Background and Causes Mahatma Gandhi led his non-violent nationalist movementsatyagraha, as a protest against government repression such as theRowlatt Act of 1919, and the Jalian Wallah Bagh Massacre ofApril 1919. To enlist Muslim support in his movement, Gandhisupported the Khilafat cause and became a member of theCentral Khilafat Committee.
At the Nagpur Session (1920) of the Indiannational congress Gandhi linked the issue ofSwaraj (Self-Government) with the Khilafatdemands and adopted the non-cooperationplan to attain the twin objectives. So the noncooperation movement – Khilafat movementbegan in January 1921 and various social groupsbecame part of this movement with different andvarying aspirations Mahatma Gandhi and Muhammad Ali Jinnah
Time and aim• Began in January 1921 and ended in February 1922 with the chauri chaura incident.• It aimed to resist British occupation of India through non-violent means.
Participants• Various social groups participated in the movement with its own aspiration and views –• Students,teachers,laywers,headmasters,tr aders,merchants etc. in towns .• Peasants and tribals in the villages with their own views of swaraj.• Workers(e.g.plantation workers )
What Happened ?• Foreign goods were boycotted, liquor shops picketed, and foreign cloth bunt. Merchants and traders refused to trade in foreign goods.
Students left government schools and colleges,teachers and head masters resigned, and lawyersgave up their legal practices. Council electionswere boycotted in provinces.
In the countryside the struggles of peasants andtribals came under the label of non co-operationmovement.In Awadh peasants led by Baba Ramachandrawere struggling for reduction of revenue,abolition of begar, social boycott ofopressive landlords. By october 1920 the Oudh Kisan Sabha was set up headed by Jawaharlal Nehru,Baba Ramachandra and few others. When the non cooperation movement began, the peasant movement developed under its label but the movement was somewhat violent – houses of merchants and landlords were attacked, bazaars were looted, and grain hoards were taken over.
Tribal peasants had somewhat otherviews on the idea of swaraj. Tribal peasants were prohibited from entering forest areas which affected their livelihood. When the government began forcing them to do begar for road building, the tribal peasants in Gudem Hills of Andhra Pradhesh revolted under the leadership of Alluri Sitaram Raju who claimed to have a variety of supernatural powers.Raju talked of the greatness of gandhiji and persuaded peopleto wear khadhi and give up drinking.
But he believed India could beliberated only through violence.The Gudem rebels to attainswaraj• Attacked police stations• Attempted to kill britishofficials• Carried on guerilla warfare.Raju was captured andexecuted in 1924
AT LASTChauri Chaura is a townnear Gorakhpur, UttarPradesh, known most for anevent in February 1922during the British Raj whena police station)was set onfire by a mob of angrycitizens, killing 23 policemeninside. Due to this incidentmahatma Gandhi called ahalt to the non-cooperationmovement.