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Nutrition in Plants
How does trees on the fertile plain obtain their nutrients ? Or the algae in the sea ? Or the cacti in the desserts ?
Review Question <ul><li>Which mode of nutrition do the  green  plants carry out? </li></ul>A. Autotrophic nutrition B. Het...
Sorry!  You’re wrong! <ul><li>Heterotrophic nutrition  is the mode of nutrition in which organisms have to depend on  othe...
Very Good! <ul><li>Autotrophic nutrition is the mode of nutrition in which organisms can make organic food by themselves u...
Nature of photosynthesis <ul><li>Takes place in  Chloroplast </li></ul><ul><li>Necessary factors : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C...
Route of Carbon Dioxide for Photosynthesis
CO 2 Stoma Air Space Spongy Mesophyll Cell Chloroplast
CO 2 Chloroplast Palisade Mesophyll Cell Stoma Air Space
<ul><li>Light energy is trapped by  chlorophyll  in  chloroplast </li></ul><ul><li>Light energy absorbed by chlorophyll sp...
6 blue red %  of  light  absorbed by  chlorophyll   green
Oxygen is produce as the by-product of photosynthesis.
Dark reaction <ul><li>No light is required ;  can take place either in light or darkness </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen produc...
Dark Reaction H Summary of Photosynthesis Water Oxygen Glucose ( C 6 H 12 O 6 ) Light Reaction 6 CO 2  + 6 H 2 0 C 6 H 12 ...
Fate of carbohydrate products in the plant
carbohydrates (e.g. glucose) carbon dioxide and water release energy by respiration photosynthesis
convert into starch for storage because glucose is not a very good storage molecule carbohydrates (e.g. glucose) carbon di...
change into  sucrose  and is transported to other parts through  phloem carbohydrates (e.g. glucose) carbon dioxide and wa...
carbon dioxide and water photosynthesis carbohydrates (e.g. glucose) combine to form  fats  and  oils  to form cell membra...
carbon dioxide and water photosynthesis carbohydrates (e.g. glucose) mineral salts from soil (e.g. NO 3 - , SO 4 2- ) amin...
Experiments on photosynthesis
Destarching <ul><li>Reason: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To avoid any existing starch in the leaves interfering with the result ,...
To test a leaf for the presence of Starch Investigation 8.1
Why is the leaf first boiled in water ? Ans:  Because the process can soften the leaf, break down the cuticle and kill the...
Why is the leaf then boiled in alcohol ? Ans:  To decolourize the leaf (to remove chlorophyll). boiling water turn off Bun...
Why is it important to turn off the Bunsen burner when you are heating the alcohol ? Ans:  Because alcohol catches fire ea...
Why is the leaf put in hot water after being boiled in alcohol ? Ans:  Since the leaf becomes brittle after boiling in alc...
What colour change can be observed if starch is present ? Ans:  The leaf becomes blue-black when iodine solution is added ...
To show that Chlorophyll is necessary for Photosynthesis Investigation 8.3
Which part of the leaf turns blue-black when treated with iodine solution ? Ans:  Only the green part. green part purple p...
Is chlorophyll necessary for photosynthesis ? Ans:  Yes. green part purple part
What is the control in this experiment ? Ans:  The green part of the leaf acts as the control. green part purple part
To show that Carbon Dioxide is necessary for Photosynthesis Investigation 8.4
Why is potassium hydroxide solution put in one of the flasks ? Ans:  To absorb all the carbon dioxide in flask B. sunlight...
What happens to each leaf after testing the presence of starch at the end of the experiment ? Ans:  The leaf in flask A ch...
What do your results suggest about the relationship between carbon dioxide and photosynthesis ? Ans:  Carbon dioxide is ne...
Factors affecting the rate of photosynthesis
<ul><li>   Light intensity  </li></ul><ul><li>   Rate of Photosynthesis </li></ul>Light Intensity
<ul><li>   Carbon dioxide concentration </li></ul><ul><li>   Rate of Photosynthesis </li></ul>Carbon Dioxide Concentration
<ul><li>   Temperature  </li></ul><ul><li>   Rate of Photosynthesis  </li></ul>Temperature Temperature > 40 ℃ Rate    &...
<ul><li>If no water, stomata close  </li></ul><ul><li>no gaseous exchange </li></ul><ul><li>photosynthesis ceases </li></u...
Why is Photosynthesis important ? Green plants: the only organisms capable of trapping light to manufacture food from simp...
Why is Photosynthesis important ? <ul><ul><li>Green plants(producers) starts the food chain & provide food for other organ...
Why is Photosynthesis important ? <ul><ul><li>Atmospheric carbon dioxide is absorbed & oxygen is released into the atmosph...
Parts of plant where photosynthesis takes place <ul><li>Mainly in the leaf because   </li></ul><ul><ul><li>it contains a l...
Internal Structure of Leaf
cuticle upper epidermis palisade mesophyll spongy mesophyll intercellular space   (air space) guard cell lower epidermis c...
Cross-section of a leaf of dicotyledon
upper epidermis protect internal tissues from mechanical damage and bacterial & fungal invasion
Cuticle <ul><li>a waxy layer </li></ul><ul><li>prevent water loss from the leaf surface </li></ul><ul><li>protect the leaf...
mesophyll
palisade mesophyll (layer) columnar cells closely packed together  absorb light more efficiently contains many chloroplasts
spongy mesophyll (layer)  irregular cells loosely packed together  to leave numerous large air spaces  allow rapid diffus...
lower epidermis same as upper epidermis  except the cuticle is thinner
stoma (stomata) opening which allows gases to pass through it  to go into or out of the leaf
guard cells control the size of stoma
Stoma stoma Guard cells thinner outer wall thicker inner wall
vascular bundle ( vein )
Internal Structure of Leaf xylem phloem
<ul><li>xylem </li></ul><ul><li>to transport water and mineral salts </li></ul><ul><li>towards the leaf </li></ul><ul><li>...
<ul><li>phloem </li></ul><ul><li>to transport organic substances ( food/sugar/   glucose/    sucrose )  away from the leaf...
Adaptation of leaf to photosynthesis
The leaf is thin  decrease diffusion distance for gases & light The leaf is broad & flattened   increase surface area to a...
Cuticle exists in upper epidermis and is transparent Allows most light to pass into photosynthetic mesophyll tissues
Palisade mesophyll cells are closely packed and contain many chloroplasts To carry out photosynthesis more efficiently
Spongy mesophyll cells are loosely packed with numerous large air spaces To allow rapid diffusion of gases throughout the ...
Numerous stoma ta   on lower epidermis To allow rapid gaseous exchange with the atmosphere
<ul><li>Extensive vein system </li></ul><ul><li>Allow sufficient water to reach the cells in the leaf </li></ul><ul><li>To...
Mineral requirements in plants <ul><li>In order to synthesize  amino acids, nitrate   ions  which must be taken into the p...
The importance of  nitrogen <ul><li>For synthesis of proteins, chlorophyll, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Taken in form of nitrate...
The importance of  magnesium <ul><li>Essential component of chlorophyll </li></ul><ul><li>Deficiency symptoms: </li></ul><...
Use of fertilizers in agriculture <ul><li>Continuous harvesting crops removes valuable mineral salts from soil </li></ul><...
Natural fertilizers <ul><li>From manure </li></ul><ul><li>Organic compounds in it are decomposed by the bacteria in soil t...
Chemical fertilizers <ul><li>Mainly  nitrogenous  and  phosphorous  compounds manufactured artificially </li></ul>
Comparison between natural and chemical fertilizers Natural fertilizers Chemical fertilizers Contain humus which can impro...
Comparison between natural and chemical fertilizers Natural fertilizers Chemical fertilizers Less soluble in water so more...
~  END   ~
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Nutrition in plants

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Nutrition in plants

  1. 1. Nutrition in Plants
  2. 2. How does trees on the fertile plain obtain their nutrients ? Or the algae in the sea ? Or the cacti in the desserts ?
  3. 3. Review Question <ul><li>Which mode of nutrition do the green plants carry out? </li></ul>A. Autotrophic nutrition B. Heterotrophic nutrition
  4. 4. Sorry! You’re wrong! <ul><li>Heterotrophic nutrition is the mode of nutrition in which organisms have to depend on other organisms or dead organic matters as their food sources. Green plants, however, can make organic food by themselves using simple inorganic substances. </li></ul>
  5. 5. Very Good! <ul><li>Autotrophic nutrition is the mode of nutrition in which organisms can make organic food by themselves using simple inorganic substances . </li></ul><ul><li>The process by which the green plants obtain nutrients is called : </li></ul><ul><li>Photosynthesis </li></ul>
  6. 6. Nature of photosynthesis <ul><li>Takes place in Chloroplast </li></ul><ul><li>Necessary factors : </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Carbon dioxide </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Water </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunlight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chlorophyll </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Route of Carbon Dioxide for Photosynthesis
  8. 8. CO 2 Stoma Air Space Spongy Mesophyll Cell Chloroplast
  9. 9. CO 2 Chloroplast Palisade Mesophyll Cell Stoma Air Space
  10. 10. <ul><li>Light energy is trapped by chlorophyll in chloroplast </li></ul><ul><li>Light energy absorbed by chlorophyll splits water molecules into hydrogen and oxygen </li></ul><ul><li>Oxygen is released as a gas through stoma to outside </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen is fed into dark reaction </li></ul>Light reaction
  11. 11. 6 blue red % of light absorbed by chlorophyll green
  12. 12. Oxygen is produce as the by-product of photosynthesis.
  13. 13. Dark reaction <ul><li>No light is required ; can take place either in light or darkness </li></ul><ul><li>Hydrogen produced in light reaction combines with CO 2 to form carbohydrates </li></ul><ul><li>Water is formed as a by-product </li></ul>
  14. 14. Dark Reaction H Summary of Photosynthesis Water Oxygen Glucose ( C 6 H 12 O 6 ) Light Reaction 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 0 C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 Light Carbon Dioxide
  15. 15. Fate of carbohydrate products in the plant
  16. 16. carbohydrates (e.g. glucose) carbon dioxide and water release energy by respiration photosynthesis
  17. 17. convert into starch for storage because glucose is not a very good storage molecule carbohydrates (e.g. glucose) carbon dioxide and water photosynthesis
  18. 18. change into sucrose and is transported to other parts through phloem carbohydrates (e.g. glucose) carbon dioxide and water photosynthesis
  19. 19. carbon dioxide and water photosynthesis carbohydrates (e.g. glucose) combine to form fats and oils to form cell membranes and as a food store fatty acids glycerol
  20. 20. carbon dioxide and water photosynthesis carbohydrates (e.g. glucose) mineral salts from soil (e.g. NO 3 - , SO 4 2- ) amino acids join together to become protein molecules
  21. 21. Experiments on photosynthesis
  22. 22. Destarching <ul><li>Reason: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To avoid any existing starch in the leaves interfering with the result , and to show that any starch found after the experiment is produced during the period of investigation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Method: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>By placing the plant in dark for at least 48 hours </li></ul></ul>
  23. 23. To test a leaf for the presence of Starch Investigation 8.1
  24. 24. Why is the leaf first boiled in water ? Ans: Because the process can soften the leaf, break down the cuticle and kill the leaf. boiling water turn off Bunsen burner boiling alcohol hot water iodine white tile turn off Bunsen burner
  25. 25. Why is the leaf then boiled in alcohol ? Ans: To decolourize the leaf (to remove chlorophyll). boiling water turn off Bunsen burner boiling alcohol hot water iodine white tile turn off Bunsen burner
  26. 26. Why is it important to turn off the Bunsen burner when you are heating the alcohol ? Ans: Because alcohol catches fire easily. boiling water turn off Bunsen burner boiling alcohol hot water iodine white tile turn off Bunsen burner
  27. 27. Why is the leaf put in hot water after being boiled in alcohol ? Ans: Since the leaf becomes brittle after boiling in alcohol, so dipping it into hot water enables it to be softened. boiling water turn off Bunsen burner boiling alcohol hot water iodine white tile turn off Bunsen burner
  28. 28. What colour change can be observed if starch is present ? Ans: The leaf becomes blue-black when iodine solution is added to it. boiling water turn off Bunsen burner boiling alcohol hot water iodine white tile turn off Bunsen burner
  29. 29. To show that Chlorophyll is necessary for Photosynthesis Investigation 8.3
  30. 30. Which part of the leaf turns blue-black when treated with iodine solution ? Ans: Only the green part. green part purple part
  31. 31. Is chlorophyll necessary for photosynthesis ? Ans: Yes. green part purple part
  32. 32. What is the control in this experiment ? Ans: The green part of the leaf acts as the control. green part purple part
  33. 33. To show that Carbon Dioxide is necessary for Photosynthesis Investigation 8.4
  34. 34. Why is potassium hydroxide solution put in one of the flasks ? Ans: To absorb all the carbon dioxide in flask B. sunlight B A water potassium hydroxide solution
  35. 35. What happens to each leaf after testing the presence of starch at the end of the experiment ? Ans: The leaf in flask A changes to blue-black while the leaf in flask B stains brown. sunlight B A water potassium hydroxide solution
  36. 36. What do your results suggest about the relationship between carbon dioxide and photosynthesis ? Ans: Carbon dioxide is necessary for photosynthesis. sunlight B A water potassium hydroxide solution
  37. 37. Factors affecting the rate of photosynthesis
  38. 38. <ul><li> Light intensity </li></ul><ul><li> Rate of Photosynthesis </li></ul>Light Intensity
  39. 39. <ul><li> Carbon dioxide concentration </li></ul><ul><li> Rate of Photosynthesis </li></ul>Carbon Dioxide Concentration
  40. 40. <ul><li> Temperature </li></ul><ul><li> Rate of Photosynthesis </li></ul>Temperature Temperature > 40 ℃ Rate  & Stop soon
  41. 41. <ul><li>If no water, stomata close </li></ul><ul><li>no gaseous exchange </li></ul><ul><li>photosynthesis ceases </li></ul>Water Supply
  42. 42. Why is Photosynthesis important ? Green plants: the only organisms capable of trapping light to manufacture food from simple inorganic substances
  43. 43. Why is Photosynthesis important ? <ul><ul><li>Green plants(producers) starts the food chain & provide food for other organisms </li></ul></ul>
  44. 44. Why is Photosynthesis important ? <ul><ul><li>Atmospheric carbon dioxide is absorbed & oxygen is released into the atmosphere which maintains the composition of the atmosphere constant </li></ul></ul>
  45. 45. Parts of plant where photosynthesis takes place <ul><li>Mainly in the leaf because </li></ul><ul><ul><li>it contains a lot of chloroplasts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>it is well adapted for performing photosynthesis </li></ul></ul>
  46. 46. Internal Structure of Leaf
  47. 47. cuticle upper epidermis palisade mesophyll spongy mesophyll intercellular space (air space) guard cell lower epidermis cuticle stoma chloroplasts
  48. 48. Cross-section of a leaf of dicotyledon
  49. 49. upper epidermis protect internal tissues from mechanical damage and bacterial & fungal invasion
  50. 50. Cuticle <ul><li>a waxy layer </li></ul><ul><li>prevent water loss from the leaf surface </li></ul><ul><li>protect the leaf </li></ul>
  51. 51. mesophyll
  52. 52. palisade mesophyll (layer) columnar cells closely packed together  absorb light more efficiently contains many chloroplasts
  53. 53. spongy mesophyll (layer) irregular cells loosely packed together to leave numerous large air spaces  allow rapid diffusion of gases throughout the leaf some (fewer than palisade mesophyll) chloroplasts for photosynthesis
  54. 54. lower epidermis same as upper epidermis except the cuticle is thinner
  55. 55. stoma (stomata) opening which allows gases to pass through it to go into or out of the leaf
  56. 56. guard cells control the size of stoma
  57. 57. Stoma stoma Guard cells thinner outer wall thicker inner wall
  58. 58. vascular bundle ( vein )
  59. 59. Internal Structure of Leaf xylem phloem
  60. 60. <ul><li>xylem </li></ul><ul><li>to transport water and mineral salts </li></ul><ul><li>towards the leaf </li></ul><ul><li>for mechanical support </li></ul>
  61. 61. <ul><li>phloem </li></ul><ul><li>to transport organic substances ( food/sugar/ glucose/ sucrose ) away from the leaf </li></ul>
  62. 62. Adaptation of leaf to photosynthesis
  63. 63. The leaf is thin decrease diffusion distance for gases & light The leaf is broad & flattened increase surface area to absorb more sunlight
  64. 64. Cuticle exists in upper epidermis and is transparent Allows most light to pass into photosynthetic mesophyll tissues
  65. 65. Palisade mesophyll cells are closely packed and contain many chloroplasts To carry out photosynthesis more efficiently
  66. 66. Spongy mesophyll cells are loosely packed with numerous large air spaces To allow rapid diffusion of gases throughout the leaf
  67. 67. Numerous stoma ta on lower epidermis To allow rapid gaseous exchange with the atmosphere
  68. 68. <ul><li>Extensive vein system </li></ul><ul><li>Allow sufficient water to reach the cells in the leaf </li></ul><ul><li>To carry food away to other parts of the plant </li></ul>
  69. 69. Mineral requirements in plants <ul><li>In order to synthesize amino acids, nitrate ions which must be taken into the plant from the soil through the root </li></ul><ul><li>Other minerals are also necessary to maintain the life of the plant (N, Mg, P, K, S, etc) </li></ul>
  70. 70. The importance of nitrogen <ul><li>For synthesis of proteins, chlorophyll, etc </li></ul><ul><li>Taken in form of nitrate ions </li></ul><ul><li>Deficiency symptoms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Little growth ( - no protein made) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Yellowing of leaves ( - no chlorophyll made) </li></ul></ul>
  71. 71. The importance of magnesium <ul><li>Essential component of chlorophyll </li></ul><ul><li>Deficiency symptoms: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Yellowing of leaves (no chlorophyll made) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Poor growth (no food manufactured because of lack of chlorophyll) </li></ul></ul>
  72. 72. Use of fertilizers in agriculture <ul><li>Continuous harvesting crops removes valuable mineral salts from soil </li></ul><ul><li> Fertilizers are added to replace such loss </li></ul><ul><li>Two kinds of fertilizers: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Natural fertilizers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Chemical fertilizers </li></ul></ul>
  73. 73. Natural fertilizers <ul><li>From manure </li></ul><ul><li>Organic compounds in it are decomposed by the bacteria in soil to form mineral salts </li></ul>
  74. 74. Chemical fertilizers <ul><li>Mainly nitrogenous and phosphorous compounds manufactured artificially </li></ul>
  75. 75. Comparison between natural and chemical fertilizers Natural fertilizers Chemical fertilizers Contain humus which can improve soil texture No humus so cannot improve soil texture Less soluble in water so less likely to be washed away Very soluble in water so more likely to be washed away
  76. 76. Comparison between natural and chemical fertilizers Natural fertilizers Chemical fertilizers Less soluble in water so more difficult to be absorbed Very soluble in water so easier to be absorbed More readily to be used by the plants Time is needed for the decomposition to complete before nutrients are available to plants Very expensive Much cheaper
  77. 77. ~ END ~

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