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### Unit 1

1. 1. 1.1: MEASUREMENT OF SHIP<br />Length over All:<br /><ul><li>This is the distance from the extreme fore part of the ship to the extreme aft part of the ship and this is the greatest length of the ship.
2. 2. This length is an important dimension of the ship when docking.</li></ul>Length between Perpendicular:<br /><ul><li>The fore perpendicular is the point at which the summer loads point at which the summer load water line crosses the stem.
3. 3. The aft perpendicular is the after side of the rudder coast.
4. 4. The center of the rudder stem if there is no rudder coast.
5. 5. Distance between these two point is known as the length between perpendicular and its used for ship construction.</li></ul>Draft:<br /><ul><li>A under water line of the boat is known as draught of the vessel.
6. 6. It is the measurement of the under water from the water line to the bottom of the keel that is called draft of the vessel.
7. 7. It is the important part of the ship, the draught of the ship will be measured where the maximum portion of the hull is in water.
8. 8. This is the draft extreme when the distance from the bottom of the keel to the water line.</li></ul>Width:<br /><ul><li>The greatest width of the ship is measured to the outside of the shell plating.
9. 9. It is also called beam. Beam is the maximum breadth or width of the vessel.
10. 10. Generally the beam of a ship fishing vessel will be toward the mid ship.
11. 11. It may also depend the design aspects of the vessel.</li></ul>Depth Extreme:<br /><ul><li>The depth of the ship measure from the under ship of the keel to the top of the depth beam at the side of the upper beam at the upper most continuous deck amid ships.</li></ul>Depth Molded:<br /><ul><li>The depth measured from the top of the keel to the deck.
12. 12. This is called depth molded.</li></ul>Keel:<br /><ul><li>It is most important part of the ship since it is back bone of the ship.
13. 13. The Keel is located in the center line of the bottom structure, which often said to be backbone of the ship.
14. 14. This contribute substantially to the longitudinally strength and effectively distribute local loading caused when docking the ship.
15. 15. The commonest form of the keel is that known as the flat plate keel and this is fitted in the majority of ocean going and other vessels.
16. 16. A form of keel found on smaller vessels known as bar keel.
17. 17. Bar keel may be fitted in trawlers and tugs etc., and is also found in cross-channel ferries.</li></ul>Deck:<br /><ul><li>It is the permanent covering over a compartment of a Hull of a ship.
18. 18. On a boat or ship, primary deck is the horizontal structure which forms the roof the hull, which strengthened the hull and serves has the primary working surfaces.</li></ul>Double Bottom:<br /><ul><li>It is the side hull design and construction method where the bottom of the ship has two complete layers of water tight surfaces one outer layer forming the normal hull of the ship and second inner hull which is somewhat higher in the ship perhaps a few feet.
19. 19. The space between the bottoms is for the storage to fuel, or ballast water.
20. 20. Double bottom design ships are safer than single bottom.
21. 21. A double bottom hull design the second layer extends up to the side of the ship and in the bottom.
22. 22. Double bottom designs are recommended in all the passenger ships as a part of safety of life at sea.</li></ul> The Hull Surfaces:<br /><ul><li>The vertical plane passing through the fore and aft center line elevates the ship into two halves.
23. 23. When facing the star board side is on the right hand and port side is on the left.
24. 24. The curved shape of the ships is called the bow and the curved shapes after part is called as amid ship.
25. 25. When a ship is float or in the water line it divides the size into ships side above the water line and bottom below it.
26. 26. These terms are used in general way for example: Painting ship site.
27. 27. The continuous horizontal surface of a ship is called decks.
28. 28. If exposed they are called weather decks that are not continuous are called flat or platform.</li></ul>Terms Applied To a Hull:<br />Free Board:<br />The height of the highest continuous water tight deck usually known as upper deck above the water line at any point along the hull. <br />Draught:<br />The depth of the keel between the water line at any point along the hull.<br />Beam:<br />The greatest width of the hull is called Beam.<br />Chamber:<br />The curve given the surface of a deck, so that water line will drain a way to the ship side, it is also known round-up beam.<br />Bilge:<br />Nearly flat part of the bottom of the hull both inside and outside. Bilge is also the fuel water that collects inside the ship in the bilge.<br />Flare:<br />When the ship side its curve outwards in the above water line they are said to be flare.<br />Tumble Home:<br />When the side ship slope or curve inwards in above the water line they are said to be home.<br />Tank Top:<br />It is the plating forming the top part of the double bottom. In cargo holds it is flooring the cargo rests.<br />Bulk Head:<br /><ul><li>The vertical proportion to dilute the hull it separate compartments.
29. 29. Aft all bulk heads.
30. 30. They are water train component so that incase at accident at sea water should be contained to one compartment.</li></ul>Fore part:<br />The front part of the vessel is called forward side in the vessel.<br />Aft part:<br />The rear (backward) part of the vessel is called AFT side in the vessel.<br />Middle part:<br />It is the Middle way between bow and stem of the ship.<br />Stem:<br />The front portion of the ship is called stem.<br />Stern:<br />Directly behind the boat over the stern. The aft portion of the ship is called stern.<br />Double bottom:<br /><ul><li>It is the Side hull design and construction method where the bottom of the ship has two complete layers of water tight surface.
31. 31. One outer layer forming the normal hull of the ship and second inner hull which is somewhat higher in the ship perhaps a few feet.
32. 32. The space between the bottoms is for the storage for fuel, or ballast water.
33. 33. Double bottom design ships are safer than single bottom.
34. 34. A double bottom hull design the second layer extends up to the side of the ship and in the bottom.
35. 35. Double bottom designs are ships as a part of safety of life at sea.</li></ul>Plimsol marks and load lines & load water line:<br /><ul><li>A ship never floats in water completely.
36. 36. A part of its always submerged below the water surface depending upon its weight.
37. 37. If the water level goes above the plimsol line it is considered dangerous and the ship sinks.
38. 38. It is a line of mark on a ship’s hull indicating the maximum safe draft.
39. 39. It is a mark on the hull of ship that shows where the water line is when the ship is at full capacity.
40. 40. The official name is by the International load line and it is painted on each of the vessel.
41. 41. The symbol is also international load line of plimsol line marks and it shows the level to which the ships can be safely loaded.
42. 42. The plimsol line shows how know or high the ship is resting in water.
43. 43. It is also called load line or International load line.
44. 44. The level of the ship is the water attended by temperature and salinity as well as load and so different levels are shown with code letters to indicate the type of water.
45. 45. It is marked amid ship on each side of vessel.
46. 46. The plimsol line helps as to determine whether the ships have been over loaded.
47. 47. The plimsol line mark was introduced in great Brittan through MS act, 1875 and soon found world wide acceptance.
48. 48. The plimsol line was introduces by Samuel plimsol, a British Politian and a social reformer. </li></ul>Frames:<br /><ul><li>Frames are internal support members for the shell plating.
49. 49. The bottom shell may be transversely or longitudinally framed.
50. 50. The side shell framing may also be transversely or longitudinally framed, transverse framing being adopted in many conventionally cargo ships, particularly where the maximum bale capacity is required Longitudinal framing may be adopted in larger container ships and larger bulk carriers, and it is common within the hopper and topside wing tanks of the latter vessels.
51. 51. Transverse frames are then fitted at the side shell between the hopper and topside tanks.
52. 52. Ocean – going tankers have a longitudinally framed bottom shell and deck through the tank spaces.
53. 53. The side shell may however be either longitudinally or vertically stiffened in other than the larger tankers.</li></ul>Numbering of Frames:<br /><ul><li>Ordinary frames are usually numbered from aft to forward.
54. 54. Longitudinal frames are usually numbered from the deck downwards to the keel.
55. 55. Frames in cruiser sterns are usually lettered from the transom frame, aft.</li></ul>1.2: RELATIVE POSITION OF SHIP<br />Position in General:<br /><ul><li>A Landsman lives in a house, therefore a seaman speaks of living in a ship – not on a ship.
56. 56. Let us now describe the movements of a seaman who is returning to his ship, the ship in which he is borne.
57. 57. If he arrives by boat be goes up an accommodation ladder which is secured outboard, he comes over the side and he is then on board.
58. 58. If the ship is lying against a dock wall it is alongside and the seaman crosses a brow (fore head) from the dock to the ship and he is then on board and on deck, or on board and between deck if the brow leads into the ship below the weather deck; in either case he is inboard the moment he come over the side.
59. 59. Having reported his return, he then goes below by a ladder which given access to the deck below through an opening in the deck called a hatch.
60. 60. He then reaches his living quarter (mess) which is in a space of the ship called a mess deck of which the walls are called bulkheads, the ceiling is called the deck head and the floor is the deck.</li></ul>Position fore and aft:<br /><ul><li>The mast is forward and the funnel is aft.
61. 61. The ensign staff is right aft and the jack (devise for raising heavy objects) staff right forward.
62. 62. A hatch is amid ships.
63. 63. Amidships describes the position roughly in the middle of the ship; it also describes any position on the fore and aft line.
64. 64. Mid ships is used when defining an object: for example, the mid ship hatch is either the one that is in middle of the ship or, if there are two more hatches, that which is nearest the middle .
65. 65. Comparing positions of objects with one another, the funnel is abaft the bridge, the bridge is abaft the hatch but before or forward of the funnel.</li></ul>Position athwart ships:<br /><ul><li>A position athwart or across the ship can be described relative to either the center line or to the sides.
66. 66. The center line divides the ship into port and starboard, while the ship’s sides give an inboard and outboard position.
67. 67. For example, a ship is carrying three boats; one is swing outboard to port, the other two are stowed inboard to starboard.
68. 68. When comparing the position of the two boats stowed on the starboard side, the black boat can be described as lying inboard of the white boat, or the white boat outboard of the black.
69. 69. The white boat can also be described as the ship’s side boat and the black boat as the mid ship boat.
70. 70. The position of an object can be clearly described by combining the two methods.</li></ul>Movement of objects on board:<br /><ul><li>A seaman speaks of going forward, aft, below, on deck and aloft (i.e.) anywhere in the rigging of a mast.
71. 71. He uses the same expressions for shifting an object; thus he may shift something aft, or farther forward, to port or starboard, or nearer the ship’s side.
72. 72. The terms inboard and outboard should not be used to describe the movement athwart ships.
73. 73. The following terms are used to describe how an object is moved:
74. 74. To launch is to drag or heave an object along.
75. 75. To lift and launch is to drag or heave an object and then to heave it along.
76. 76. To fleet is to shift an object a short distance.
77. 77. To ship is to place an object in its proper position.
78. 78. To unship is to remove an object from its proper position.</li></ul>Mid ship:<br />It is the middle way between bow and stern of the ship.<br />Starboard bow:<br />45* from the bow around the starboard side (half way between ahead and abeam).<br />Port bow:<br />45* forward or deck a stern on the starboard side (half way between a stern and abeam).<br />Draft line:<br /><ul><li>A under water line of the boat is known as draught of the vessel.
79. 79. It is the measurement of the under water from the water line to the bottom of the keel that is called draft of the vessel.
80. 80. It is the important part of the ship, the draught of the ship will be measured where the maximum portion of the hull is in water.
81. 81. This is the draft extreme when the distance from the bottom of the keel to the water line.</li></ul>1.3: ORGANISATION IN SHIP<br />Watches and bells:<br />Watches keeping in nautical terms concerns the division of qualify personnel to operate a ship continuously eon the crock. On a difficult sea going vessel either a naval or merchant vessel personnel keep watch on a bridge and ever the running machinery is a mast. Regular look out is matatory for the safe navigation. Safe navigation means keeping the vessel on course and away from danger as well as collision avoidance from other ships.<br />An Engineering specialist ensures that running machinery continuous to operate with tolerance and depending on the vessel thi9s can be carried out from the bridge. A secondary function of watch keeping is the ability to respond to emergencies.<br />Types of watches:<br />Naval:<br /><ul><li>Engineering officer of the watch.
82. 82. Damage control watches officers.
83. 83. Boiler watches.
84. 84. Electrical, intercom, auxiliary watches.</li></ul>Nautical watches:<br /><ul><li>Mate on watches.
85. 85. Helmsman.
86. 86. Lookout.</li></ul>Security watches:<br /><ul><li>Gangway watches.
87. 87. Special piracy watches.</li></ul>Other types of watches:<br /> Merchant vessels:<br /><ul><li>Cargo watches.
88. 88. Anchor watches.</li></ul>Duty of Officers:<br />Deck Officers:<br /><ul><li>Deck officers or navigation officer is in charge of navigation of the ship.
89. 89. That particular department is called deck department.
90. 90. The captain or the master of the ship of in charge of the ship.
91. 91. He is not only responsible for the safe navigation of the vessel but also the discipline of the ship, and also safety of passenger, crew and cargo.
92. 92. The captain is assisted by first mate, second mate and third mate.
93. 93. The first mate is the right hand man to the captain.
94. 94. He is the second in command.
95. 95. He oversees all the cargo planning, assist during navigation, allocated duties, work.
96. 96. For the maintenance and upkeep of the ship to the deck carders and deck crew ensures that discipline is maintained.
97. 97. The second mate assists the first mate in charge of checking all the mails and keeping the navigational equipments and charts in good condition and also assist in navigation watch at sea and cargo watch at part.
98. 98. The third mate is responsible for keeping safe, equipment, life boats, life raft, FFA and signaling equipment in top condition.
99. 99. The deck department has other staff with specific duties called “RATING”.
100. 100. They act as look outs assists with securing the ship at port or docks and also help clear tanks and holds before the cargo is stored in them.</li></ul>Engine Department:<br />Marine engineers:<br />Main Engineers:<br /><ul><li>They have the complete responsibilities of the ship’s technical management.
101. 101. The main personnel in the department is the chief engineer who ensures save and economic running of engines, spar parts of the main engine, boilers, electrical, refrigeration and sanitary equipment, deck machinery and steam connection aboard the ship.
102. 102. He supervises the work of the engine room crew and it assisted by second, third, forth, and fifth engineer and other junior personnel.</li></ul>Second Engineers:<br /><ul><li>He looks after day – today work in engine room.</li></ul>Third Engineers:<br /><ul><li>He is in charge of the main engine and spares parts.</li></ul>Forth Engineers:<br /><ul><li>He is in charge of various generator s onboard the ship.</li></ul>Fifth Engineers:<br /><ul><li>Besides most ships have the radio officers and electrical officers.</li></ul>Radio officer:<br /><ul><li>He is in charge of radio room and handles wireless and transmitting the signals.</li></ul>Electrical officers:<br /><ul><li>He is in charge of functioning and handling the electrical equipment.</li></ul>Service Department:<br /><ul><li>The work undertaken by this department revolves around living and catering services for all crew and passengers onboard the vessel.
103. 103. A chief steward heads a large team of steward, bakers, mess man, etc.
104. 104. Apart from this, a department has also other services such as the divers for the underwater examination of the keel of the ship, propeller, pipes etc.</li></ul>1.4: ROPES AND ITS USUAGE<br />Constructions and characteristic of vegetable fiber; cordage material used:<br />Construction:<br /><ul><li>The fiber may be defined as unit of matter of hair like dimensions whose length is at least 200 times greater than its width.
105. 105. The fibers are used in fishing and textile industries for making twines and ropes, on a very large scale.
106. 106. Most of the fibers are slender and relatively strong and they stretch when a load is applied.
107. 107. The property of fibers depends on its source and are broadly into naturally and man – made fiber (synthetic fibers). </li></ul>Natural fiber:<br /><ul><li>These are obtained from nature.
108. 108. That is either from plants or from animals.
109. 109. Plant fiber are cotton, manila, sisal, etc .
110. 110. Animals fibers are wool, hair etc.
111. 111. Vegetable fibers occur on the sea or a structural component of leaves, fruits, and stalks.</li></ul>Seed fiber:<br /><ul><li>Cotton is the most important fiber obtained within the pods of cotton plant.
112. 112. Each pod contains about 10,000 fibers.
113. 113. The color of the fiber is dull white and length varies from 0.01 to 0.02mm.
114. 114. Kapok is another seed fiber and is used filler for the life jackets.</li></ul>Stack fiber (Bast fiber):<br /><ul><li>It is also called soft fiber and is obtained from inner bark of the stark.
115. 115. These fibers are long jute.
116. 116. Jute is the important bast fiber.
117. 117. It is yellowish brown in color.
118. 118. They are weak and they are used for making bags, garments, fancy items, lines.</li></ul>Hump fiber:<br /><ul><li>It is strong.
119. 119. The color varies from yellow to brown used for making twin and bags.</li></ul>Leaf fiber:<br /><ul><li>It is obtained from the pulpy tissues of long leaves or stems of plants.
120. 120. Manila is leaf fiber and obtained from a plant called abaca, grown in manila (Philippines).
121. 121. The color is golden yellow.
122. 122. Sisal fiber is another leaf fiber grown in India.
123. 123. But the quality is inferior to manila.</li></ul>Fruit fiber:<br /><ul><li>It is obtained from husk or hull of the coconut fruit. E.g.: coir.
124. 124. The fiber length varies from 15 to 25cm.
125. 125. Coir is mainly used for making door – mates, twins and ropes.</li></ul>Animal fiber:<br /><ul><li>Animal fiber includes silk, wool, hair etc of these silk is used in textiles.</li></ul>Man – made fiber:<br /><ul><li>These are also called synthetic fibers.
126. 126. They are grouped in many ways.
127. 127. They can be included under natural polymers and synthetic polymers.</li></ul>Natural Polymers:<br /><ul><li>It includes such fibers like rayon, acetylene etc and are manufactured by the alternation of natural fibers like cellulose and protein.</li></ul>Synthetic Polymers:<br /><ul><li>They are truly manmade fibers.
128. 128. Manufactured without the help of fibers forming raw materials either of vegetables or animal origin.
129. 129. These are produced by synthetic the scientific and technical term by the chemical process by which the chemical element or simple basic substance are combined an built up to form a complete new and complicated chemical having new properties.
130. 130. The commonly used polymers used are polyamide (PA), polyethylene (PE), polypropylene (PP), polyester (PE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyvinyl alcohol (PVA).
131. 131. The above these materials are used for making netting twins and ropes and they are called fishing gear materials.
132. 132. They are used in textile industry and they are called textile materials.
133. 133. They are also used in shipping for various applications.</li></ul>Characteristic of Vegetable fiber:<br /><ul><li>They absorb more water and become very heavy.
134. 134. They rot (decay).
135. 135. Specific gravity is more.
136. 136. Less resistance to abrasion.
137. 137. They are easily affected by acids, alkaline, salts and oils.
138. 138. They do not have sufficient breaking strength.
139. 139. Netting materials made of vegetable fiber swell considerably and as a result they shrink.</li></ul>Characteristic of Manmade fiber cordage:<br /><ul><li>It can be classified under.
140. 140. Physical.
141. 141. Chemical.
142. 142. Biological.
143. 143. The synthetic fibers have sufficient breaking strength.
144. 144. They have more resistance to abrasion.
145. 145. They are having more elastic properties.
146. 146. The synthetic fibers do not absorb water and as a results it becomes light and easier to handle.
147. 147. On wetting, synthetic fiber do not shrink.
148. 148. They do not affected by chemicals like acids, alkaline and salt.</li></ul>Construction and Characteristics of wire rope:<br />Wire ropes are used in industries like mining, shipping, fishing, oil well operation, lift and elevators and general engineering purpose and dredging.<br />In fishing, wire ropes are used for towing wraps, head ropes and foot ropes of various nets.<br />Construction:<br /><ul><li>A wire rope has central core (heart) around which a number of strands with many wires are laid.</li></ul>Core:<br /><ul><li>It is also known as heart.
149. 149. It gives support to the strands laid around it and gives flexibility and also increases the life of the wire ropes.</li></ul>Strand:<br /><ul><li>There are six strands; each strand has nineteen wires laid in three layers.
150. 150. A central wire surrounded by six wires and over which another layer of twelve wires are laid.
151. 151. This is the ordinary construction.
152. 152. Another type of construction used in fishing is “seale”.
153. 153. Here there is a central wire surrounded by nine wires over which another layer of nine of thicker size is laid.</li></ul>Lays of wire ropes:<br /><ul><li>A wire rope is termed right hand lay or ‘Z’ lay when the strands are laid from left to right and left hand lay or ‘S’ lay when they are laid from right to left.</li></ul>Finish of the wire rope:<br /><ul><li>There are two types of wire rope finishes available.
154. 154. Black when the individual wires are ungalvanised and the other is galvanized.
155. 155. The galvanized wires are recommended for marine use, so as to prevent reverse corrosion.</li></ul>Specification of wire ropes:<br /><ul><li>A wire rope is always specified by giving first, the number of strands and the number of wire in strands. I.e., 6 X19 that means 6 strands and 19 wires.
156. 156. The 6 X 19 construction is written as 12/6/1.
157. 157. This means that the wire rope is 6 strand constructions and in each strand 12 wires are laid over 6 wires.
158. 158. In the seale construction it is indicated as 6 X 9 (9/9/1).
159. 159. It is also necessary to give the diameter or circumstances of the wire rope.</li></ul>Performing:<br /><ul><li>It is a manufacturing technique where by the wire or pre shaped so that they will occupy in the finished rope.
160. 160. The technique will stop the wire to spring.</li></ul>Handling of wire rope:<br />For obtaining the maximum service of the wire rope the following care should be taken while handling the wire rope.<br />Storing:<br /><ul><li>The rope should be stored under cover.
161. 161. It should be placed few inches from the ground on a timber or concrete if the ground is damp (wet).</li></ul>Cutting:<br /><ul><li>Before cutting the wire rope, the usual way is to bind the rope securely on either side or point ar which is to be cut, otherwise the strands may untwist.</li></ul>Uncoiling:<br /><ul><li>While uncoiling, the coil of the rope should be rolled on the ground.</li></ul>Unreeling:<br /><ul><li>The reel of the wire rope is mounted on a shaft supported by two jacks or the coil is kept on a turn table.
162. 162. The rope is then pulled from the reel.
163. 163. Another way is to roll the reel on the ground holding the free end of the wire rope on the ground.</li></ul>Servicing:<br /><ul><li>When the wire rope is in use, the rope should be periodically examined, cleaned and lubrication is important and is for reducing internal friction and corrosion.
164. 164. Before lubrication, the sowed in the rope should be removed.</li></ul>Handling of Man – made cordage and Vegetable fibers:<br /> <br />