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Theories and styles of leadership

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Theories & styles of leadership

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Theories and styles of leadership

  1. 1. INTRODUCTION  In planning, organizing and controlling ,managers have to work among men and also get things done through men.  Managers must direct and guide their subordinates properly and inspire them to work. so directing is nothing but process of leadership.  Dr. Terry rightly opinions that managers have to manage business which means that they have to provide leadership .  Leadership is an indivisible part of directing .more importantly ,leadership is a means ,a tool which makes direction effect
  2. 2. KOONTZ AND O’DONNELL “leadership is influencing people to follow in the achievement of common goal” CHESTER BARNARD , “Leadership refers to the quality of behavior of the individual whereby they guide people on their activities in organized efforts”
  3. 3. WHO IS THE LEADER…? L - LiabLe (responsibLe ) e – enthusiastic (excited) a – assertive (positive) d – dynamic (innovative) e – efficient (energy ) r – reLiabLe (trust)
  4. 4. EXAMPLE OF LEADER  MAHATMA GANDHI  GADDAFI  RATAN TATA  SHREE KRISHNA  M.S. DHONI
  5. 5. A LEADER IS ONE WHO KNOWS THE WAY, GOES THE WAY, AND SHOWS THE WAY
  6. 6.  FOLLWERS OR SUBORDINATES  ACCEPTANCE OF LEADERSHIP  COMMON OBJECTIVES  WORKING RELATIONSHIP  HARMONY OF INTERESTS  CONTINIOUS PROCESS  EXEMPLARY CONDUCT  SITUATIONAL
  7. 7. STYLES OF LEADERSHIP  AUTOCRATIC LEADERSHIP  CONSULTATIVE LEADERSHIP  DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP  FREE REIN LEADERSHIP
  8. 8. 2nd Part By Jay Raval
  9. 9. 1. AUTOCRATIC LEADERSHIP: All the power of decision in only one person. Leader s believes that their subordinates are uneducated, unskilled and untrained . ADVANTAGES Secrecy of decision making. Close supervision. DISADVANTAGES Misuse of power. Restricts the freedom of employees.
  10. 10. EXAMPLE OF AUTOCRATICEXAMPLE OF AUTOCRATIC LEADERSHIPLEADERSHIP
  11. 11.  In this type, leader has an open mind.  He encourages his subordinates to give their suggestions and comments.  If these suggestions and comments are good, then he will accept them.  So this leader consults his subordinates before taking a decision. However, the final decision is taken by the leader. Therefore, he takes full responsibility for his decision.  Useful for conference, meeting.  ADVANTAGESADVANTAGES  Employee can develop leadership quality.  Discipline.  Employee’s contribution in decision making process.  DISADVANTAGESDISADVANTAGES  Waste of time in decision.  This style is only useful when all subordinate are educated. CONSULTATIVECONSULTATIVE LEADERSHIPLEADERSHIP CONSULTATIVECONSULTATIVE LEADERSHIPLEADERSHIP
  12. 12. I want to both of you…… EXAMPLE OF CONSULTATIVEEXAMPLE OF CONSULTATIVE LEADERSHIPLEADERSHIP
  13. 13.  Managers believes that ability of the employees should be allowed to develop  Managers willingly delegate authorities to his subordinates  Not give detailing instructions to subordinates only give general instructions  Free communication of superior with his subordinate.  The traits managers need in such organization includes warmth, friendliness, and understanding. Free-rein is often the most successful style concerning organization is which managers supervise doctors, engineers, professors and other professionals.
  14. 14. ADVANTAGEADVANTAGE Free environment This method use when people highly motivated, educated and goal oriented DISADVANTAGESDISADVANTAGES Disorganized management.  team spirit is affected due to Non co-operation. ADVANTAGE & DISADVANTAGES ofADVANTAGE & DISADVANTAGES of FREE REIN LEADERSHIPFREE REIN LEADERSHIP For example sales executiveFor example sales executive
  15. 15. You two take care of the problem while I go….
  16. 16.  The democratic leadership style means facilitating the conversation, encouraging people to share their ideas, and then synthesizing all the available information into the best possible decision.   This style of leader believes decision making can be better if it is SHARED.  They want to be seen as “fair”.  They actively ask worker for ideas and suggestions.  They believe in allowing workers and staff to develop by involving them in decisions about how to improve the business. DEMOCRATICDEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIPLEADERSHIP For example team work
  17. 17. Let’s work together to solve this problem….
  18. 18. ADVANTAGE & DISADVANTAGES ofADVANTAGE & DISADVANTAGES of DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIPDEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP  ADVANTAGESADVANTAGES  Slower decision making  Less initial production  Leader can be unsure and makes everything a matter for group discussion  DISADVANTAGESDISADVANTAGES  More individual responsibility  Better implementation  More personal growth  More motivation
  19. 19.  3rd part
  20. 20. LEADERSHIP THEORYLEADERSHIP THEORY 1. TRAIT THEORY 2. BEHAVIORAL THEORIES 3. Cognitive resource theory 4. SITUATIONAL 5. TRANSFORMATIONAL
  21. 21. TRAIT THEORYTRAIT THEORY Trait theory:-Trait theory:- according to the trait theories, leader possess some personality traits that non leader do not possess at all, or possess only to small level. Early trait theories identified:Early trait theories identified: Physical characteristics (height, appearance) Personality characteristics (extrovert) Skills and abilities (intelligence) Social factors (interpersonal skills)
  22. 22.  Six traits on which leaders tend to differ from non-leaders are, 1. Ambition & Energy 2. The Desire To Lead 3. Honesty & Integrity 4. Self-confidence 5. Intelligence 6. Job-relevent Knowledge
  23. 23. The trait approach has at least four limitation:- 1.No universal traits 2.Predict behaviour more in “weak’’ situations than in “strong’’ situations 3.The evidence is unclear in separating cause from effect 4.Traits do a better job at predicting the appearance of leadership than in actually distinguishing between effective & ineffective leaders.
  24. 24. The Behavioural theoriesThe Behavioural theories:-  Theory proposing that specific behaviours Differentiate leaders from non-leaders. If the behavioural approach to leadership were successful, it would have implications quite different from those of the trait approach. If trait research had been successful, it would have provided a basis for selecting the “right’’ persons to assume formal positions in groups & organizations requiring leadership.
  25. 25. Consideration  work atmosphere of mutual trust  respect for subordinates’ ideas  consideration of subordinates’ feelings  good two-way communication Initiating structure  structured their roles and the roles of subordinates toward achieving goals  actively involved in planning work activities, communicating pertinent information, and scheduling work
  26. 26. Cognitive resource theory:-Cognitive resource theory:-  This theory states that stress unfavourably effects the situation, & intelligence & experience can lessen the influence of stress on the leader.  The importance of a leader’s intelligence & experience to his or her effectiveness differs under low & high stress situations.
  27. 27. This has led to three conclusions:- Directive behaviour results in good performance only if linked with high intelligence in supportive, low-stress situations. In high stress situations, there is a positive relationship between job experience & performance. The intellectual abilities f leaders correlate with group performance in situations that the leader perceives as low in stress.
  28. 28. Situational TheoriesSituational Theories Leader style is either autocratic, consultative, or group Style depends on three situational factors 1. leader-member relations 2. task structure 3. position power
  29. 29. Transformational leadership theoryTransformational leadership theory:- Many years ago James Macgregor burns identified two types of political leadership, The more traditional transactional leadership involves an exchange relationship between leaders & followers, but transformational leadership is based more on leader’s shifting the values, belief, & needs of their followers.
  30. 30.  Three leader factors are important: charisma individualized consideration 1. delegating 2. paying attention to followers’ needs 3. treating followers with respect intellectual stimulation 1. offering new ideas to stimulate followers 2. encouraging followers to think and act creatively
  31. 31. Leadership is the capacity to translate vision into reality…. - Warren G. Bennis- Warren G. Bennis

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