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History of microbiology
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Microbiology unit 1

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microbiology for nurses: contains basic introduction regarding subject matter including history of microbiology & scope.

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Microbiology unit 1

  1. 1. Introduction UNIT= 1 Prepared by: Maulik chaudhari
  2. 2.  The first simple forms of life appeared on earth more then 3 billion years ago.  Their descendants have changed and developed into the several million type of animals , plants and microorganisms are recognized.  Microscopic forms of life are present in vast numbers in nearly every environment like soil, water, food, air , etc.
  3. 3. Microbiology: Microbiology is the science that dealing with the study of microorganisms. Microorganisms: An organism that can be seen only with the aid of a microscope and that typically consist of only a single cell.
  4. 4.  microorganisms include: • bacteria • fungi • protozoa • microscopic algae • viruses • various parasitic worms
  5. 5. Development of microscopy  (348-322) Aristotle and other believed that living organisms could develop from Non- living materials.  (1590) Zacharias Janssen- developed first compound microscope
  6. 6.  (1660) Robert Hooke – Published “micrographia” drawing and detailed observation of biological materials made with the best compound microscope  (1676) Anton Van Leeuwenhoek- 1st person to observe microorganisms.
  7. 7. From his teeth, he observed (A)& (B)- rod forms (C) & (D)- motion pathway (E)- Spherical form (F)- Longer type of spherical form (H)- Cluster -Royal Society letter (Sept 17th, 1683) The microscope used Simple microscope (one lens)
  8. 8. Spontaneous generation controversy  1688: Francesco Redi (1626-1678) was an Italian physician who refuted the idea of spontaneous generation by showing that rotting meat carefully kept from flies will not spontaneously produce maggots.  1836: Theodor Schwann (1810-1882) helped develop the cell theory of living organisms, namely that that all living organisms are composed of one or more cells and that the cell is the basic functional unit of living organisms.
  9. 9.  1861: Louis Pasteur: ( father of microbiology)  proposed the “Germ theory of disease”.- Ancients believed that disease was the result of a divine punishment. Pasteur fought to convince surgeons that germs existed and carried diseases, and dirty instruments and hands spread germs and therefore disease. Pasteur's pasteurization process killed germs and prevented the spread of disease.  His studies on fermentation of wine led him to take interest in microbiology. finally he proved that microorganisms do not arise by spontaneous generation. He is known as the founder or father microbiology.
  10. 10.  Joseph Lister (1827-1912) introduced antiseptics in surgery. By spraying carbolic acid on surgical instruments, wounds and dressings, he reduced surgical mortality due to bacterial infection considerably.  He is known as father of antiseptic surgery.
  11. 11. Robert Koch(1843-1910) (father of bacteriology) German bacteriologist was the first to cultivate anthrax bacteria outside the body using blood serum at body temperature. introduced methods for isolation of pure strains of bacteria. He introduced staining techniques.  He is known as father of bacteriology.
  12. 12.  Beginning with Pasteur’s work, discoveries included relationship between microbes and disease, immunity, and antimicrobial drugs  Robert Koch Identified a bacterium as cause of anthrax Introduced “Koch’s Postulates” and the concept that a disease is caused by a single organism.  Joseph Lister Introduced the “antiseptic technique”. Use of phenol (carbolic acid) as disinfectant.  Martinus Beijerinck Discovered “viruses” (toxins, poisons). Infectious agents in tobacco plant fluids.  Alexander Fleming Discovered the first antibiotic - penicillin.
  13. 13. 1.Diagnostic  isolation & identification of causative organism from pathological lesions. Widal’s test – typhoid fever 2. Prognosis of disease in widal’s test rising titer signifies active disease & ineffective treatment . falling titer means effective treatment & curing of disease.
  14. 14. 3. Guidance in treatment by culturing the organisms in pure form & then performing drug sensitivity test that can suggest the effective drug for the treatment of that particular infection. 4. Source of infection in sudden outbreak of infectious disease we can find out the source of infection.
  15. 15.  - Microbiology has an impact on medicine, agriculture, food science, ecology, genetics, biochemistry, immunology, and many other fields.  - Many microbiologists are primarily interested in the biology of microorganisms, while others focus on specific groups;  - Virologists - viruses  - Bacteriologists - bacteria  - Phycologists – algae  - Mycologist –fungi  - Protozoologists – protozoa
  16. 16.  - Medical Microbiology: deals with diseases of humans and animals; identify and plan measures to eliminate agents causing infectious diseases.  - Immunology: study of the immune system that protects the body from pathogens.  - Agricultural Microbiology: impact of microorganisms on agriculture; combat plant diseases that attack important food crops.  Food and Dairy Microbiology: prevent microbial spoilage of food & transmission of food-borne diseases (e.g. salmonellosis); use microorganisms to make food such as cheeses, yogurts, pickles, beer, etc.
  17. 17.  - Industrial Microbiology: using microorganisms to make products such as antibiotics, vaccines, steroids, alcohols & other solvents, vitamins, amino acids, enzymes, etc.  - Genetic Engineering: Engineered microorganisms used to make hormones, antibiotics, vaccines and other products.
  18. 18. Branches of microbiology  1. Medical microbiology  2. Industrial microbiology  3. Food microbiology  4. soil microbiology  5. Plant microbiology
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microbiology for nurses: contains basic introduction regarding subject matter including history of microbiology & scope.


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