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Codes & Conventions


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Codes & Conventions

  1. 1. CODES &CONVENTIONSFactual Programming
  2. 2. Codes & Conventions of a News Show • Studio News Readers • Field Reporters • Links to Studio • Modes of Address to Viewer • Interviewing • Experts & Witnesses • Report Structure • Actuality Footage
  3. 3. News ReadersA news presenter (also known as newsreader, newscaster, anchorman or anchorwoman, newsanchor or simply anchor) is a person who presents news during a news program in the format ofa television show, on the radio or the Internet.News presenters can work in a radio studio, television studio and from remote broadcasts in thefield especially weather forecasters.Examples of News Reporters (All fromBBC):• Bill Turnbull• Sian Williams• Kate Silverton• Huw Edwards• George Alagiah• Fiona Bruce• Mishal Husain
  4. 4. Field ReportersA correspondent or on-the-scene reporter is a journalist or commentator, or more generalspeaking, an agent who contributes reports to a newspaper, or radio or television news, oranother type of company, from a remote, often distant, location. A foreign correspondent isstationed in a foreign country. The benefit of this is that the viewers can get an image ofwhat is actually happening at that time, at that place. John Ray 2009 – ITV News
  5. 5. Links to the studio – This is where a Televised news show links with another studio. This canoften be found on mainstream news channels such as BBC and ITV, also on some Americannews channels.Mode of address – The mode of address is how the reporter delivers the news to theviewers or listeners. For example, the BBC and ITV news are very formal and precise.Whereas the Channel 5 news is less formal with more slang words used, connecting to ayounger audience.BBC News: 5 News: - & Witnesses – Having an expert or a witnesses opinion on a subject gives theviewers/listeners another opinion. Usually the reporter will try to gain as many witnessesas possible to gather lots of information. An expert provides reassurance and gives theaudience facts and figures.Report Structure – An example of a report structure could be: Main story in studio, then to anon location reporter, then an interview, then back to the studio.Actuality Footage – This is live footage from the scene that the news channel broadcasts.An example of this is the Twin Tower crash.
  6. 6. DocumentariesDocumentary Formats:• Expository – This mode of documentary is more pleasing on the eye for the audience, it doesn’t follow strict conventions of most documentaries. An example is ‘Nanook of the North’.• Observational – This type of documentary just uses one camera, ‘observing’ the world. ‘Lift’ is a documentary that uses this technique.• Interactive – This is when the audience of the documentary have a say in what happens. The audience also contribute to the outcome.• Reflexive – Reflexive documentaries reflect on real life. For example, David Attenboroughs ‘Frozen Planet. It reflects on real life.• Per Formative - Acknowledges the emotional and subjective aspects of documentary, and presents ideas as part of a context, having different meanings for different people, often autobiographical in nature.