Balance of Payment

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  • Fall In Export DemandGrowth Of PopulationChange in foreign Exchange RateHuge International BorrowingsDevelopmental ExpendituresDemonstration Effect
  • Exchange Rate refers to the rate at which the currencies of different countries are traded. Foreign Exchange is any currency issued by a foreign government.It is done mainly through commercial banks which act as clearing houses by buying and selling foreign currencies.
  • Balance of Payment

    1. 1. Balance of Payments (BOP) Prepared By: Guided By: Jay Raval Dr. J. P. Majmudar Vishal Ghoghari Pinakini Trivedi Submitted To: Department of Business Administration, Faculty of Management, Bhavnagar University, Bhavnagar
    2. 2. Balance of Payment  “The balance of payment of a country is a systematic record of all economic transactions between the residents of one country and residents of foreign countries during a given period of time .”
    3. 3. Balance of Trade • The difference between a country's imports and its exports. Balance of trade is the largest component of a country's balance of payments. • Debit items include imports, foreign aid, domestic spending abroad and domestic investments abroad. • Credit items include exports, foreign spending in the domestic economy and foreign investments in the domestic economy. • When exports are greater than imports than the BOT is favourable and if imports are greater than exports then it is unfavourable
    4. 4. Balance of Trade v/s Balance of Payment • The Balance of Payment takes into account all the transaction with the rest of the worlds • The Balance of Trade takes into account all the trade transaction with the rest of the worlds
    5. 5. BOP v/s BOT BOP 1. It is a broad term. 2. It includes all transactions related to visible, invisible and capital transfers. 3. It is always balances itself. 4. BOP = Current Account + Capital Account + or - Balancing item (Errors and omissions) 5. Following are main factors which affect BOP a)Conditions of foreign lenders. b)Economic policy of Govt. c) all the factors of BOT BOT 1. It is a narrow term. 2. It includes only visible items. 3. It can be favourable or unfavourable. 4. BOT = Net Earning on Export - Net payment for imports. 5. Following are main factors which affect BOT a) cost of production b) availability of raw materials c) Exchange rate d) Prices of goods manufactured at home
    6. 6. IMPORTANCE OF BALANCE OF PAYMENT It helps… 1. State of International economic relationship of country 2. A guide to its monetary, fiscal, exchange & other polices. 3. Inform govt. about the international economic position of the country, to assist in reaching decisions on the monetary and fiscal polices
    7. 7. Structure Of BoP  Balance of payments is a complete record of Total Receipts and Total Payments of a country in relation to other countries over a given time period. Total Receipts are called CREDIT and Total Payments are termed as DEBIT.  Credit side comprises of all those values received from foreign countries. On the other hand, Debit side comprises of all the payments made to other countries.  It is maintained in a double entry book keeping system.
    8. 8. Structure of BOP CREDITS DEBITS ITEMS OF CURRENT ACCOUNT  Export of Goods  Import of Goods  Exports of Services  Import of Services  Unilateral Transfer Receipts (gifts, indemnities from foreigners).  Unilateral Transfer Payments (gifts, indemnities to foreigners).  Income receipts.  Income Payments ITEMS OF CAPITAL ACCOUNT  Capital Receipts ( borrowings from capital repayments by or sale of assets to foreigners).  Capital Payments ( lending to, capital repayments to or purchase of assets from foreigners).
    9. 9. Components of BoP  CURRENT ACCOUNT- records transactions relating to export and import of goods, services, unilateral transfers and international incomes. Thus, balance on current account is the value of exports minus the value of imports, adjusted for international incomes and net transfers.  The export and import of goods are called visible items whereas invisible items include shipping, banking, insurance, gifts.
    10. 10. Components of BoP  CAPITAL ACCOUNT-  records all international economic transactions relating to change in assets-both financial and physical. It is a record of short term and long term capital transactions, both private and official. These are classifies into two categories-  Direct foreign investments  Portfolio investments
    11. 11. Disequilibrium In BoP  A disequilibrium in the balance of payments may appear either as a surplus or as a deficit.  A Surplus in the BOP occurs when Total Receipts exceeds Total Payments. Thus, BOP= CREDIT>DEBIT  A Deficit in the BOP occurs when Total Payments exceeds Total Receipts. Thus, BOP= CREDIT<DEBIT
    12. 12. DISEQUILIBRIUM IN THE BALANCE OF PAYMENTS Types of BOP Disequilibrium: • There are three main types of BOP Disequilibrium which are discussed below: • Cyclical Disequilibrium, • Secular Disequilibrium, • Structural Disequilibrium.
    13. 13. Causes of Disequilibrium 1. Natural causes – e.g. floods, earthquake etc. 2. Economic causes – e.g. Cyclical Fluctuations, Inflation, Demonstration Effect etc. 3. Political causes – e.g. international relation, political instability, etc. 4. Social factors – e.g. change in taste and preferences etc.
    14. 14. Measures To Correct Disequilibrium in the BOP Monetary measures  Exchange Rate Depreciation By reducing the value of the domestic currency, government can correct the disequilibrium in the BoP in the economy. Exchange rate depreciation reduces the value of home currency in relation to foreign currency. As a result, import becomes costlier and export become cheaper. It also leads to inflationary trends in the country.  Devaluation devaluation is lowering the exchange value of the official currency. When a country devalues its currency, exports becomes cheaper and imports become expensive which causes a reduction in the BOP deficit.
    15. 15. Measures To Correct Disequilibrium in the BOP  Deflation Deflation is the reduction in the quantity of money to reduce prices and incomes. In the domestic market, when the currency is deflated, there is a decrease in the income of the people. This puts curb on consumption and government can increase exports and earn more foreign exchange.  Exchange Control All exporters are directed by the monetary authority to surrender their foreign exchange earnings, and the total available foreign exchange is rationed among the licensed importers. The license-holder can import any good but amount if fixed by monetary authority.
    16. 16. Measures To Correct Disequilibrium in the BOP Non- Monetary measures  Export Promotion To control export promotions the country may adopt measures to stimulate exports like:  export duties may be reduced to boost exports  cash assistance, subsidies can be given to exporters to increase exports  goods meant for exports can be exempted from all types of taxes.  Import Substitutes Steps may be taken to encourage the production of import substitutes. This will save foreign exchange in the short run by replacing the use of imports by these import substitutes.
    17. 17. Measures To Correct Disequilibrium in the BOP  Import Control Import may be kept in check through the adoption of a wide variety of measures like quotas and tariffs. Under the quota system, the government fixes the maximum quantity of goods and services that can be imported during a particular time period.
    18. 18. India’s Balance of Payments • Balance of Payments of a Country - Introduction • The balance of payments of a country is a systematic record of all transactions between the residents of a country and the rest of the world carried out in a specific period of time. • India's balance of payment worsened in the early 1990's but now the situation is under control. In fact, India has a good foreign exchange reserves mainly due to capital inflows from foreign financial institutions or the stock exchange.
    19. 19. Summary of India's Balance of Payments (BoP)
    20. 20. Main Components of India's Balance of Payments 1. Trade Balance Trade balance was in deficit through out the period shown in the table as imports always exceeded the exports. Within the imports the POL items constituting a sizeable position continued to increase throughout. Exports did not achieve the required growth rate.
    21. 21. 2. Current Account Current account balance includes visible items (trade balance) and invisibles is in a more encouraging position. It declined to $ -2,666 million in 2000-01 from $-9680 million in 1990-91 and recorded a surplus in 2003-04 to the extent of $ 14,083 million. In 2005- 06, once again there was a deficit of $ 9,186 million.
    22. 22. 3. Invisible The impressive role placed by invisibles in covering trade deficit is due to sharp rise invisible receipts. The main contributing factor to rise in invisible receipts are non factor receipts and private transfers. As far as non factor services receipts are concerned the main development has been the rapid increase in the exports of software services. As far as private transfers are concerned their main constituent is workers remittance from abroad.
    23. 23. 4. Capital Account Capital account has been positive throughout the period. NRI deposits and foreign investment both portfolio and direct have helped to a great extent. The main reasons for huge increase in capital account is due to large capital inflows on account of Foreign direct investment (FDI); Foreign Institutional Investors (FIIs) investment on the stock markets and also by way of Euro equities raised by Indian firms. The Non-resident deposit also form a part of capital account.
    24. 24. 5. Reserves Reserves have changed during this period depending on a balance between current and capital account. An increase in inflow under capital account has helped us to build up our foreign exchange reserve making the country quiet comfortable on this count. In April 2007 we had $ 203 billion foreign exchange reserves.
    25. 25. Conclusion of India’s BOP • The balance of payment situation started improving since 1992-93. There was a satisfactory balance of payment position in that period; the reasons are (i) High earnings from invisibles, (ii) Rise in external commercial borrowings, and (iii) Encouragement to foreign direct investment.
    26. 26. THANK YOU

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