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PRESENT STATUS, PAST and FUTURE PROSPECTS
of
CASTOR
and
TECHNIQUES FOR HYBRID SEED PRODUCTION
SUBMITTED TO :
Dr. Subhash C...
SCIENTIFIC NAME : Ricinus communis
FAMILY : Euphorbiaceae
CHROMOSOME NO. : 2n=20
• Non-edible oilseed crop
• Inedible due ...
ORIGIN
• According to N.I. Vavilov
Absyynian centre is the centre of
origin for castor.
• But because of its wide
dissemin...
HISTORY
• The use of castor bean oil ("eranda") in India
has been documented since 2000 BC in lamps
and in local medicine ...
CURRENT STATUS
India is the leading producer followed by China and Mozambique.
India alone meets the 90% world’s require...
FLORAL BIOLOGY
• Monoecious, male flowers 50-70%,
female flowers 30-50%
• Inflorescence – Raceme with female on
top and ma...
FEMALE FLOWER MALE FLOWER
HYBRID SEED PRODUCTION
Commercially hybrid seed production in castor is done by the following techniques :
1. Genetic Male...
Maintenance of female line
Parents ms ms Ms ms
(male sterile) (heterozygous isogenic)
F1 50% Ms ms – rogued out before pol...
Single cross hybrid seed
Parents ms ms Ms Ms
(male sterile) (male fertile)
F1 Ms ms(male fertile)
Used as hybrid seed.
DIS...
2. Pistillate Mechanism :
only in monoecious plants where some mutants produce only
pistillate flowers instead of male and...
Maintenance of Pistillate line
nn Nn
(pistillate line) (heterozygous)
pistillate (nn) : monoecious(Nn)
1 : 1
(used as fema...
b) S Pistillate Lines
o Developed in Israel by continued selection for the increased
expression of pistillate condition wi...
• pollinating pistillate plants with such sib plants that have
less than 20 % male flowers in their inflorescence.
• In la...
1st HYBRID IN INDIA
• first castor hybrid GCH-3 was developed using S-pistillate condition.
• A 100% pistillate line of ca...
c) NES PISTILLATE LINE :
• temperature sensitive N lines.
• Plants 100% pistillate when the temperature during flowering i...
STATES VARIETIES HYBRIDS
Andhra Pradesh DCS-107, 48-1(Jwala),
Kranti, Kiran, Harita
GCH-4, DCH-519, DCH-177,
PCH-111
Gujar...
FUTURE NEEDS
• High Yield
• Exploitation of pollination control mechanism at full scale.
• Decreasing Ricin content
• Cult...
REFERENCES
• Castor in India, Directorate of Oilseed Research, Hyderabad.
by D.M. Hegde, M. Sujatha, N.B. Singh
• Applied ...
present, past and future prosepcts of castor and its hybrid seed production
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present, past and future prosepcts of castor and its hybrid seed production

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castor's status in india
its method of hybrid seed production

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present, past and future prosepcts of castor and its hybrid seed production

  1. 1. PRESENT STATUS, PAST and FUTURE PROSPECTS of CASTOR and TECHNIQUES FOR HYBRID SEED PRODUCTION SUBMITTED TO : Dr. Subhash Chander SUBMITTED BY : Sidhant Chaudhary 2011A44BVI
  2. 2. SCIENTIFIC NAME : Ricinus communis FAMILY : Euphorbiaceae CHROMOSOME NO. : 2n=20 • Non-edible oilseed crop • Inedible due to presence of toxic Ricin. • Oil content = 40-55% i.e. highest among all oilseed crops • Grown in arid and semi arid regions. INTRODUCTION
  3. 3. ORIGIN • According to N.I. Vavilov Absyynian centre is the centre of origin for castor. • But because of its wide dissemination during ancient times some scientists believe southeastern Mediterranean Basin, Eastern Africa, and India as its origin centres.
  4. 4. HISTORY • The use of castor bean oil ("eranda") in India has been documented since 2000 BC in lamps and in local medicine as a laxative, purgative, and cathartic. • Traditional Ayurvedic medicine considers castor oil the king of medicinals for curing arthritic diseases. It is regularly given to children orally, for de-worming. Rheumatoid Arthritis
  5. 5. CURRENT STATUS India is the leading producer followed by China and Mozambique. India alone meets the 90% world’s requirement for oil. According to Indian Institute of Oilseed Research, Hyderabad, In india during 2012-13 : • Area under cultivation = 1.3 mha • Production = 2.2 million tonnes • Yield = 1653 kg/ha Gujarat, rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh are the major castor growing states.
  6. 6. FLORAL BIOLOGY • Monoecious, male flowers 50-70%, female flowers 30-50% • Inflorescence – Raceme with female on top and male flowers in basal region. • Dioceious flowers may also be present. • Protogynous situation. • High temp., plant age and short day length favour maleness, the reverse favours femaleness. • Geitnogamy and allogamy occur simultaneously. INFLORESCENCE
  7. 7. FEMALE FLOWER MALE FLOWER
  8. 8. HYBRID SEED PRODUCTION Commercially hybrid seed production in castor is done by the following techniques : 1. Genetic Male Sterlity (GMS) : • Male Sterlity : characterized by non-functional pollen grains in plant, while female gametes function normally. • Genetic Male Sterility: pollen sterility, which is caused by nuclear genes, is termed as genic or genetic male sterility. It is usually governed by a single recessive gene ms . • Arise due to -spontaneous mutation. -mutagens (ʏ-rays,EMS,Colchicine,ethidium bromide) • This system is being exploited in USA in Castor.
  9. 9. Maintenance of female line Parents ms ms Ms ms (male sterile) (heterozygous isogenic) F1 50% Ms ms – rogued out before pollen shedding (male fertile) 50% ms ms - used as female (male sterile)
  10. 10. Single cross hybrid seed Parents ms ms Ms Ms (male sterile) (male fertile) F1 Ms ms(male fertile) Used as hybrid seed. DISADVANTAGE : The female line would contain both male sterile and male fertile plants, the later must be identified and removed before pollen shedding and due to this cost of hybrid seed is higher.
  11. 11. 2. Pistillate Mechanism : only in monoecious plants where some mutants produce only pistillate flowers instead of male and female. a) N Type Pistillate Lines- • Pistillate condition governed by a single recessive gene (n), produce only pistillate flowers. • Maintained by crossing them with heterozygous monoecious (Nn) • Comaparable to GMS in maintenance and hybrid seed production.
  12. 12. Maintenance of Pistillate line nn Nn (pistillate line) (heterozygous) pistillate (nn) : monoecious(Nn) 1 : 1 (used as female) (rogued out)
  13. 13. b) S Pistillate Lines o Developed in Israel by continued selection for the increased expression of pistillate condition within sex reversal variants. o sex reversal variants – plants which are pistillate to start with but later turn to monoecy. o Governed by polygenes. o pistillate plants revert to monoecious state at different stages of development ,e.g., second order reversion, third order reversion. o Eg.- The female parent VP1 of castor hybrid GAUCH 1 and Geeta for GCH-5 is based on this mechanism.
  14. 14. • pollinating pistillate plants with such sib plants that have less than 20 % male flowers in their inflorescence. • In late reversion, primary inflorescence of pistillate plants wither in absence of pollination. Later inflorescences of such plants develop interspersed male flowers (ISP), if ambient temp. is above 35 °C. The improved S type pistillate lines are, therefore, temp. sensitive. These pistillate lines are pistillate lines are propagated during hot season, above 35°C. Maintenance of S Pistillate lines :
  15. 15. 1st HYBRID IN INDIA • first castor hybrid GCH-3 was developed using S-pistillate condition. • A 100% pistillate line of castor released in USA in 1962, viz. TSP-10-R (Texas S Pistillate-10), was obtained from Texas in 1965. • This line was crossed with JI-15 in Gujarat and developed hybrid named Gujarat Castor Hybrid-3(GCH-3). • PARENTS = TSP-10-R x JI-15
  16. 16. c) NES PISTILLATE LINE : • temperature sensitive N lines. • Plants 100% pistillate when the temperature during flowering is below 35°C , but they produce male flowers a well if the temperature is above 35°C . • These lines are multiplied during hot seasons or at hot places where temperature during flowering is 35°C . • requires rouging only for off – types, and is the most suited for hybrid seed production. • e.g. JP65 female parent of hybrid GCH6.
  17. 17. STATES VARIETIES HYBRIDS Andhra Pradesh DCS-107, 48-1(Jwala), Kranti, Kiran, Harita GCH-4, DCH-519, DCH-177, PCH-111 Gujarat 48-1, GC-3 GCH-4, GCH-5, GCH-6, GCH-7, DCH-519 Rajasthan DCS-107, 48-1 GCH-4, RHC-1, DCH-177, DCDH-519 Tamil Nadu TMV-5, TMV-6, Co-1, 48-1 GCH-4, DCH-177, DCH-519, YRCH-1 Haryana - CH-1, DCH-177 Others DCS-107, 48-1 GCH- 4, DCH-177, DCH-519 VARITIES AND HYBRIDS
  18. 18. FUTURE NEEDS • High Yield • Exploitation of pollination control mechanism at full scale. • Decreasing Ricin content • Cultivation to new season and environment i.e. Rabi season • Wilt resistance hybrids and varieties • Biotechnological tools to problems of Botrytis, Spodoptera and Capsule borer etc. • Resistance against several abiotic Stresses.
  19. 19. REFERENCES • Castor in India, Directorate of Oilseed Research, Hyderabad. by D.M. Hegde, M. Sujatha, N.B. Singh • Applied Genetics of Oilseed Crops, T. Ramanathan Daya Publishing House. • Plant Breeding Principles and methods, Singh B.D. Kalyani Publications • General plant Breeding, A.R. Dabholkar. • http://icar-iior.org.in/index.php/pops

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