Cultural Industry


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Cultural Industry

  1. 1. CULTURAL INDUSTRYINTRODUCTION: Cultural Industries are defined as those industries which produce tangible or intangibleartistic and creative outputs, and which have a potential for wealth creation and incomegeneration through the exploitation of cultural assets and production of knowledge-basedgoods and services (both traditional and contemporary). What cultural industries have incommon is that they all use creativity, cultural knowledge, and intellectual property to produceproducts and services with social and cultural meaning. The cultural industries include: advertising; architecture; crafts; designer furniture;fashion clothing; film, video and other audiovisual production; graphic design; educational andleisure software; live and recorded music; performing arts and entertainment; television, radioand internet broadcasting; visual arts and antiques; and writing and publishing. The term“cultural industries” is almost interchangeable with the concept of “creative industries.”Whereas the notion of “cultural industries” emphasizes those industries whose inspirationderives from heritage, traditional knowledge, and the artistic elements of creativity, the notionof “creative industries” places emphasis on the individual and his or her creativity, innovation,skill and talent in the exploitation of intellectual property. The notion of ‘cultural industries’ isalso closely linked to but, again, slightly different from a categorization based strictly on thenotion of “intellectual property,” which is closely linked to the concept of information-driveneconomies, and which includes such activities as scientific and technological innovation,software and database development, telecommunication services, and the production ofhardware and electronic equipment.DISCUSSION: 1. DEFINITION: Cultural industry refers to businesses that produce, distribute, market or sell culturalproducts that belong categorically in creative arts. Such products could include clothing,decorative material for homes, books, movies, television programs, or music. Culturalindustry is a very large category for certain types of businesses. The Culture Industry is one in and of itself that focuses on the media and massmarketing. However due to extensive publicity and advertising, all cultural products, includinghuman beings, have become supplies that share little to no meaning.
  2. 2. European cultural industry is one of the top industries which include notablyarchitecture, collections and libraries, artistic crafts, audiovisual (such as film, television, videogames and multimedia), cultural heritage, design, festivals, publishing, music, performing arts,and radio and visual arts. All of these are one of Europes most dynamic economic sectors. 2. ADORNO AND HORKHEIMER – CULTURAL INDUSTRY: The term culture industry was coined by the critical theorists Theodor Adorno and MaxHorkheimer , wherein they proposed that popular culture is akin to a factory producingstandardized cultural goods — films, radio programmes, magazines, etc. — that are used tomanipulate mass society into passivity. Originating from the 1940s the Cultural Industries wasknown as The cultural Industry taken from a book written by Adorno and Horkheimer called Dialektik der Aufklarung from the chapter Dialect of Enlightenment. By the late 1960s theCultural Industry became co-modified and was intertwining with other industries such as film,television and music as these were socially popular, the cultural Industry was re-named TheCultural Industries. Through new service industry growth and new labor, the Cultural Industrieswas turned into The Creative Industries in the 1990s and is still known as this in currentsociety. 3. CREATIVE INDUSTRIES: More recently, there has been a push to associate culture with technology, novelty andinnovation, in line with discourses related to the knowledge economy and the informationsociety, and alongside digitalization, trade liberalization, deregulation and the promulgation ofan intellectual property regime. The result marks a shift away from the cultural industries and amove towards the more fashionably labeled “creative industries”. The creative industries referto a range of economic activities which are concerned with the generation or exploitation ofknowledge and information. They may variously also be referred to as the cultural industries.Creative industries increasingly serve as the advance guard of developed economies, fromwhich new organizational structures and routines ripple outward to other changing industries. There is often a question about the boundaries between creative industries and thesimilar term of cultural industries. Cultural industries are best described as an adjunct-sector ofthe creative industries. Cultural industries include industries that focus on culturaltourism and heritage, museums and libraries, sports and outdoor activities, and a variety ofway of life activities that arguably range from local pet shows to a host of hobbyist concerns.Thus cultural industries are more concerned about delivering other kinds of value—includingcultural wealth and social wealth—rather than primarily providing monetary value.
  3. 3. 4. GLOBALIZATION – CULTURAL INDUSTRY: Globalization is the process of international integration arising from the interchangeof world views, products, ideas, and other aspects of culture. Advances in transportation and telecommunications infrastructure, including the rise ofthe Internet, are major factors in globalization, generating further interdependence ofeconomic and cultural activities. Internationally, the political currency of the cultural industries is gaining increasingattention with the advent of globalization and its effect on and relationship to that which isdeemed or labeled “cultural.” Cultural Globalization refers to the transmission of ideas,meanings and values across national borders. Through technological advancement, culture hasbeen moving beyond borders and boundaries, transforming through locations the sharedmeanings of culture. Through the process of sharing the ideas and values of one culture toanother ultimately leads to interconnectedness between various populations from diversecultures. Cultural globalization has increased cross-cultural contacts but may be accompaniedby a decrease in the uniqueness of once-isolated communities. Cultural industry has been one very essential part of globalization. Globalization is thehistorical process in which human beings communicates mutually, mixes together and reachesinto some agreement in the end across space boundaries and institutional barriers, marked asglobalization. The internet and digital technology have been widely used in the culturalindustries, while brought new momentum of development to traditional cultural industries, forexample, the electric books, cell phones cartoons enrich the traditional cultural industryproducts system. Cultural industry has been divided into 4 large groups, including heritage, arts,media and functional creation. Since the end of the 1990s, international organizations andevery country have provided their respective concepts and classifications of the culturalindustry. It is fair to say that the impact of globalization in the cultural sphere has, most generally,been viewed in a pessimistic light. Typically, it has been associated with the destruction ofcultural identities, victims of the accelerating encroachment of a homogenized, westernized,consumer culture. One of the dominant perspectives of globalization asserts that this is aprocess of the transfiguration of worldwide diversity into a pandemic westernized consumerculture. Many critics argue that through the dominance of American culture influencing theentire world, this will ultimately result in the end of cultural diversity. This has been associatedwith the destruction of cultural identities, dominated by a homogenized and westernized,consumer culture. The global influence of American products, businesses and culture uponother countries around the world has been referred to as Americanization. This influence is
  4. 4. represented through that of American-based Television programs which are rebroadcastthroughout the world. Major American companies such as McDonalds and Coca-Cola haveplayed a major role in the spread of American culture across the globe. Terms such as Coca-colonization have been coined to refer to the dominance of American products in foreigncountries, which some critics of globalization view as a threat to the cultural identity of suchforeign nations.DOES GLOBALIZATION DESTROY CULTURE?Globalization is an experimental process that produces a host of political problems because theprocess of “creative destruction” continually upsets the status quo. Incentives matter: if peoplecan get rich by creating wealth, we are better off for it.NEGATIVE EFFECTS OF GLOBALIZATION ON CULTURE:  Consumerism: The negative effect of global marketing is that local companies are edged out of the market and the multinational companies impose American or European consumer trends on other cultures.  Language: Language is a key expression of cultural diversity. Globalization is deteriorating the cultural languages.  Poverty: Globalization increases poverty amongst young people, the old, women, indigenous peoples and migrants, which has a cultural impact.  Western ideals: Western nations, particularly the United States, impose their cultural values on others through media and popular culture. This is called "cultural imperialism," because the West promotes its culture as having more worth, or being more correct, than other regions cultural values. 5. UNESCO – CULTURAL INDUSTRY: According to international organizations such as UNESCO and the General Agreement onTariffs and Trade (GATT), cultural industries combine the creation, production,and distribution of goods and services that are cultural in nature and usually protectedby intellectual property rights. An important aspect of the cultural industries, according to UNESCO, is that they are“central in promoting and maintaining cultural diversity and in ensuring democratic access toculture”.
  5. 5. Within the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO)for example, the cultural industries has mobilized significant policy interest and correspondingaction surrounding their dual nature. While the cultural industries are recognized ascontributing to economic development, they are considered fundamental tools for culturaldevelopment and cultural diversity, and as a result, require specific attention withininternational policy debate. The Global Alliance for Cultural Diversity is a UNESCO action programme that supportsthe emergence or strengthening of cultural industries (books & publishing, cinema, recordedmusic, multimedia, crafts) in developing countries and countries in transition, in order to enablethe creation or growth of local markets and access to worldwide markets, which is favorable tosustainable development. The originality of the approach lies in the creation of a new kind ofpartnership, associating the public sector, the private sector and civil society. Launched in 2002,the Global Alliance today has a network of 500 members and many other partners. It has set uparound fifty projects and created tools (manuals, case studies) for decision-makers. Cultural industries produce and distribute cultural goods or services ‘which, at the timethey are considered as a specific attribute, use or purpose, embody or convey culturalexpressions, irrespective of the commercial value they may have’, according to the terms of theConvention on the protection and promotion of the diversity of cultural expressions adoptedby UNESCO in 2005. These industries include publishing, music, cinema and audiovisualproduction and multimedia. Also included are crafts and design, which are not, strictlyspeaking, industries, but which are very similar in their management, for example in thecreation of small & medium-sized companies. The concept has been widened to that of‘creative’ industries, by including architecture and different artistic categories: visual arts,performing arts, etc. A 2005 UNESCO report showed that cultural exchange is becoming more frequent fromEastern Asia but Western countries are still the main exporters of cultural goods. The respect ofcopyright is everywhere an essential condition for the continued strengthening of culturalindustries. Conversely, piracy often nullifies the efforts made by countries, especiallydeveloping countries. Hence the necessity of preventive measures, which concern both raisingthe awareness of the public and training those professionals who are the most concerned by it.UNESCO has always striven to support the States in their initiatives to establish efficientsectoral cultural policies. It has provided its expertise and supplied instruments for more thanthirty years, first in the field of books and publishing, which remains its main field of activity, incrafts, and later in other cultural industries. Finally, it is necessary to observe that, within the United Nations, there is a constantlyincreasing recognition of the importance of creative & cultural industries by a large number of
  6. 6. agencies or organizations, such as the International Labor Organization (ILO), the WorldIntellectual Property Organization (WIPO), the United Nations Conference on Trade andDevelopment (UNCTAD), as well as UNIDO, UNDP, the Global Compact and NEPAD. The Culture Sector and the Communication and Information Sector, through the‘Programme for creative content’, are the main units involved in UNESCO, together with itsdecentralized offices. As the measurement of international flows of cultural goods and servicesis important data, cooperation with the International Institute for Statistics is also essential. The paradox is that if creative cultural resources abound in developing countries, theworld map of cultural industries reveals a major gap between the North and the South. It isfundamental to understand the causes of this, above all the structural ones, and attempt toremedy them. 6. CONCLUSION: The concept of culture industry leads a double life. On the one hand, it appears astransparent, being used widely and freely in reference to a branch of business; on the other, itis a notion belonging to a critical tradition that wants to preserve the tension resulting from thejuxtaposition of these two words. The cultural industries appear to be more resistant to change; cultural tourism, heritage,and many forms of performing, folk and traditional art essentially seek to maintain andpreserve ideologies, and the institutions of the state. This can be observed throughout history.It is a reason why states have intervened in cultural policy, either by the architect or engineermodels. Times have changed and globalization is no longer a force that can be ignored. Inother words, nations can no longer close themselves off from change. The Internet has created,and continues to create massive disruption to business models. As information is disseminatedthrough fast speed networks consumers have more opportunities to become creators in theirown right, posting blogs, websites and making short movies. Cultural stability is disrupted asnever before. Ironically, the greatest protection for cultural maintenance is creativity. Not only doescreativity become more important in this period of change, it brings with it new ideas and newtechnologies that allow traditional forms of culture to be reinvested with value. The producers of culture, whether this be filmmakers, documentary makers,scriptwriters, performing artist etc have to recognize that culture is dynamic, not static. Theindustries that rely on novelty and innovation require greater flexibility and digital literacy. They
  7. 7. should be supported, not resisted. These creative cultural industries will continue to play a keyrole in re-converting static forms of culture into interactive forms, they will drive economicgrowth, and they will promote diversity.