WORKING OF GENERATOR The principles of generators, motors and electromagnetism are the same. They produce either Electricity, Magnetism or Spinning (Motor.)
There are four parts of each equation, 1.)Magnetism, 2.) Conductors, 3.)Spinning or Windings and finally 4.)Electricity. Any combination of three ofthese components will produce thefourth, (with the exception being aconductor is not necessarily producedwhen the remaining three are combined.)-
Generators produce (E)Electricity through the use of (M)Magnetism, (S) Spinning orwindings, and (C) Conductors orE = M + S + C.
-Motors produce (S) Spinningthrough the use of (E)Electricity, (M) Magnetism,and (C) Conductors or S = E +M + C.
Electromagnetism (M) isproduced through the use of(E) Electricity, (S) Spinningor windings and (C)Conductors or M = E + S +C.
SOME IMPORTANT PART INGENERATORRotor: In its simplest form, the rotor consists of asingle loop of wire made to rotate within a magneticfield. In practice, the rotor usually consists ofseveral coils of wire wound on an armature.Armature: The armature is a cylinder of laminatediron mounted on an axle. The axle is carried inbearings mounted in the external structure of thegenerator. Torque is applied to the axle to make therotor spin.
Coil: Each coil usually consists of many turns ofcopper wire wound on the armature. The twoends of each coil are connected either to two sliprings (AC) or two opposite bars of a split-ringcommutator (DC).Stator: The stator is the fixed part of thegenerator that supplies the magnetic field inwhich the coils rotate. It may consist of twopermanent magnets with opposite poles facingand shaped to fit around the rotor.Alternatively, the magnetic field may beprovidectromd by two eleagnets
Field electromagnets: Eachelectromagnet consists of a coil of manyturns of copper wire wound on a soft ironcore. The electromagnets arewound, mounted and shaped in such a waythat opposite poles face each other andwrap around the rotor.Brushes:The brushes are carbon blocksthat maintain contact with the ends of thecoils via the slip rings (AC) or the split-ringcommutator (DC), and conduct electriccurrent from the coils to the external
How DC generator works ? The commutator rotates with the loop of wire just as the slip rings do with the rotor of an AC generator. Each half of the commutator ring is called a commutator segment and is insulated from the other half. Each end of the rotating loop of wire is connected to a commutator segment. Two carbon brushes connected to the outside circuit rest against the rotating commutator. One brush conducts the current out of the generator, and the other brush feeds it in.
The commutator is designed so that,no matter how the current in the loopalternates, the commutator segmentcontaining the outward-going currentis always against the "out" brush atthe proper time. The armature in alarge DC generator has many coils ofwire and commutator segments.
Because of the commutator, engineers havefound it necessary to have the armature serve asthe rotor(the rotating part of an apparatus) andthe field structure as the stator (a stationaryportion enclosing rotating parts)