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Aggression its nature, causes, and control - Analysis


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Aggression its nature, causes, and control - Analysis

  1. 1. Submitted To: Ma’am Irum Abbasi Submitted By: Hina Anjum Submitted On: Sept. 27, 2012 CHAPTER 10 2012 AGGRESSION: Its Nature, Causes, and Control ANALYSIS ( F A C U L T Y O F S O C I A L S C I E N C E S - D E P A R T M E N T O F M E D I A & C O M M U N I C A T I O N S T U D I E S )
  2. 2. Aggression: Its Nature, Causes, and Control November 23, 2012 A Formal Analysis of ‘Aggression’ The focus of the present chapter is to understand the role of cognitive and affective variables in aggression, social factors that play a role in aggression, and personal characteristics that influence aggression. Aggression is the intentional infliction of harm on others. Aggression stems from many different factors such as genetic factors, externally elicited drives, various input variables relating to the situational or personal factors, individual differences, affective states, appraisal and decision mechanism, and cognitive processes. Aggression is a result of a large number of variables operating together. Frustration is a strong elicitor of aggression only under certain limited condition while provocation from others is also a powerful elicitor of aggression. Even mild teasing can stimulate aggression. Heightened arousal can increase aggression. Exposure to media violence, exposure to violent pornography and sexually aggressive lyrics in popular songs has been found to increase aggression among viewers. Aggression is influenced by many different factors relating to the words and deeds of other people, personal traits, and situational factors. People high in sensation seeking tend to be more aggressive than those low in sensation seeking. Overall males are more aggressive than females. Males are more likely to use direct forms of aggression, but females are more likely to use indirect forms of aggression. High temperatures tend to increase aggression but only up to a point. Bullying involves repeated aggression against individuals who are unable to defend themselves against such treatment. Aggression is common in workplace, but it rarely takes the form of overt violence. Rather, it is much more frequently covert and disguised in form. Abusive supervision involves a continued pattern of aggression by bosses toward their subordinates. It does not only harm the individuals but also the entire workplace. Punishment can be effective in reducing aggression but only when it is delivered under certain conditions. Aggression is a basic and frequent form of behavior, but it can be restrained or reduced. Several techniques such as forgiveness—surrendering the desire for revenge—are helpful in reducing aggression, but they must be used carefully to be effective. Reduced aggression may contribute to our psychological well-being.