A book is a set of written, printed, illustrated, orblank sheets, made of ink, paper, usually fastenedtogether to hinge at one side. A single sheet within a book is called a leaf, and each side of a leaf is called a page. A lover of books is usually referred to as a bibliophile or a bookworm . Since the invention of printing, approximately 130,000,000 unique titles had been published.
The word comes from Old English "bōc" which (itself) comes from the Germanic root "*bōk- ", equivalent to beech. It is thus assumed that the earliest Indo-European writings may have been carved on beech wood.
When writing systems were invented/created in ancient civilizations clay, tree bark, metal sheets—was used for writing. Silk, in China, was also a base for writing. Writing was done with brushes. Paper was invented in China around the 1st century AD. The Ancient Egyptians would often write on papyrus, a plant grown along the Nile River. A calamus, the stem of a reed sharpened to a point, or bird feathers were used for writing. Parchment progressively replaced papyrus. Made using the skins of animals, parchment proved easier to conserve over time; it was more solid, and allowed one to erase text.
Books were the first mass medium. They inform and entertain. They are repositories of our pasts and agents of personal development and social change. Like all media, they mirror the culture. The first mass produced printed book was the Bible, 1452 -1455.
Gutenberg hit upon the idea of using metal type crafted from lead molds in place of type made from wood or clay. The Gutenberg Bible was the first major book printed with movable type in the West and the first major book produced on a printing press anywhere in the world. It marked the start of the "Gutenberg Revolution”. It is an edition of the Vulgate, printed by Johannes Gutenberg, in Mainz, Germany, in the 1450s.
Books and reading were regarded as symbols of wealth and status, and there was lack of portability of books. The first printing press arrived on North American shores in 1638 and it was operated by a company called Cambridge Press. • The first book printed in the Colonies appeared in 1644 – The Whole Booke of Psalms.
The book is the least “mass” of our mass media in audience. Books are more able and more likely to develop new, challenging, or unpopular ideas.Readers use the Books : To get information For relaxation and escape For imagination Books can sustain more voices in the cultural forum than can other mass media.
Books are agents of social and cultural change. Books are an important cultural repository. Books are our windows on the past. Books are important sources of personal development. Books are wonderful sources of entertainment, escape, and personal reflection.
Book club editions El-hi books Higher education books Mail order books Mass market paperbacks Professional books Religious books Standardized tests Subscription reference books Trade books University press book
Hyper commercialism and demand for profits Convergence with Internet Conglomeration The growth of small presses Restructuring of retailing Changes in readership
Books are the royal road that enable us to enter the realm of the imaginative. Books enable us to experience what it is to be someone else. Through books we experience other modes of being. Through books we recognize who we are and who we might become. Through books we confess and recognize our fantasies, our joys, and grief, our aspirations and failures, our hopes and our fears.
The availability of books via the Internet resulted in a general decline in profits. The Internet has become an important marketplace for books. Online bookstores such as Amazon.com can keep books available by selling them as digital downloads or as print-on-demand titles.
A newspaper is ascheduled publication containing news of current events, informative articles, diverse features, editorials, and advertising.
The newspaper began circulating in 17th century. The first newspaper was printed in England. Newspapers became far most common in 19th century. In early 1765 stamp duty was charged on newspapers which made them expensive. Then in 1855 this duty was abolished and they became cheaper.
Rome they had a newspaper in early times which was posted on a wall after each meeting of the senate. One page news sheets were printed and imported to England to satisfy public demand for information about continental happenings.
Technological advancements made modern newspaper possible. Benjamin Harris - Publick Occurrences Both Foreign and Domestic, the first newspaperpublished in Britains North Americancolonies. Readers were enthusiastic. It was illegal to publish without the governments approval, and Harris had failed to obtain it. The governor and council had banned publication of the paper.
In 19th C urbanization,industrialization, increasing literacy combined audience to create a new kind of newspaper, penny press. A pioneer of penny press, BenjaminHenry Day introduced this one cent newspaper. It was a break throughin the history of America. BenjaminDay’s September 3, 1833, issue of the New York Sun was the first of penny papers. This one cent newspaper attracted large number of audience and soon there was penny press in all the cities.
In 1848 six New York newspapers decide to pool efforts and share expanses collecting news and distribute into their members. Newspapers were able to reduce expenses as they no longer needed to have their own reporters in all locations. Wire services collect news and distribute it to their members. Much of the 35% of the newspaper is filled with contents provided by the wire and featured services.
Newspapers became for profit ventures. Sensationalism has a hold with a focus on interest stories and attention getting headlines. Sensational stories are meant to anger or excite the public, rather than to inform. Origins: Pulitzer vs. Hearst Joseph Pulitzer (New York World) adopted activist style of coverage to numerous turns of the century problems. The audience for his new journalism was the common man. William Randolph Hearst - New York Journal, kicking off a circulation war with Pulitzer’s World newspaper. Like Pulitzer, Hearst also got into politics and was a state lawmaker. The Yellow Kid was the name of a lead comic strip character that ran from 1895 to 1898 in Joseph Pulitzers New York World, and later William Randolph Hearsts New York Journal.
There are now fewer papers. The amount of time people spend on reading the newspapers has decreasedReaders use the Newspapers : To get information about public affairs As a tool for daily living ( for example, advertising ) For relaxation and escape For prestige For social contact
National Daily Newspapers Large Metropolitan Dailies Suburban and Small Town Dailies Weeklies and Semiweeklies Online Customized
Most modern newspapers are in one of three sizes: Berliner or Midi: 470 mm × 315 mm Tabloids: half the size of broadsheets at 380 mm × 300 mm Broadsheets: 600 mm × 380 mm Newspapers are usually printed on cheap, off-white paperknown as newsprint. Since the 1980s, the newspaper industry has largely moved away from lower-quality letterpress printing to higher-quality. Newspapers publish color photographs and graphics, as well as innovative layouts and better design to help their titles stand out on newsstands.
A newspaper typically generates 70– 80% of its revenue from advertising. Growing readership Good demographics Credible Ad medium The portion of the newspaper that is not advertising is called editorial content, editorial matter, or simply editorial -- articles in which the newspaper and its guest writers express their opinions.
Loss of Competition within the industry Hyper commercialism and erosion of the firewall Convergence with Internet The evolution of newspaper readership are altering not only the nature of the medium but also its relationship with its audience.
The number of copies distributed is called the newspapers circulation and is one of the principal factors used to set advertising rates. The ABC - Audit Bureau of Circulation maintains historical and current data on average circulation of daily and weekly newspapers and other periodicals. Readership figures may be higher than circulationfigures because many copies are read by more than one person.
The availability of news via 24-hour television channels and then the Internet resulted in a general decline in profits. The number of readership decreased. Young people were less interested reading newspaper Newspapers added sections, ads directed to towards teens Many newspapers around the world launched online editions in an attempt to follow or stay ahead of their audience.