Project Report on Automatic Coolant System For Drilling Machines
DIPLOMA IN MECHANICAL
Automatic Coolant System of
Submitted To : Submitted By:
Mr. Randhir Singh Anoop Kumar-(5307/12)
We hereby declare that major project which is presented on this report entitled
“AUTOMATIC COOLANT SYSTEM OF DRILLING MACHINE”
submitted in partial fulfilments of requirements of the award of the Diploma in
MECHANICAL ENGINEERING to the Punjab State Board of Technical
Education & Indusrial Training ,Sector-36-A, Chandigarh, is an authentic record of
our own work carried at Chandigarh College Of Engineering & Technology,
Sector-26,Chandigarh campus is carried out under the supervision of
Mr. Randhir Singh (Workshop Instructor) & Mr. R.P. Dhiman
(Superintendent of Workshop)
The material embodied in this project work has not been submitted to any other
institution for award of any Diploma/ Degree.
This to certify that above statement made by the candidate is best to my knowledge.
Mr. Randhir Singh
Mr. R.P. Dhiman
(Superintendent of Workshop)
We express our sincere thanks & profound gratitude to Mr. Randhir Singh
(Workshop Instructor) & Mr. R.P. Dhiman (Superintendent of Workshop) for
contributing his valuable time for completing the project “AUTOMATIC
COOLANT SYSTEM OF DRILLING MACHINE” successfully.
Our special thanks to Mr. Chaman Lal , H.O.D. Mechanical for his encouragement
during the project.
Finally we thank all unmentioned names & visible names who helped us in bringing
this major project report to form.
Last but not the least I wish to avail myself this opportunity, express a sense of
gratitude & love to my friends and my beloved parents for their mutual support ,
strength, and help for everything.
Place : Chandigarh
Certified that the present project work entitled “AUTOMATIC COOLANT
SYSTEM OF DRILLING MACHINE”
in partial fulfilments of requirements of the award of the Diploma in MECHANICAL
ENGINEERING to the Punjab State Board of Technical Education & Indusrial
Training ,Sector-36-A, Chandigarh, is an authentic record of our own work carried out
in Final Year of Diploma in Mechanical Engg. Under my supervision & guidance.
Sequence of Making Project
Cost of Project
Cutting fluids or coolants greatly increase the life of drill bits, taps, lathe
and milling cutters as well as saw blades.
The standard cutting fluid was a dark sulphurized oil. Today water
soluble oils are used in recirculating systems and mist systems. There
are also simple shop recipes, make do's and localized cutter lubricants.
These products all do a number of things:
Cool the cutting edge
Lubricate the non-cutting surfaces and chips
Wash away fine chips
For light duty work use WD-40 because it is handy as keep several cans in
the shop at all times. The spray cans are convenient dispensers and work
well on moving parts. The residue that does not evaporate helps protect the
For production drilling have used kerosene mixed with motor oil. The
kerosene boils and evaporates at the cutting edge cooling where it is most
important. This can be a smokey way to drill and can be a fire hazard.
On machines with pump systems including lathes, mills, saws and grinders
you use water soluble oil. This makes a milky white liquid that cools and
lubricates. It washes off easily and carries other oils to the tank. These are
know an "tramp" oils and there are systems for removing them from the
tank. Most water based coolants have an anti-microbial agent to prevent
them from going stale. Bacteria growing in the coolant can be a health
hazzard and often stinks.
Pumped systems can be messy on saws and drills. Some production drill
presses are equiped tables with a large gutter and drain as well as no holes
for coolant to leak through. Saws tend to be messy even when designed for
Mist systems also use water based soluable oil coolants. These systems use
a small container of the coolant and and air powered atomizer to spray the
coolant on the work. These are handy for machines that do not have drain
pans or aprons to catch fluid from a pumped system. Care must be taken as
to what type of coolant is used as mists are inhaled by workers and can be a
serious health hazzard. Oil mists are particularly hazardous and should be
For taping the same coolants are commonly used especially when a
machine has a pump or mist system. However there are special tapping
compounds that cool better and lubricate better under the high pressures of
One of the best taping agents was "Tap Free" a non-flamable solvent based
product. It had a low boiling point and you could hear it "sizzling" at the
cutting edge. It was amazing stuff but has been taken off the market.
Currently there are a number of taping fluids on the market and they all do a
fairly good job. Machinists often use them on difficult to machine materials
on lathes and milling machines as well as for tapping.
Cutting fluids, lubricants, and coolants are used in drilling work to
lubricate the chip being formed for easier removal, to help dissipate the
high heat caused by friction, to wash away the chips, to improve the finish,
and to permit greater cutting speeds for best efficiency. In drilling work, the
cutting fluid can be sprayed, dripped, or machine pumped onto the work
and cutting too! to cool the action and provide for maximum tool life.
Drilling, reaming, and tapping of various materials can be improved by
using the proper cutting fluids. Cutting- fluids can be produced from
animal, vegetable, or mineral oils. Some cutting fluids are very versatile
and can be used for any operation, while other cutting fluids are specially
designed for only one particular metal.
A drilling machine, called a drill press, is used to cut holes into or
through metal, wood, or other materials.Drilling machines use a drilling
tool that has cutting edges atits point. This cutting tool is held in the drill
press by a chuck or Morse taper and is rotated and fed into the work at
variablespeeds. Drilling machines may be used to perform other
operations. They can perform countersinking, boring, counterboring,
spot facing, reaming, and tapping. Drill press operators must know how
to set up the work, set speed and feed, and provide for coolant to get an
acceptable finished product.
Pillar Radial Drilling Machine
All drilling machines have the
following construction characteristics
column, head, worktable, and base.The
spindle holds the drill or cutting tools
and revolves in a fixed position in a
sleeve. In most drilling machines, the
spindle is vertical and the work is
supported on a
horizontal table. The sleeve or quill
assembly does not revolve but may
slide in its bearing in a direction
parallel to its axis. When the sleeve
carrying the spindle with a cutting tool
is lowered, the cutting tool is fed into
the work: and when it is moved
upward, the cutting tool is withdrawn
from the work. Feed pressure applied to
the sleeve by hand or
power causes the revolving drill to cut
its way into the work a few
thousandths of an inch per revolution.
The column of most drill presses is
circular and built rugged and solid.
The column supports the head and the
sleeve or quill assembly. The head of
the drill press is composed of the
sleeve, spindle, electric motor, and
feed mechanism. The head is
bolted to the column.
The worktable is supported on an arm mounted to the column. The
worktable can be adjusted vertically to accommodate different heights
of work. or it may be swung completely out of the way. It may be tilted
up to 90° in either direction, to allow for long pieces to be end or angled
drilled. The base of the drilling machine supports the entire machine and
when bolted to the floor, provides for vibration-free operation and best
The top of the base is similar to a worktable and maybe equipped with
T-slots for mounting work too large for the table.
SPECIFICATIONS OF PILLAR TYPE RADIAL MACHINE
Drilling capacity in
20 20 13 13
Tapping capacity in
M 12 - - -
Morse taper in spindle 2 2 1
J 6 (arbor
Spindle traverse 125 125 100 100
Vertical adjustment of
425 425 425 425
Pillar diameter 76.2 76.2 57.15 57.15
centre of spindle and
200 200 149 149
Max. distance between
spindle and table
300 300 300 300
Max. distance between
spindle and base
600 600 500 500
Table Working surface
(With Coolant Gutter)
( (With Coolant Gutter)
200 x 200
200 x 200
Base Working surface 385 x 375 385 x 375 180 x 210 180 x 210
No. of spindle speeds 10 5 4 4
Range of spindle
100 - 142 - 210-310
- 450 - 600 - 852 -
1260 -1860 - 2700
375 -700 - 1170 -
1900 - 3220
480 - 820 - 1320
480 - 720 -
1080 - 1590
Feed Hand Hand Hand Hand
Power of the spindle
0.75 kW/ 1 HP,
1400 rpm, 415 V
3 Phase, 50 Hz
1400 rpm, 415 V AC,
3 Phase, 50 Hz
0.37kW/ 0.5 HP,
1425 rpm, 415 V
3 Phase, 50 Hz
1425 rpm, 415
3 Phase, 50 Hz
Space occupied ( L x B
x H )
790 x 440 x 1370 790 x 440 x 1250 550x 340 x 1100
650x 340 x
Net weight of the
220 Kg 210 Kg 105 Kg 105 Kg
(All dimensions are in mm)
Its working is very simple and easy to understand as it works under the
action of Gravitational force.
Its working is described in following steps :
1. First of all the desired coolant is filled in the coolant tank which
mounted over head of the Drilling Machine.
2. When the tank is fully filled by coolant then the outlet valve is
used to start or stop the passage of coolant as per requirement.
3. The coolant comes out through a flexible steel pipe due to gravity.
4. With the help of flexible pipe the operator can easily direct the
flow of cutting fluid.
5. The coolant will cool down the drill bit while the cutting process is
6. It provides smooth cutting operation with less heat emission.
7. Which enhances the tool life and increase productivity.
PAINTING OF COOLANT CONTAINER
Spray painting is a painting technique where a device sprays a coating
through the air onto a surface. The most common types employ
compressed gas—usually air—to atomize and direct the paint particles.
Spray guns evolved from airbrushes, and the two are usually
distinguished by their size and the size of the spray pattern they produce.
Airbrushes are hand-held and used instead of a brush for detailed work
such as photo retouching, painting nails or fine art. Air gun spraying
uses equipment that is generally larger. It is typically used for covering
large surfaces with an even coating of liquid. Spray guns can be either
automated or hand-held and have interchangeable heads to allow for
different spray patterns. Single color aerosol paint cans are portable and
easy to store.
MOUNTING OF COOLANT CONTAINER
First of all Coolant container is fixed on the side wall of the
Drilling Machine with the help of a clamp
After that outlet valve is attatched to the container with the help of
The length of PVC pipe is 150mm having internal diameter 10mm.
The one end of PVC pipe is attatched to the outlet valve which is
inserted in the coolant container & other end is attatched is
inserted in into the flexible copper tube .
At the end of copper tube a flexible steel pipe is attatched for the
free movement of the outlet tip from where coolant is poured on to
the job, during the cutting process.
MATERIAL OF VARIOUS COMPONENTS
STEEL :- Steels are alloys of iron and carbon, widely used in
construction and other applications because of their high tensile
strengthsand low costs. Carbon, other elements, and inclusions within
iron act as hardening agents that prevent the movement
ofdislocations that otherwise occur in the crystal lattices of iron atoms.
The carbon in typical steel alloys may contribute up to 2.1% of its
weight. Varying the amount of alloying elements, their formation in the
steel either as solute elements, or as precipitated phases, retards the
movement of those dislocations that make iron so ductile and weak, and
thus controls qualities such as the hardness, ductility, and tensile
strength of the resulting steel.
Copper tubing is most often used for supply of hot and cold tap water,
and as refrigerant line in HVAC systems. There are two basic types of
copper tubing, soft copper and rigid copper. Copper tubing is joined
using flare connection, compression connection, or solder. Copper offers
a high level of corrosion resistance, but is becoming very costly.
PVC Pipe :-
Plastic pipework is used for the conveyance of drinking water, waste
water, chemicals, heating fluid and cooling fluids, foodstuffs, ultra-pure
liquids, slurries, gases,compressed air and vacuum system applications.
Coolant tank Steel
Pipe (outlet) Poly Vinyl chloride
Coolant tube Copper
Flexible pipe Steel
Outlet Valve Brass
A screwdriver is a tool, manual or powered, for turning (driving or
removing) screws. A typical simple screwdriver has a handle and a
shaft, and a tip that the user inserts into the screw head to turn it. The
shaft is usually made of tough steel to resist bending or twisting. The tip
may be hardened to resist wear, treated with a dark tip coating for
improved visual contrast between tip and screw—or ridged or treated for
A hacksaw is a fine-toothed saw, originally and principally for
cutting metal. They can also cut various other materials, such as plastic
and wood; for example, plumbers and electricians often cut plastic
pipe and plastic conduit with them. There are hand saw versions and
powered versions (power hacksaws). Most hacksaws are hand saws with
a C-shaped frame that holds a blade under tension. Such hacksaws have
a handle, usually a pistol grip, with pins for attaching a narrow
disposable blade. The frames may also be adjustable to accommodate
blades of different sizes.
A file is a metalworking, woodworking and plastic working tool used
to cut fine amounts of material from a work piece. It most commonly
refers to the hand tool style, which takes the form of a steel bar with
a case hardened surface and a series of sharp, parallel teeth. Most files
have a narrow, pointed tang at one end to which a handle can be fitted.
A similar tool is the rasp. This is an older form, with simpler teeth. As
they have larger clearance between teeth, these are usually used on
softer, non-metallic materials.
A tape measure or measuring tape is a flexible ruler. It consists of a
ribbon of cloth, plastic, fiber glass, or metal strip with linear-
measurement markings. It is a common measuring tool. Its design
allows for a measure of great length to be easily carried in pocket or
toolkit and permits one to measure around curves or corners. Today it is
ubiquitous, even appearing in miniature form as a keychain fob,
or novelty item. Surveyors use tape measures in lengths of
over 100 m (300+ ft).
A hammer is a tool that delivers a blow (a sudden impact) to an object.
The most common uses for hammers are to drivenails, fit
parts, forge metal, and break apart objects. Hammers vary in shape, size,
and structure, depending on their uses.
Hammers are basic tools in many trades. The usual features are a head
(most often made of steel) and a handle (also called a helve or haft).
A saw is a tool consisting of a hard blade, wire, or chain with a toothed
edge. It is used to cut through relatively hard material, most often wood.
The cut is made by placing the toothed edge against the material and
moving it forcefully back and forth. This force may be applied by hand,
or powered by steam, water, electricity or other power source.
An abrasive saw has a powered circular blade designed to cut through
A chisel is a tool with a characteristically shaped cutting edge (such that
wood chisels have lent part of their name to a particular grind)
of blade on its end, for carving or cutting a hard material such
as wood, stone, or metal by hand, struck with a mallet, or mechanical
power. The handle and blade of some types of chisel are made of metal
or of wood with a sharp edge in it.
A surface plate is a solid, flat plate used as the main horizontal reference
plane for precision inspection, marking out (layout), and tooling
setup. The surface plate is often used as the baseline for all
measurements to the workpiece, therefore one primary surface is
finished extremely flat with accuracy up to 0.00001 in or 250 nm for a
grade AA or AAA plate.
Pliers are a hand tool used to hold objects firmly, possibly developed
from tongs used to handle hot metal in Bronze AgeEurope.They are also
useful for bending and compressing a wide range of materials.
Generally, pliers consist of a pair ofmetal first-class levers joined at
a fulcrum positioned closer to one end of the levers, creating
short jaws on one side of the fulcrum, and longer handles on the other
A wrench (also called a spanner) is a tool used to provide grip
and mechanical advantage in applying torque to turn objects—usually
rotary fasteners, such as nuts and bolts—or keep them from turning.
In British English, spanner is the standard term. The most common
shapes are called open-ended spanner and ring spanner. The
term wrench is generally used for tools that turn non-fastening devices
(e.g. tap wrench and pipe wrench), or may be used for a monkey
wrench - an adjustable spanner.
A punch is a hard metal rod with a shaped tip at one end and a blunt butt
end at the other, which is usually struck by a hammer. Most
woodworkers prefer to use aball-peen hammer for using punches.
Punches are used to drive objects, such as nails, or to form an
impression of the tip on a workpiece. Decorative punches may also be
used to create a pattern or even form an image.
Portable Drilling Machine
A drill is a tool fitted with a cutting tool attachment or driving tool
attachment, usually a drill bit or driver bit, used for boring holes in
various materials or fastening various materials together with the use of
fasteners. The attachment is gripped by a chuck at one end of the drill
and rotated while pressed against the target material. The tip, and
sometimes edges, of the cutting tool does the work of cutting into the
target material. This may be slicing off thin shavings (twist
drills or auger bits), grinding off small particles (oil drilling), crushing
and removing pieces of the workpiece (SDS masonry
drill), countersinking, counterboring, or other operations.
Drills are commonly used in woodworking, metalworking, construction
and do-it-yourself projects. Specially designed drills are also used in
medicine, space missions and other applications. Drills are available
with a wide variety of performance characteristics, such
as power and capacity.
SPRAY PAINTING MACHINE
Spray painting is a painting technique where a device sprays a coating
(paint, ink, varnish, etc.) through the air onto a surface. The most
common types employ compressed gas—usually air—to atomize and
direct the paint particles. Spray guns evolved from airbrushes, and the
two are usually distinguished by their size and the size of the spray
pattern they produce. Airbrushes are hand-held and used instead of a
brush for detailed work such as photo retouching, painting nails or fine
art. Air gun spraying uses equipment that is generally larger. It is
typically used for covering large surfaces with an even coating of liquid.
Spray guns can be either automated or hand-held and have
interchangeable heads to allow for different spray patterns. Single
color aerosol paint cans are portable and easy to store.
PIPE BENDING MACHINE
Tube bending is the umbrella term for metal forming processes used to
permanently form pipes or tubing. One has to differentiate between
form-bound and freeform-bending procedures, as well as between heat
supported and cold forming procedures.
Form bound bending procedures like “press bending” or “rotary draw
bending” are used to form the work piece into the shape of a die.
Straight tube stock can be formed using a bending machine to create a
variety of single or multiple bends and to shape the piece into the
desired form. This processes can be used to form complex shapes out of
different types of ductile metal tubing.Freeform-bending processes,
like three-roll-pushbending, shape the workpiece kinematically, thus the
bending contour is not dependent on the tool geometry.
Generally, round stock is what is used in tube bending. However, square
and rectangular tubes and pipes may also be bent to meet job
specifications. Other factors involved in the tube bending process is the
wall thickness, tooling and lubricants needed by the pipe and tube
bender to best shape the material and it is also used in different ways
e.g.( tube,pipe wires).
Welding is a fabrication or sculptural process that joins materials,
usually metals or thermoplastics, by causing coalescence. This is often
done by melting the workpieces and adding a filler material to form a
pool of molten material (the weld pool) that cools to become a strong
joint, with pressure sometimes used in conjunction with heat, or by
itself, to produce the weld. This is in contrast
with soldering and brazing, which involve melting a lower-melting-
point material between the workpieces to form a bond between them,
without melting the work pieces. It is often used in construction
A welding power supply is a device that provides an electric current to
perform welding. Welding usually requires high current (over 80
amperes) and it can need above 12,000 amperes in spot welding. Low
current can also be used; welding two razor blades together at 5 amps
with gas tungsten arc welding is a good example.
Sheet Metal Shop
FITTING SHOP is the trade of fitting out retail and
service shops and stores with equipment, fixtures and fittings. The trade
applies to all kinds of outlets from small corner shops to hypermarkets.
A shop fitter executes planning, designs shop layout and installs
equipment and services. A shop fitting firm typically incorporates
professional expertise in interior design, manufacturing
of bespoke furniture, signage and fittings (with own
or outsourced facilities) and purchasing of retail equipment.
During our project the cutting, drilling & painting are performed under
the supervision of Mr. Randhir Sir.
Also the whole assembly of Coolant system was performed here and
completion was done in this shop only.
Carpentry is a skilled trade in which the primary work performed is the
cutting, shaping and installation of building materials during the
construction of buildings, ships, timber bridges, concrete formwork, etc.
Carpenters traditionally worked with natural wood and did the rougher
work such as framing, but today many other materials are also used and
sometimes the finer trades of cabinetmaking and furniture building are
considered carpentry. Carpentry in the United States is almost always
done by men.
During our project the mounting of the coolant tank is done with the
help of various types of tools under the supervision of Mr. Randhir Sir
& S. Jasmer Sir.
SHEET METAL SHOP
Sheet metal is metal formed by an industrial process into thin, flat
pieces. It is one of the fundamental forms used inmetalworking and it
can be cut and bent into a variety of shapes. Countless everyday objects
are constructed with sheet metal. Thicknesses can vary significantly;
extremely thin thicknesses are considered foil or leaf, and pieces thicker
than 6 mm (0.25 in) are considered plate.
Sheet metal is available in flat pieces or coiled strips. The coils are
formed by running a continuous sheet of metal through a roll slitter.
The thickness of sheet metal is commonly specified by a traditional,
non-linear measure known as its gauge.
The usage of Sheet Metal Shop is limited to the makin of sheet metal
clamp for holding the coolant tank and copper tubing under the
supervision of Mr. Randhir Sir.
TOTAL COST OF PROJECT
Casting of spindle
Coolant Container 1 1000
Copper tube 2.5m 400
Flexible pipe (3/8”) 18” 150
PVC pipe 1’ 80
Paint ½ litre + 50g 175
M-Seal 1 10
Total Two Thousand Seven
Hundred Sixty Five
We have learnt alot from this project about types of tools, machines &
how are they used in mechanical workplaces in Industry, Some basic
techniques like cutting, Surface finishing, planning, grinding are
introduced very nicely. In addition to this we have also learntabout
painting and welding. Moreover this projectgave us a good experience
of purchasing material from market and increased our surveying
In the end I would like to thanks my teacher who guided us throughout
the project especiallyour Fitting instructor Mr. Randhir Sir.