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# Index properties, relationship & tests

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THREE PHASES OF SOIL
SOIL CONSISTS OF
1.WATER
2.AIR
3.SOLID PARTICLES

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### Index properties, relationship & tests

1. 1. By :- Shekhar Mehta
2. 2. SOLID PARTICLES WATER AIR » For dry soil mass, the voids are filled with only air » For fully saturated soil mass, voids are completely filled with water
3. 3. » All particles of soil are having same size & density. » Soil is partly dry & partly saturated. » Moisture is uniformly distributed in the soil mass. » Air in soil mass has no weight.
4. 4. » Partly dry & partly saturated soil 3 phases (solid, water, air) 3 phase dia. » Fully dry soil 2 phases (solid & air) 2 phase dia. » Fully saturated soil 2 phases (solid & water) 2 phase dia.  THREE PHASES OF SOIL :-
5. 5. » WATER CONTENT/MOISTURE CONTENT (W): w = Mw x 100 Ms where, Mw = weight of water Ms = weight of dry soil » BULK UNIT WEIGHT (Yb): ϒb = W V where, W = total weight of soil mass V = vol. of soil mass
6. 6. » DRY UNIT WEIGHT (ϒd): ϒd = Wd V where, Wd = total weight of soil solid » SATURATED UNIT WEIGHT (ϒsat): ϒsat = Wsat V » SUBMERGED UNIT WEIGHT (ϒsub): ϒsub = (Wd)sub & V ϒsub = ϒsat – ϒw » UNIT WEIGHT OF SOLIDS (ϒS): ϒS = WS VS
7. 7. » SPECIFIC GRAVITY (G): G = WS WW OR ϒS ϒW where, Ws = weight of given vol. of soil solid Ww = weight of equal vol. of distilled water It has no unit. » VOID RATIO (e): e = VV VS where, Vv = vol. of voids Vs = vol. of solid » POROSITY (n): n = Vv V
8. 8. » DEGREE OF SATURATION (Sr): Sr = VW VV For fully saturated soil, Sr = 1 & for fully dry soil, Sr = 0 » AIR CONTENT (aC): aC = Va VV = 1 – Sr where, Va = vol. of air voids » PERCENTAGE AIR VOIDS (na): na = Va V
9. 9. » DENSITY INDEX/ RELATIVE INDEX (ID): ID = emax – e emax – emin where, emax = void ratio in loosest state emin = void ratio in densest state e = natural void ratio of the deposit » BULK DENSITY (ρb): ρb = M V where, M = total mass » DRY DENSITY (ρd): ρd = Md V
10. 10. » SATURATED DENSITY (ρsat): ρsat = Msat V » SUBMERGED DENSITY (ρsub): ρsub = Msub V = ρsat – ρw where, ρw = density of water = 1000 kg/ m3
11. 11. » e = n OR n = e 1 – n 1 – e » e = w . G Sr » ϒb = (G + e . Sr)ϒw 1 + e » ϒd = ϒb 1 +w
12. 12. » DEFINATION :- ˃ Those properties of soil which are used in the identification & classification of soils are called index properties.
13. 13. » The various index properties of soils are :- ˃ Water content ˃ In-situ density ˃ Specific gravity ˃ Particle size ˃ Consistency ˃ Density Index