headed by King Rama IX, the ninth king of the House of Chakri since 1946 is the world's longest-serving head of state and the longest-reigning monarch in Thai history.
Manjushri, bodhisattva of wisdom, is one of the most important iconic figures in Mahayana art and literature. He represents the wisdom of prajna, which is not confined by knowledge or concepts.His Sanskrit name means "He Who Is Noble and Gentle." He is often portrayed as a young man holding a sword in his right hand and the PrajnaParamita (Perfection of Wisdom) Sutra in or near his left hand. Sometimes he rides a lion, which highlights his princely and fearless nature. Sometimes, instead of a sword and a sutra, he is pictured with a lotus, a jewel, or a scepter. His youthfulness indicates that wisdom arises from him naturally and effortlessly.
The 1997 Constitution was the first constitution to be drafted by popularly elected Constitutional Drafting Assembly, and was popularly called the "People's Constitution".The 1997 Constitution created a bicameral legislature consisting of a 500-seat House of Representatives (สภาผู้แทนราษฎร, saphaphutaenratsadon) and a 200-seat Senate (วุฒิสภา, wuthisapha).
30 baht scheme is for the universal health care program launched by ThaksinShinawatra’s government to support the needs of the urban people under health care.
An ex post facto law (from the Latin for "from after the action" or "after the fact"), also called a retroactive law, is a law that retroactively changes the legal consequences (or status) of actions that were committed, or relationships that existed, before the enactment of the law. In criminal law, it may criminalize actions that were legal when committed; it may aggravate a crime by bringing it into a more severe category than it was in when it was committed;
Corruption watchdogs - labour unions in state enterprises, medical doctors. solidarity in the Ministry of Public Health, and organizations representing teachers and lecturers in public schools, colleges and universities
Report by: Kristine MirabuenoMitz Ariadne Hernandez Helen Dagdag
Introduction to Thailand Thailand ( ) is officially the Kingdom of Thailand ( ) formerly known as Siam. It is a constitutional monarchy headed by King Rama IX, the ninth king of the House of Chakri since 1946 the longest-reigning monarch in Thai history. The king of Thailand is titled Head of State, Head of the Armed Forces, the Upholder of the Buddhist religion, and the Defender of all Faiths.
Capital: Bangkok Language: Thai Religion: Buddhism Currency: Thai Baht Newly Industrialized country Major exporter; successfulTourism industry It is called “Land of the Free” – simply because it is the only Southeast Asian country that has never been colonized by any other country As though it has not been occupied by any other state, the country has its political disputes against another
Flag of Thailand Red is said to symbolize the blood of life, white the purity of the Buddhist faith, and blue the monarchy. The blue and white stripes were added to the flag during World War I.
Politics: The politics of Thailand is currently conducted within the framework of a constitutional monarchy, whereby the Prime Minister is the head of government and a hereditary monarch is head of state. The judiciary is independent of the executive and the legislative branches. 1997 Constitution – 1st Constitution (People’s Constitution) Bicameral Legislature (500-seat House of Representatives; 200-seat Senate)
1997 Constitution was abrogated On 19 August 2007, a referendum was held in which 59.3% of the voters voted in favor of the constitution. The current constitution succeeded the former supreme law of Thailand, the2006 Interim Constitution. All are held accountable by Thaksin Shinawatra
THAKSIN SHINAWATRA Thai: born 26 July 1949 is a Thai businessman and politician, who was Prime Minister of Thailand from 2001 until 2006, when he was overthrown in a military coup. Thaksin founded Advanced Info Service, Thailands most successful mobile phone operator, and became a billionaire.
Thaksin entered politics in 1994 underPalang Dharma Party, left the party along with many of its Military Parties in 1996, and founded the populist Thai Rak Thai (TRT) party in 1998. After a historic election victory in 2001, he became prime minister, the countrys first to serve a full term. Thaksin introduced a range of policies to alleviate rural poverty; highly popular, they helped reduce poverty by half in four years. He launched the countrys first universal healthcare program, the30-baht scheme, as well as a highly popular drug suppression campaign.
Thaksin embarked on a massive program of infrastructure investment, including roads, public transit, and Suvarnabhumi Airport. The Thaksin government faced allegations of corruption, authoritarianism, treason, conflicts of interest, acting non-diplomatically, and muzzling of the press. Thaksin was accused of tax evasion, lèse majesté (insulting King Bhumibol), and selling assets of Thai companies to international investors. Independent bodies, including Amnesty International, criticized Thaksins human rights record. Thaksin was also charged for concealing his wealth during his premiership.
The Military Junta (CNS) Protests by the Peoples Alliance for Democracy occurred in 2006, and on 19 September 2006 a military junta which later called itself the Council for National Security (CNS) overthrew Thaksins government in a coup while he was abroad. The Constitutional Tribunal dissolved the Thai Rak Thai party for electoral fraud ex post facto, banning him and TRTs executives from politics for five years.
The Unbelievable Wealth The CNS-appointed Assets Examination Committee froze Thaksin and his familys assets in Thailand, totaling 76 billion baht ($2.2 billion), claiming he had become unusually wealthy while in office. Thaksin and his wife had declared assets totaling 15.1 billion baht when he took office in 2001, although he had transferred many of his assets to his children and associates before taking office.
Corruption in different forms 1. Public policy process: so-called “policy corruption” and “political rent-seeking” 2. Revenue administration: including corruption in taxation, fines, fees and charges, public loans, financing investment projects, asset management, etc. 3. Expenditure administration: ranging from budget planning and allocation, procurement, concession, market intervention, disbursements, to public- private partnership management.
4. Personnel management: the notion of “position buying, ranging from recruitment and promotion, to transfer and rotation. 5. Political transactions: including asset declaration, election vote buying, parliamentary vote buying, party buying, and buying of members of parliament. 6. The justice process: from corruption among police in law enforcement and judicial corruption, to bribery in jails. 7. Public Service delivery through government programs
In fighting corruption The majority of civic organizations choose a proactive approach in fighting the corruption, such as through civic education, monitoring, and information dissemination. Corruption watchdogs – To bark loud enough that someone in position should take in charge when corruption is visible.
Anti-Corruption Legislation Anti Money Laundering Act Organic Act of Counter Corruption Civil Service Act of 2008 Act Governing Liability for Wrongful Acts of Competent Officers Organic Act on Ombudsman Organic Act on Criminal Procedure for persons holding political positions
National Anti-CorruptionCommission To foster the campaign against corruption, an independent agency that will facilitate all complaints against corrupt officials was created. NACC is tasked to conduct investigation against public officers and employees regarding their declared assets and liabilities as well as unexplained or unusual wealth upon complaint filed against the erring officer.