Groups and Individuals the consequences of belongings - Analysis


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Groups and Individuals the consequences of belongings - Analysis

  1. 1. Submitted To: Ma’am Irum Abbasi Submitted By: Hina Anjum Submitted On: Sept. 27, 2012 CHAPTER 11 2012 GROUPS AND INDIVIDUALS: The Consequences of Belonging ANALYSIS ( F A C U L T Y O F S O C I A L S C I E N C E S - D E P A R T M E N T O F M E D I A & C O M M U N I C A T I O N S T U D I E S )
  2. 2. Groups and Individuals: The Consequences of Belongings December 12, 2012 A Formal Analysis of ‘Groups and Individuals’ The focus of the present chapter is to understand the role of norms in the functioning of groups, the nature of cooperation and conflict and factors that affect their occurrence, individuals’ concern with others’ evaluations of their performance and perceived fairness. Groups are necessary for human survival. We join different groups for different reasons, but sometimes we think that life alone would have been lot simpler and more relaxed if we didn’t. In common-bond group individual members have bonds with each other while in common-identity group the members are linked via the category as a whole. People’s behavior in groups depends on the role they occupy and how much they identify with it, their status within the group, the group’s norms, and whether it is a cohesive or non-cohesive group. There are many benefits of joining groups on members, including increased self-knowledge, progress toward important goals, enhanced status, and a means of attaining social change. So one potential benefit individuals obtain from joining groups is social change. Along with benefits membership in groups can also be costly, such as loss of personal freedom and heavy demands on time, energy, and resources. The mere presence of other people either as an audience or as co-actors, or even if they are strangers, can strongly affect our behavior and our performance on many tasks. We get disturbed because of the anxiety about being evaluated by them. Both the arousal and cognitive views of social facilitation can help explain why social facilitation occurs among animals and people. When several people work together to accomplish a task, it is probable that they will not all exert the same amount of effort. Some will work quite hard, others will do less, and perhaps a few will do nothing at all while pretending to work hard! Social loafing in groups tend to reduce their output overall. Crowds can result in violent or prosocial actions. Choosing to cooperate with others often rests on the extent to which we trust those others. Conversely, conflict often stems when we do not trust others and perceive that theirs interests are incompatible with our interest. People care about fairness and justice. When people may not have the necessary information to determine whether their outcomes or the procedures are fair or not, then they may use their feelings or moods as a basis for judging perceived fairness. It is widely believe that groups make better decisions than individuals. But groups are often subject to group polarization, which leads them to make more extreme decision than individuals. Some group members do not share their information and idea because they fear that their ideas will be viewed negatively. A decision made by a group cannot be more accurate than a decision made by an individual simply because it was made by a group.