In planning, organizing and controlling ,managers
have to work among men and also get things done
Managers must direct and guide their subordinates
properly and inspire them to work. so directing is
nothing but process of leadership.
Dr. Terry rightly opinions that managers have to
manage business which means that they have to
provide leadership .
Leadership is an indivisible part of directing .more
importantly ,leadership is a means ,a tool which
makes direction effect
KOONTZ AND O’DONNELL “leadership is influencing
people to follow in the achievement of common goal”
CHESTER BARNARD , “Leadership refers to the
quality of behavior of the individual whereby they guide
people on their activities in organized efforts”
WHO IS THE LEADER…?
L - LiabLe (responsibLe )
e – enthusiastic (excited)
a – assertive (positive)
d – dynamic (innovative)
e – efficient (energy )
r – reLiabLe (trust)
EXAMPLE OF LEADER
A LEADER IS ONE WHO
KNOWS THE WAY,
GOES THE WAY, AND
SHOWS THE WAY
FOLLWERS OR SUBORDINATES
ACCEPTANCE OF LEADERSHIP
HARMONY OF INTERESTS
STYLES OF LEADERSHIP
FREE REIN LEADERSHIP
1. AUTOCRATIC LEADERSHIP:
All the power of decision in only
Leader s believes that their subordinates are
uneducated, unskilled and untrained .
Secrecy of decision making.
Misuse of power.
Restricts the freedom of employees.
EXAMPLE OF AUTOCRATICEXAMPLE OF AUTOCRATIC
In this type, leader has an open mind.
He encourages his subordinates to give their suggestions
If these suggestions and comments are good, then he will
So this leader consults his subordinates before taking a
decision. However, the final decision is taken by the leader.
Therefore, he takes full responsibility for his decision.
Useful for conference, meeting.
Employee can develop leadership quality.
Employee’s contribution in decision making process.
Waste of time in decision.
This style is only useful when all subordinate are educated.
I want to both of you……
EXAMPLE OF CONSULTATIVEEXAMPLE OF CONSULTATIVE
Managers believes that ability of the employees should be
allowed to develop
Managers willingly delegate authorities to his subordinates
Not give detailing instructions to subordinates only give general
Free communication of superior with his subordinate.
The traits managers need in such organization includes warmth,
friendliness, and understanding. Free-rein is often the most
successful style concerning organization is which managers
supervise doctors, engineers, professors and other
This method use when people highly motivated,
educated and goal oriented
team spirit is affected due to Non co-operation.
ADVANTAGE & DISADVANTAGES ofADVANTAGE & DISADVANTAGES of
FREE REIN LEADERSHIPFREE REIN LEADERSHIP
For example sales executiveFor example sales executive
The democratic leadership style means facilitating the
conversation, encouraging people to share their ideas,
and then synthesizing all the available information into
the best possible decision.
This style of leader believes decision making can be
better if it is SHARED.
They want to be seen as “fair”.
They actively ask worker for ideas and
They believe in allowing workers and staff to
develop by involving them in decisions about how
to improve the business.
For example team work
ADVANTAGE & DISADVANTAGES ofADVANTAGE & DISADVANTAGES of
DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIPDEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP
Slower decision making
Less initial production
Leader can be unsure and makes
everything a matter for group discussion
More individual responsibility
More personal growth
LEADERSHIP THEORYLEADERSHIP THEORY
1. TRAIT THEORY
2. BEHAVIORAL THEORIES
3. Cognitive resource theory
TRAIT THEORYTRAIT THEORY
Trait theory:-Trait theory:-
according to the trait theories, leader
possess some personality traits that non
leader do not possess at all, or possess only
to small level.
Early trait theories identified:Early trait theories identified:
Physical characteristics (height, appearance)
Personality characteristics (extrovert)
Skills and abilities (intelligence)
Social factors (interpersonal skills)
Six traits on which leaders tend to differ from
1. Ambition & Energy
2. The Desire To Lead
3. Honesty & Integrity
6. Job-relevent Knowledge
The trait approach has at least four limitation:-
1.No universal traits
2.Predict behaviour more in “weak’’ situations
than in “strong’’ situations
3.The evidence is unclear in separating cause
4.Traits do a better job at predicting the
appearance of leadership than in actually
distinguishing between effective & ineffective
The Behavioural theoriesThe Behavioural theories:-
Theory proposing that specific behaviours
Differentiate leaders from non-leaders.
If the behavioural approach to leadership
were successful, it would have implications quite
different from those of the trait approach.
If trait research had been successful, it would
have provided a basis for selecting the “right’’
persons to assume formal positions in groups &
organizations requiring leadership.
work atmosphere of mutual trust
respect for subordinates’ ideas
consideration of subordinates’ feelings
good two-way communication
structured their roles and the roles of subordinates toward
actively involved in planning work activities, communicating
pertinent information, and scheduling work
Cognitive resource theory:-Cognitive resource theory:-
This theory states that stress unfavourably
effects the situation, & intelligence & experience
can lessen the influence of stress on the leader.
The importance of a leader’s intelligence &
experience to his or her effectiveness differs under
low & high stress situations.
This has led to three conclusions:-
Directive behaviour results in good
performance only if linked with high intelligence
in supportive, low-stress situations.
In high stress situations, there is a positive
relationship between job experience &
The intellectual abilities f leaders correlate
with group performance in situations that the
leader perceives as low in stress.
Situational TheoriesSituational Theories
Leader style is either autocratic,
consultative, or group
Style depends on three situational factors
1. leader-member relations
2. task structure
3. position power
Transformational leadership theoryTransformational leadership theory:-
Many years ago James Macgregor burns
identified two types of political leadership,
The more traditional transactional
leadership involves an exchange relationship
between leaders & followers, but
transformational leadership is based more on
leader’s shifting the values, belief, & needs of
Three leader factors are important:
2. paying attention to followers’ needs
3. treating followers with respect
1. offering new ideas to stimulate followers
2. encouraging followers to think and act
Leadership is the capacity to
translate vision into reality….
- Warren G. Bennis- Warren G. Bennis