOUR GUT TELLING YOU TO ASK ‘WHY’ ONE MORE TIME’ SET UP MTG’ FOLLOW UP WITH SR. EXEC., ETC.
  • 1. Why This is Important - How to know what you’ve done - How to stay done 2. Reinforces difference between process and project - process – on-going relationship with Customers, Clients - project – linked chain of measured achievements with defined time, defined resources, defined work by defined people 3. Customer Satisfaction Evaluation 4. Lessons Learned Captured 5. You can’t improve it if you can’t measure it 6. # OF PROJECTS THAT FAILED:
  • 9 KNOWLEDGE AREAS APPLIED ACROSS THE 5 PROCESS GROUPS WITHIN YOUR ORG’s. LIFECYCLE GIVE YOUA WAY TO ADDRESS 3 OF THESE 4 REASONS OR 57% OF THE TOTAL - 38% Scope Creep through use of the documentation of what we are doing & why - 11% Project Team Politics through use of the discipline of agendas, deliverables - 8% of lack of resources through showing plan, responsibilities matrix, scope of work 2. AND, WITH PRACTICE, ADDRESS THE REMAINING ISSUE BY GIVING YOU A WAY TO SPEAK TO THE EXECUTIVE SPONSOR(s) - 43% Inadequate Executive Sponsorship through signed off, approval of scope, project plan, changes
  • Closing – Why Hard to Get Speaking Truth to Power – Robert J. Grapham “Prject Maangement a if People Matter” Nature of Engineers – to find the perfect solution…Just give me a little longer and I’ll get it I’M ALREADY ASSIGNED TO MY NEXT PROJECT Hard Skills = 9 PMBOK business areas; the ‘science’ of project mgmt Soft Skills = the ‘art’ of project mgmt Getting Folks to Do What They Know How to Do when YOU want Them To Do It = the ‘bull’
  • ORIGINALLY SAW THIS AT A PMI VENDORS SHOW - PRIMAVERA THIS IS AN EXPANDED VERSION OF SAM’S BALANCED SCALES SHOWN IN HIS INTRODUCION THE BULL IS YOUR UNRELENTING EFFORT, YOUR CHRONIC NEED TO GET YOUR PROJECT TO BE AS IMPORTANT TO THOSE OUTSIDE THE PROJECT AS YOU & YOUR PROJECT TEAM MEMBERS TREAT IT 6 PHASES OF A PROJECT: 1. ENTHUSIASM 2. DISILLUSIONMENT 3. PANIC 4. SEARCH FOR THE GUILTY 5. PUNISH THE INNOCENTS 6. PRAISE AND HONORS FOR NON-PARTICIPANTS
  • Projects are only successful when started well
  • Lecture 1

    1. 1. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Introduction to Project Management: Processes, Tools, & Techniques Presented by the PMI Pittsburgh Chapter
    2. 2. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Section 1: Introduction
    3. 3. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh This study will provide an introduction to the primary processes and knowledge areas of applied project management, including initiating, planning, executing, controlling and closing of Information Technology (I.T.) projects. Objective:
    4. 4. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh INITIATING PLANNING CONTROLLING EXECUTING CLOSING PMBOK® - 5 Major Project Management (PM) Processes
    5. 5. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Executing Process PROJECT S T A R T PROJECT F I N I S HTI ME LEVELOFACTIVITY Closing ProcessControlling Process Planning Process Initiating Process CONCEPT DEVELOP IMPLEMENT CLOSEOUT PHASES OF THE PROJECT LIFE CYCLE : Iterative & Overlapping
    6. 6. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh 1. Introduction 2. Project Management Overview 3. Project Initiating 4. Project Planning 5. Project Executing 6. Project Controlling 7. Project Closing 8. Summary Outline INITIATING PLANNING EXECUTINGCONTROLLING CLOSING
    7. 7. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Section 2: Project Management Overview
    8. 8. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh A temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product, service, or result. PMBOK Definition of a Project :
    9. 9. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Definition of “Operation Activity” • On-going task • Repetitive / cyclical • Produces deliverables • Consumes resources • Incurs cost
    10. 10. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh PMBOK Definition of a Program : “ . . . a group of related projects managed In a coordinated way” to obtain benefits not available from managing them individually.
    11. 11. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh PMBOK Definition of Project Management: The application of knowledge, skills, tools, and techniques to project activities to meet project goals/requirements.
    12. 12. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Benefits of Project Management : • Meeting/Exceeding Customer Expectations • Meeting Project Deadlines & Accountability • Managing Projects Costs & Profit Margins • More Efficient Resource Utilization • Improved Communications
    13. 13. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Liabilities of Project Management : • Added Processes/Guidelines/Projects • Increased Overhead/Administration • Additional Time & Effort • Weapon vs. Tool
    14. 14. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh What’s the key role/responsibility of the Project Manager? Business Level Program Level Work Level Executives PM / FM Teams
    15. 15. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Who’s a Project Stakeholder?
    16. 16. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh The Project Communications Plan: • Contacts Listing • Meetings Listing • Reports Listing
    17. 17. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Project Success Factors
    18. 18. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh 5 Key Project Variables ResourcesScope Cost Time Quality PM The Five (5) Project Variables
    19. 19. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Organization Approaches To Managing Projects: • Functional Organization • Matrix Organization • Projectized Organization
    20. 20. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh XYZ ENG OPR MKT SVC FUNCTIONAL Organization Structures
    21. 21. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh MATRIX XYZ ENG OPR MKT SVC PL1 PL3 PL2 Organization Structures PM
    22. 22. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh PM1 ENG OPR MKT SVC PM2 ENG OPR MKT SVC PM3 ENG OPR MKT SVC XYZ P R O J T E E C A T M I Z E D ENG OPR MKT SVC Organization Structures
    23. 23. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Maintenance Enhancement New Product (Strategic) Functional Matrix Projectized Priority H L Project Organization Approaches
    24. 24. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh 1. Introduction – Sam Provil, PMP 2. PM Overview – Sam Provil, PMP 3. Project Initiation – Mike Rapach, PMP 4. Project Planning – Larry Deckenbaugh, PMP 5. Project Execution – Susan Keaney, PMP 6. Project Control – Susan Keaney, PMP 7. Project Closure – Betsy Mullaugh, PMP 8. Summary – Fred Arnold, PMI Fellow Outline
    25. 25. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Section 3: Initiating Projects Initiation is successfully beginning the project to create success in the end.
    26. 26. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Objectives • Describe the purpose of the initiation process • Discuss managing expectations • Develop a sample project proposal • Learn about project lifecycles and how to reduce risk
    27. 27. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Initiating Planning Controlling Executing Closing PMI Framework Document Process Groups
    28. 28. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh PMI Framework Document Purpose of Initiation Process • To commit the organization to a project or phase • To set the overall solution direction • To define top-level project objectives • To secure the necessary approvals and resources • To validate alignment with overall business objectives • To assign a project manager
    29. 29. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Process OutputInput Tools and Techniques 1. Project description 2. Strategic plan 3. Project selection criteria 4. Historical information “Initiation is the process of formally recognizing that a new project exists or that an existing project should continue into its next phase.” 1. Project proposal 2. Project manager identified/ assigned 1. Project selection methods 2. Expert judgment PMI Framework Document Initiating Core Process—Initiation
    30. 30. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Managing Expectations • Projects are: – Limited in scope, resources, time, and money – Intended to end – Focused on a limited set of goals • Manage Expectations towards what you can truly commit to;not what everyone thinks is great • Solving the business problem; not creating a great piece of software
    31. 31. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh How to manage expectations • Communication • Involvement of all parties • Focus on strategic goals of the organization • Understanding limitations & truly prioritizing • And by the way … communication
    32. 32. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Creating communication among project stakeholders to achieve consensus Project Proposal
    33. 33. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Project Proposal Content • Scope definition • Project objectives and benefits • Project deliverables • Acceptance criteria for project • Assumptions • Constraints • Role definition and key staff • High level schedule, budget • Acceptance
    34. 34. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Benefits of the Project Proposal • Trade-offs between objectives and scope can be negotiated. • Level of involvement of the key stakeholders can be negotiated. • Availability of key personnel can be negotiated. • Risks inherent in the schedule can be reviewed. • The relationship between risk management and contingency management can be discussed.
    35. 35. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh More Proposal Benefits • Acceptance criteria for the project can be agreed to by key stakeholders. • Establishes a basic Project Plan • Confirm how the project links to the business need • Identify management responsibilities • Make strategic procurement decisions, e.g., make, buy, or identify qualified vendors
    36. 36. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Results of Initiation Process • Acceptance of Project proposal • Project manager identified
    37. 37. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Project Lifecycles Project life cycle: The natural grouping of ideas, decisions, and actions into Project phases, from Project conception to operations to Project phase-out.
    38. 38. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh How to choose a lifecycle • Fixed or variable requirements • Who controls the scope? • Project Risk levels • Time
    39. 39. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Concept and Proposal Development Implementation Termination Verification Final PhaseIntermediate PhasesInitial Phase PMI Framework Document Project Life Cycle Example Phases
    40. 40. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh McConnell, 1996 Waterfall Lifecycle
    41. 41. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh McConnell, 1996 Spiral Methodology
    42. 42. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh McConnell, 1996 Prototyping
    43. 43. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Summary • Set Expectations of Customer and Management • Establish Clear Objectives for the project • Develop a Project Proposal • Choose the Appropriate Project Lifecycle
    44. 44. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Case Study Description The project for the class is the building of a garage. The requirements are as follows: Build a 2 car, non-attached garage that architecturally and asethically matches the home. Your project sponsor and stakeholders will be the instructor of the course. This project will serve as a case study throughout the course. Each phase will feed into the next, illustrating the process of a normal project.
    45. 45. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Exercise Determine scope statement for your garage. Your scope statement should be clear on what you are going to do, and not going to do within your project. Include assumptions, constraints, and any major concerns that you feel should be address during project planning and later phases. Remember that this output will feed into the next phases of the project.
    46. 46. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Section 4: Project Planning
    47. 47. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Goal: Introduce the Project Management skills for planning projects focusing on critical areas for IT projects Objectives: 1) Learn how to perform a work breakdown 2) Be aware of activity analysis 3) Understand basics of project schedule development 4) Be aware of Project Risk analysis 5) Understand techniques to develop a Project Budget
    48. 48. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh INITIATING PLANNING CONTROLLING EXECUTING CLOSING PMBOK® - 5 Major Project Management (PM) Processes
    49. 49. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh The Project Plan is...The Project Plan is... Where all of the pieces of the puzzle come together! What Who Why WhenHow
    50. 50. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Review Project Knowledge areas Scope Cost Time Quality Facilitative functions:  Human Resource Mgt  Communications Mgt  Risk Management  Contract/Procurement Mgt Integration
    51. 51. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Work Breakdown - Overview What is it? A structured method for defining the work of the project Purpose •To define all of the “deliverables” required to meeting the scope of the project •To identify additional deliverables that may have been missed •To create the framework for the project schedule •To provide a forum for information sharing for the project team and stakeholders
    52. 52. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Work Breakdown Structure How Goal Deliverable Deliverable DeliverableDeliverable Deliverable Deliverable Deliverable Activity Activity Activity Activity Activity Activity Activity Activity Activity Activity Activity Activity Activity Activity Activity 1 2 1.1 3 1.2 1.2.1 1.2.2 What WBSWBS ≡≡ ScopeScope Project Goal Deliverables and/or Objectives Activities
    53. 53. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh WBS Planning Techniques • Facilitated sessions - Brainstorming technique - Facilitator helps keep you focused and on schedule - Should be well structured - Have a predefined schedule • Roles in facilitated sessions - Facilitator - Scribe(s) - Participants
    54. 54. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh WBS Workshop 10 Minutes • Class participation with the instructor to produce a WBS for building a garage
    55. 55. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Activity Analysis What is it? Identifying information necessary to determine the amount of work required to complete the “work” of the project Purpose • To define all activities that will be performed on the project • To sequence the activities • To identify skills and resources required to complete activities • To estimate work effort of the activities • To lay the groundwork for the project schedule
    56. 56. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Activity Analysis • Create Activity list – Produce list of activities that will be performed for every deliverable. • Manually – as part of facilitated WBS work session • Using a project scheduling tool • Solicit the help of “subject matter experts” – Have experts list activities by deliverable – Eliminate duplicates – Look for optimizations – Maintain descriptions of each activity – Sequence the activities based upon dependencies
    57. 57. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Activity Analysis • Identify Resource Requirements – Identify skills needed to complete each activity – Assign resources or role with appropriate skills – Create a Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM) • A responsibility matrix is a valuable tool to ensure that resources are identified correctly • Clearly indicates responsibilities • Provides an overview of the project responsibilities
    58. 58. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Responsibility Assignment MatrixResponsibility Assignment Matrix
    59. 59. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Activity Analysis • Estimate Activities – Include indication of accuracy (e.g. ± percent or Order of magnitude) – Use “subject matter experts” as much as possible – Have multiple people provide the estimates – Base upon historical information whenever possible • Types of estimates – Work/ Effort – Duration Document your methods and assumptions during estimating!!!
    60. 60. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Activity Analysis • Estimate Activities (cont.) – Determine experts and project team members to provide estimates – Agree on the units of measure (hours, days, etc) – Have team members provide THREE estimates • Optimistic (To) • Pessimistic (Tp) • Most likely (Tm) – Calculate estimate • Te= (To + 4(Tm) + Tp) /6
    61. 61. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Schedule Development What is it? Developing a plan that describes the order and timing of all work activities and who is responsible for doing them Purpose • To determine WHEN work will be performed • To identify WHO will do the work • To analyze activity dependencies and sequences • To evaluate resource requirements, availability and utilization • To Identify Milestones
    62. 62. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh What can scheduling software do? • Planning: – Creates a record of the WBS – Automatically calculates duration, and start/finish dates – Allows analysis of resource availability and allocation – Calculates critical path – Calculates duration based on resources and calendar • Execution – Tracks work performance against the plan – Provides activity status information – Helps you to identify when/where resources are constrained NOTE: SOFTWARE CAN’T MANAGE YOUR PROJECT!!
    63. 63. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Order to build a schedule when using scheduling tools 1. Setup Project Information (Calendar, Start date, etc). 2. Enter Deliverables & Activities (Records WBS) 3. Enter Estimates 4. Enter Predecessors 5. Enter Resource definitions (Calendar, working time, etc.) 6. Assign Resources to activities 7. Analyze the critical path 8. Make adjustments based on risk responses 9. Compress the schedule 10.Baseline the schedule
    64. 64. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Schedule Example Using MS ProjectSchedule Example Using MS Project
    65. 65. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Compressing the schedule: • Examine the schedule for ways to reduce the total duration of the project - Fast Tracking – compressing the project schedule by overlapping activities that would normally be done in sequence, such as coding and testing - Crashing – Look at alternatives that provide the maximum compression for the lease cost
    66. 66. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Risk ManagementRisk Management What is it? Identifying threats and opportunities that can affect the project and planning to deal with them PROACTIVELY. Purpose • To identify potential threats and opportunities • To qualify risks based upon probability and impact to the project • To create a plan for mitigating or responding to the risk • To quantify the impact to the project schedule and/or budget
    67. 67. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh OverviewOverview Total Project Life Cycle Initiate / Define CloseExecutePlan INCREASINGRISK $Value Period when Highest Risks are Incurred Opportunity and Risk Amount at Stake Period of Highest Risk Impact TIME
    68. 68. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Risk IdentificationRisk Identification Identify the risk event(s) • Keep them realistic • Add them to the log whenever they are identified (not just during planning)
    69. 69. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Qualitative Risk AnalysisQualitative Risk Analysis 1. Estimate Probability 10% through 90% 2. Estimate Impact High=3 Medium=2 Low=1 3. Calculate the Severity Probability x Impact = Severity 4. Use Severity to identify the risks worth planning
    70. 70. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh • Ensures proactive planning to deal with risk events • Response must be appropriate for the severity of the risk • Quantifies the responses impact to the Schedule and Budget Risk Response Planning and QuantificationRisk Response Planning and Quantification
    71. 71. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Budget Development What is it? Budget development is the process by which an estimate for the total monetary cost of a project is produced Purpose • To identify costs required to produce the project deliverables • To produce an accurate estimate of project costs • To obtain approval for project funding • To provide a basis for monitoring and controlling spending
    72. 72. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh A Project Budget is…A Project Budget is… a project cost and cash flow estimate based upon the best information available at the time
    73. 73. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Identify Budget Items (for each deliverable in the WBS)Identify Budget Items (for each deliverable in the WBS) Techniques: • Analogous - use historical information • Parametric - use predefined tables • Bottom-up - recommended  Uses brainstorming & storyboarding  Involve representatives from each area that will be providing deliverables to the project  Can be done as part of WBS session  Involve key stakeholders in budget development  Use PERT when appropriate for budget estimating
    74. 74. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Identify Budget ItemsIdentify Budget Items (for each deliverable in the WBS)(for each deliverable in the WBS) How to Identify: • Examine each element in the WBS • Review available product requirements • Identify what you need to produce the deliverable(s) or perform the activities • List budget items in a budget worksheet • Estimate costs for each budget item • Estimate costs for labor
    75. 75. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Class Participation!Class Participation! Identify budget items for the following… 3.0 Roof 3.1 Framing 3.2 Roof Deck 3.3 Trim 3.3.1 Gutter 3.3.2 Soffit & Facia 3.3.3 Venting • Trusses - $4,500.00 • Fasteners - 150.00 • Wall plates - 350.00 $5,000.00 • Underlay - $300.00 • Shingles - 3,500.00 • Nails 100.00 • Rent Air Gun 200.00 $4,100.00 •Roof Vent $50.00 Total $ $750.00 Grand Total $9.850.00 • Facia - $200.00 • Soffit $150.00 • Nails $ 50.00 • $400.00 •Gutter $250.00 •Hangers 50.00 • $300.00 Be sure to agree on the units for cost estimating: • Dollars • Thousands (K) • Millions (M)
    76. 76. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Budget Worksheet ExampleBudget Worksheet Example Be sure to find out how your company and/or client does budget estimating and/or project accounting. What information do they need from you?
    77. 77. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Additional Tips For IT Projects • Document your project strategy... • Document project performance metrics... • Be sure to obtain approval for the project plan • Be sure to notify key stakeholders when the project plan is approved (or rejected!) • DO NOT “leave it on the shelf” after approval. The project plan is a living document that helps you to manage the project better. It must be reviewed and updated through-out the life of the project!!
    78. 78. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Provides place to document project specific details such as: • Phases of the project • Team Organization • Project Specific Controls • Any additional information Document The Project StrategyDocument The Project Strategy
    79. 79. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Document Project Performance MetricsDocument Project Performance Metrics Why have them in a project plan? • Metrics can provide clear, measurable, and consistent mechanisms for tracking and measuring project success • They are an effective way to target areas for improvement and identify lessons learned
    80. 80. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Key Points about Metrics... • All metrics should be: Specific Measurable Attainable Realistic and Relevant Time constrained • Metrics are tools for targeting learning Document Project Performance MetricsDocument Project Performance Metrics
    81. 81. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh
    82. 82. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh ReferencesReferences 1. A guide to the Project Management body of Knowledge, PMBOK Guide, 2000 Edition. 2. Fundamentals of Project Management, Second Edition, James P. Lewis, © 2002. 3. Organizing Projects for Success, Vijay K. Verma, © 1995. 4. Project Management in the Information Systems and Information Technologies Industries, Francis Hartmand and Rafi A. Ashrafi, © 2002 Project Management Journal, Vol. 33, 5-15. 5. Risk Management Concepts and Guidance, Carl L. Pritchard © 2001 6. INCOSE, International Council on Systems Engineering, Measurements Working Group, http://www.incosemwg.org
    83. 83. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Sections 5 and 6: Project Execution and Control
    84. 84. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Project Management Life Cycle • Project Management Institute Initiation Planning Execution Control Closeout
    85. 85. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Project Execution/Control • Project Execution: Implementing the project plan and doing the work! – Coordinating the resources – Working the plan • Project Control: Ensuring the project objectives are met. – Monitoring and measuring progress – Taking corrective action as needed
    86. 86. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Project Execution/Control • Interaction of key processes to ensure successful project delivery – Pre-proposal/Proposal – Design – Development/Production – Testing – Implementation • Why is this important? – Ensures controlled application of project processes – Not just reacting to “emergencies”
    87. 87. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Project Execution • The process of coordinating the people and other resources to carry out the plan. • The focus of this phase is: – Project plan execution – Quality assurance – Team development – Information distribution
    88. 88. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Project Plan • Completed during planning phase. • Identifies the “how’s” of a project. • Is proactive in nature -- anticipates what might happen and how to address it when it does.
    89. 89. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Project Plan • Comprised of: – Communications Plan – Quality Management Plan – Change Management Plan – Schedule/Cost Management Plans – Risk Plan • Used to manage the project and ensure successful delivery of product(s) to client.
    90. 90. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Project Communications • Critical to project “control” and “execute” phases. • What do we need to communicate and to whom? • Who needs what and why? • Internal communications? • External communications? – Clients – Vendors – Others
    91. 91. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Communications Planning • Determining the information and communication needs of the stakeholder(s) and the sources to meet those needs. – Accomplished through stakeholder identification and analysis. – Documented and managed via a project Communications Management Plan.
    92. 92. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Sample Communications Plan Description / Purpose Frequency Media/Distribution Audience/Distribution Responsibility Internal Project Meetings/Reports Investment Solutions Outsourcing Committee Monthly/Thur. @ 3:00 Conf Call: 23430642 Steve P; staff; sales, etc. Project Executive/Sponsor Briefing TBD TBD Susan K; Donna M; Christi C. Susan Weekly PACE Warehouse Project Internal Status Meeting Weekly/Tues. @ 1:00 PMConference Call Marcie H. and Project Team Marcie Senior Management Status Meeting/Report (XL Capital PACE Project) Bi-Weekly/Fri @ 7:30 AMReport/Presentation Jim Pa. and staff; Vince S; Rich T.; Steve P.; Peter D.; et al Susan/Donna Business Implementation Status Report Weekly/Thursdays @ noon Report Steve P.; Rich T. Susan Project Management Weekly Meeting TBD Conference Call Susan/Maria/Others as needed Susan Client Meetings/Reports: Clinet X- Accelerated Close Initiative As needed Conference Call Susan T; Karen G., Roger F.; Susan Client X -- X A Initiative As needed Conference Call Donna M.; Mary Lyn T.; John G.; Dave M Susan/Maria
    93. 93. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Communications Tools PM can enhance project communications and team effectiveness by: – Developing and using a Communications Management Plan – Being a communications expeditor – Using a “war room” – Holding effective meetings – Setting the example
    94. 94. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Additional Communication Tools • Standardized Email distribution lists – “cc’s” to team members (especially on client emails!) – Includes client – Can use filters – Should not replace face to face communications!!!!!!!!!!!!!! • Instant messaging – Good for client calls • Structured Meetings – Pre-meetings – Agendas with meeting objectives • Send out before meeting to allow for preparation time – Minutes/action items – Meeting summary for client calls with sign-off if appropriate
    95. 95. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Additional Communication Tools • Documentation needs and conventions – Naming, storage, retrieval, control • “Out of Office” emails • Establish communications “rules” at beginning of project – Document, share and revisit with team members/stakeholders throughout the project • Others?
    96. 96. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Project Execution Exercise • Create a Communications Plan to determine what, how, when and to whom you will need to communicate regarding your project.
    97. 97. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Additional Project Execution Needs • Issue resolution – What is an issue? • Steps for issue resolution: – Identify and record – Assign (priority, assignee, due date) – Review – Resolve/verify – Lessons learned
    98. 98. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Issue Escalation Issue Project Team Team Lead (Project Sponsor) Issue resolved? Issue resolved? Does issue have a commercial impact? Engagement Manager (Program Manager) Senior Manager  Issue is ID'd/assigned  The project team attempts resolution  Key points:  Distribution lists help with communicating to the right people  Helps to keep the right people informed If the project team is unable to adequately resolve issue... raise to Team Lead What does the team lead do? What to they add that the team can't? The Engagement Manager is considered more of a subject matter expert on the project. They will not resolve issues as much as provide input that will help the team or team leader resolve it. -- Client Impacts Yes NoNo
    99. 99. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Project Control • The process of ensuring that the project objectives are met by monitoring and measuring progress and taking corrective action when needed. • The focus of this phase is to: – Measure project performance against the plan to identify variances/deviations and take corrective action as necessary. – It includes • Overall change control • Scope change control • Schedule control • Cost control • Quality control • Performance reporting
    100. 100. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh First “Law” of Change Control – Changes to One Affect Changes to All! Scope Cost Time Quality
    101. 101. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Change Control Management • Concerned with: – Influencing the factors which create changes to ensure that changes are agreed upon – Determining that a change has occurred – Managing the actual changes when and as they occur • Change requests vs. scope creep
    102. 102. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Change Requests • Most change requests are the result of: – An external event – An error or omission in defining the scope of the product or project – A value-adding change (e.g., new technology, new software version, etc.)
    103. 103. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Change Control • The PM must be concerned with: – Influencing the factors that affect change – Ensuring that the change is beneficial – Determining that a change has occurred – Managing changes as they occur • All proposed changes must be thoroughly evaluated before a decision can be reached regarding the proposed change!
    104. 104. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Change Control System • A collection of formal, documented procedures, paperwork, tracking systems and approval levels for authorizing changes. May include: – Change control plan/procedures – Change control board – Change request/notification forms • Should be tailored to your specific project.
    105. 105. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Change Control System • Design of system depends upon: – What is important to the organization? – What are we attempting to do? – Which aspects of the work (e.g., scope, schedule, budget) are most important for us to track and control? – What are the critical points in the process at which controls should be placed?
    106. 106. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Key Points • Control should be exercised over what is considered to be important (to client, organization, etc.) • What is controlled (i.e., measured) tends to become important. • The effort used to control a project should be “worthwhile” and make sense – $3 battery vs. $100 control
    107. 107. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Inputs to Scope Change Control • Performance reports - provide information on scope performance (e.g., which interim products have been completed, which are not, etc.) • Change requests - can be oral or written, formal or informal, direct or indirect, internally or externally initiated, legally mandated or optional
    108. 108. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Performance Reports • What are the qualities/characteristics of a good performance report? – How often should we report? – What should we report? – To whom should we report? • Key Point: A client or project sponsor should not learn about a problem from a performance report!
    109. 109. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Project Report Template Project Name: Prepared by: Date: Status of Project Relative to Project Objectives: Scope (On scope? If off scope, how serious?) Schedule (On schedule? Ahead or behind by how much, etc.) Cost (On budget? Under or over by how much, etc.) Quality Progress Report: (what is completed, what is in process, key changes made, when and why, etc.) Forecasting: (estimate of future project status and progress) Other issues or comments: Issue: Who Will Address: Project Report Submitted to: Name: Title: Date: Name: Title: Date: Name: Title: Date: Sample Project Status Report
    110. 110. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Project Change Request Template Project Name: Prepared by: Date: Changes are being made to the following: Project Charter Project Management Approach Scope Statement Work Breakdown Structure Performance Measurement Baselines Major Milestones and Target Dates Key Staff Risk Management Plan Scope Management Plan Schedule Management Plan Cost Management Plan Quality Management Plan Staffing Management Plan Communications Management Plan Risk Response Plan Procurement Management Plan Changes to Supporting Detail? (explain): Description of Changes being made: 1. Risk Issues Prompting Changes: Corrective Action: 2. Risk Issues Prompting Changes: Corrective Action: 3. Risk Issues Prompting Changes: Corrective Action: Stakeholders being notified: Name/Title: Signature: Date: Name/Title: Signature: Date: Sample Project Change Request
    111. 111. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Scope Change Control • Scope Change Control: – Establish and use a change control plan/process. • Who/what/how/when – Requires constant monitoring by PM and team. – Ensures thorough analysis of all proposed changes so that full impact (time, cost, risk) is understood prior to change acceptance and/or implementation.
    112. 112. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Scope Change Control High-level Scope Definition Requirements Gathering Scope Validation/ Verification (WBS) Detailed Scope Statement/ Document Scope/ Requirements Approval and "sign- off" Project Team Scope Change Policy/Procedure  Change control form  Change control log PM/Sponsor Client Proposed Scope Change Identication and Analysis of Change (time, budget, etc.) Communication of Impact to Client Accept Proposed Change? DocumentChange/ Incorporate into Schedule, Scope and Budget DocumentReason for Rejection Project Manager/Team Yes NoTeam Project Manager Project Manager Client/ Stakeholders Project Manager/ Team Project Manager 1 2
    113. 113. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Communications Channel for Project Changes If Change Impacts: Need to Notify: Schedule or Budget Production Manager Quality Lead Designer Client Project Manager/Sponsor
    114. 114. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Change Control Example Priority of Change is Considered: If It Impacts: High Milestone or significant budget impact Medium Overall schedule but not a milestone Low Work packet task
    115. 115. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Scope Creep • What do we mean by “scope creep”? – Changes to the project that result in additional work. – “Expanding expectations” – “Creeping elegance” – “Gold plating” • If not properly identified and managed properly, your project may come in considerably over budget and/or behind in schedule.
    116. 116. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Scope Creep • Contributing factors: – Poorly defined/understood customer requirements • Trying to maintain “good” customer relations • Changing client requirements – “Creeping elegance” or over-engineering the solution • Desire to make it “better”
    117. 117. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Requirements Gathering • Talk to ALL project stakeholders to ensure a thorough understanding of project requirements. – Functional – Technical – End-user • Document all requirements identified – Key stakeholder sign-off
    118. 118. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Baselines Baseline = the original, approved plan (for a project, work package or activity) – Facilitate scope management, progress reviews and earned value analysis – Enable comparisons of what was originally in scope vs. what is being considered – Enable comparisons of “where I am now” vs. “where I should be now” – Allow for “what-if” analysis
    119. 119. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Baselines (cont.) • Scope, schedule and cost baselines • Are established after a formal walk –through and approval of the project plan (with customer if appropriate) • Can only be changed through a formal change control process
    120. 120. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Avoiding Scope Creep • It is the Project Manager’s responsibility to take the lead on controlling project scope. • Project Sponsor must “walk the talk” with respect to importance of scope creep. • Detailed requirements definition/analysis and documentation to identify and rank project requirements – e.g., Joint Application Design (JAD)
    121. 121. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Avoiding Scope Creep • Document, document, document! – Anticipate areas of miscommunication. – Be as succinct as possible. – Add what is NOT required. – Obtain sign-off by key stakeholders. • Use signed-off scope and requirements documents to manage your project – What’s “in” and what’s “out”
    122. 122. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Risk Management What is project risk? • What could go wrong with your project? • What could keep this project from completing successfully? • Risk Categories – Technical, quality and performance – Project management – Organizational – External
    123. 123. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Risk Management • Risk = the probability that a given process, task, or activity cannot be accomplished as planned. • Risk can represent either an exposure to loss or a potential for reward. • There are 2 possible outcomes for each risk identified: 1) real reward or loss, or 2) opportunity loss or reward.
    124. 124. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Risk Management • Risks are classified as internal (under the control of the project team) or external (not under the control of the project team) • Process: - Identify the risk - Analyze the risk (probability of occurrence; value, impact) - Identify actions needed to manage risk [avoid, accept, mitigate, deflect] - Track and monitor
    125. 125. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Potential Risk Factors • Areas to consider when identifying project risks: – Resources (general and specific) – Technology – Schedule – Training – Testing – Industry standards (current or evolving) – Organizational changes, support, issues
    126. 126. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Potential Risk Factors • Risk Factors to consider (cont.): – Product stability – Dependence on client (or others) for data/inputs/etc. – Others? • What risks do you see impacting your project(s)? • Start listing what you know you don’t know and build on that list.
    127. 127. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Exercise for Controlling a Project • You now have a change in the project. • As the project is beginning, your spouse has suggested a change. He/she would like the garage changed to have additional room for lawn and other equipment. • You will now need to manage this change in terms of your project plan. • You should determine the impacts to your project schedule and cost, review, and adjust accordingly.
    128. 128. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Summary – Project Execution and Control • So what have we learned? – Communications – at ALL levels and ALL phases of the project is critical to its success. – Requirements definition, documentation, sign-off and understanding among all stakeholders is imperative to project control and execution. – The Project Manager is the key!
    129. 129. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Section 7: Project Closing Don’t believe everything you think.
    130. 130. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Goal: Introduce the final PMI process group necessary for successful project management implementation Objective: •Introduce the main elements of the Closing Process •Outline Benefits for Using Project Management Processes •Provide Tips for Project Manager about the Closing Process •Review Pathways & Pitfalls for Closing Process
    131. 131. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Process Focus – Closing Initiating Planning Controlling Executing ClosingCLOSINGCLOSING
    132. 132. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Project Closing – Elements: • Administrative Close Out – Generating, gathering, disseminating information to formalize phase or project completion, including evaluating the project, compiling lessons learned for use in planning future phases or projects • Contract Close Out – Completion and settlement of the contact including resolution of any open items
    133. 133. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Administrative Close Out Activities: • Collect all project records • Document performance measures resulting from performance reviews, variance, trends and earned value analysis • Formalize acceptance/signoff of the product by the sponsor, client, customer • Archive project documentation • Verifying project results in preparation for formal acceptance • Create and Complete Punch List • Conduct and Document the lessons learned • Perform final appraisal review of team members
    134. 134. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Contract Close Out Activities: • Verify product/service acceptance • Update records based on final contract results • Archive contract documentation of completed work results • Notification to end-user of contract completion • Obtain formal acceptance
    135. 135. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Input Tools Output OutputInput 1. Project Charter 2. Project Scope Statement 3. Project Plan 4. Contract Documentation 5. Organizational Process Documents 6. Budget Worksheet 7. Risk Plan and log 8. Performance Reports 8. Contract Deliverables 1. Project mgmt methodology - 9 knowledge areas - 5 process groups 2. “Expert” Judgment 1. Administrative Closure Archives 2. Contract Closure Archives 3. Final Product, Service, Result 4. Environment & Org. Updates 5. Organization Process Assets Closing – Process Flow: Tools & Techniques Project Integration Management Overview www.pmi.org, May, 2004
    136. 136. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Closing – Why This Process is Important “Only by examining our mistakes and applying the lessons learned can one stem the tide of project failures and enhance an organization’s probability of success” Chaos: A Recipe for Success The Standish Group International, Inc. 1999
    137. 137. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh What is the Number One Reason Projects Fail? 38% 43% 11% 8% Project Team Politics Lack of Resources Scope Creep Inadequate Executive Sponsorship Source: PM Network, May 2004, p.12
    138. 138. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Closing - Why This Process is Hard to Get • Requires Speaking Truth to Power about the project • Assessment required on whether business goals met • Requires Discipline to finish the project •throughout the Organization •With End User •With other Stakeholders • Everyone is Tired • The Art, The Science, and …..
    139. 139. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh
    140. 140. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Business Values Derived from Use of Project Management Processes: • Increases Your Company’s ability to integrate new employees quickly into its business • Allows employees to concentrate on project, not operational or procedural elements • Provides systematic approaches to Risk Management – gets risks out earlier and minimizes impact • Adjustment periods between projects is decreased by using basic tools & techniques • Provides communication channels throughout Company • Ties in Senior Management
    141. 141. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Section 8: Summary
    142. 142. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh To paraphrase one of the old Heinz slogans (remember – we are in Pittsburgh): “How do you get 9 PMBOK Knowledge Areas into a single day?” Scope Risk Time Communications Integration Cost Procurement Quality Human Resources
    143. 143. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Also, “ How do you get 5 major Project Management Processes into a single day?” Initiating Planning Controlling Executing Closing
    144. 144. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Primary Objectives • Introduction to Project Management • Identification of Primary Process & Knowledge Areas • Applied Project Management • IT Projects Focus • Tools, Templates, National Standard (PMBOK Guide) – Useful Things
    145. 145. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh A Project Manager’s Observations: • Success • Focus on the Important Things (the responsibilities of the Project Manager) – Scope, Time, Cost, Quality, Risk, Communication, Procurement, Human Resources and Integration • We are involved in various levels of Technology – but it is a People Business
    146. 146. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Project Management • A continuous process of learning and improving • Leadership • Accountability
    147. 147. Proprietary - PMI Pittsburgh Continuous Improvement • Questions – call/email the presenters • Project Management Institute (PMI) Pittsburgh Chapter (Meetings are free) • PMI membership • Pittsburgh Technology Council - IT Network • Local Universities and Colleges • PMI Project Management Professional certification

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