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- 1. Data collection is a term used to describe a process of Systematic gathering of data for a particular purpose from various sources, that has been systematically observed, recorded, organized INTRODUCTION
- 2. To obtain information To keep on record To make decisions about important issues, To pass information on to others For research study PURPOSE OF DATA COLLECTION
- 3. Nature , scope & Objective of the enquiry Sources of information Availability of fund Techniques of data collection Availability of trained persons Factors to be Considered Before Collection of Data
- 4. Qualitative Deals with descriptions. Data can be observed Data can not measured e.g. –Colour of body coat, feather colour in poultry etc Quantitative Deals with numbers. Data which can be measured. e.g. –height ,weight , length of the animals TYPE OF DATA
- 5. Sources of Data External sources Internal sources Primary data Secondary data Example: Documents Creative works Interviews Man-made materials Surveys Example: Unpublished thesis and dissertations Manuscript Books Journals
- 6. Internal sources of Data o Many institutions and departments have information about their regular functions , for their own internal purposes o When those information are used in any survey is called internal sources of data. o Eg…social welfare socities. External sources of data o When information is collected from outside agencies is called external sources of data. o Such types of data are either primary or secondary. o This type of information can be collected by census or sampling method by conducting survey. Internal & External Sources of Data
- 7. Data that has been collected from first-hand- experience is known as primary data Primary data has not been changed or altered by human beings, therefore its validity is greater than secondary data Primary data has not been published yet and is more reliable, authentic and objective PRIMARY DATA
- 8. Demerits Evaluated cost Time consuming More number of resources are required Inaccurate feedback Required lot of skill with labour Targeted issued are addressed Data interpretation is better Merits High accuracy of data Greater control Address as specific research issues
- 9. Factor effect method of Data collection 2.Type of research subject 3)Purpose of research study 4)Size of study sample 5)Distribution of target population 6)Time frame of the study 7)Literacy level of subjects
- 10. Observation-: is a methodical way of recognising & noting a fact of occurrence TYPE OF OBSERVATION STRUCTURED UNSTRUCTURED PARTICIPATIVE NON –PARTICIPATIVE CONTROLLED UNCONTROLLED
- 11. Merits Subject bias eliminated Information related to current state of affairs Independent to respondent Demerits Time consuming Expensive Limited amount of information available Extraneous factors may interfere
- 12. Presenting stimuli to the respondents in the form of question & note down their oral –verbal response TYPE OF INTERVIEW Standardized interviews a. Structured b. Unstructured Non-standardized interviews a. One to one 1.Face to face, 2.telephonic, 3.internet mediated interviews b. One to many(focus group)
- 13. Merits More accurate responses Get response from all persons Overcome resistance of respondents Response to difficult question may obtained Demerits Not suitable for More respondents Wider geographical area More time & cost Selection , training & supervision of field staff
- 14. Questionnaire method Questionnaire- A questionnaire is a research instrument consisting of a series of question and other prompts for the purpose of gathering information from respondent. Self administered questionnaire Interviewer -administered questionnaire Telephone questionnaire Delivery and questionnaire Postal or mail questionnaire
- 15. Merits Suitable for large population Suitable for large geographical area Less time & cost Appropriate for sensitive & personal type enquiry Demerits Difficulty in replying to the question Some question may remain unanswered Low rate of return of questionnaire Replies may be given by any one other
- 16. SURVEY- A detailed study of geographical area to gather data attitudes, impressions, opinions, satisfaction level etc., by polling a section of the population TYPE 1.CENSUS SURVEY 2.CONTINOUS OR REGULAR SURVEY 3.AD-HOC SURVEY
- 17. Merits Covered large population Less expensive Information is accurate Demerits On small scale survey avoided Time consuming Information does not penetrate deeply Researcher must have good knowledge
- 18. It is the method of comprehensive study of social unit which may be a person , a family , an institution , an organisation or a community . Merits Direct behavioral study Real & personal experience record Make possible the study of social change Increase analysis ability & skills Demerits One case almost different from another case Personal bias Use only in limit sphere More time & money consuming
- 19. Secondary data are those that have already been collected by others. These are usually in journals, periodicals, research publication ,official record etc. Secondary data may be available in the published or unpublished form. When it is not possible to collect the data by primary method , the investigator go for secondary method.
- 20. EXAMPLE Books Journals/periodicals Magazines/Newspapers Published Electronic Sources e-journals General websites Weblogs
- 21. Merits Quick and cheap source of data Wider geographical area Longer orientation period Leading to find primary data Demerits No fulfill our specific research needs Poor accuracy Data are not up to date Poor accessibility in some cases
- 22. Primary data Real time data Sure about sources of data Help to give results/ finding Costly and time consuming Process Avoid biasness of response data More flexible Secondary data Past data Not sure about of sources of data Refining the problem Cheap and no time consuming process Can not know in data biasness or not Less flexible
- 23. Processing involves editing , coding , classification & tabulation of the data EDITING-: it is careful scrutiny of data to insure that the data are is accurate CODING-: it refers to the process of assigning numerals or other symbols to answers so response can be put into a limited number of category.
- 24. TABULATION-: it is concise , logical & orderly arrangement of data in a columns & rows But now a days use of the computer in processing of data CLASSIFICATION-: Data are classified on the basis of common characteristics which may be qualitative or descriptive & quantitative or numericals
- 25. ONE WAY TABLE One way frequency table represents the distribution of cases on only a single dimension or variable TWO WAY TABLE distribution in terms of two or more variables and the relationship between two variable are shown in two way table.
- 26. DEFINITION-: analysis mean the categorising , ordering , manipulating , & summerising of data to obtain answers to research question METHOD FOR ANALYSIS OF DATA 1) Parametric Or standard test-: # The sample is large # Population have normal distribution # The observation are independent # Variables are expressed in interval or ratio scale e.g. t-test , z-test, f-test , analysis of variance etc
- 27. NON-PARAMETRIC TEST Also known as distribution –free test CHARECTERISTICS Use when normal distribution is doubtful Sample size is small Data expressed in terms of ranks E.g. chi square test ,The Mann –whitney U-test etc.
- 28. A) FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION The manner in which the total number of observations are distributed over different classes is called a frequency distribution or systematic arrangement of numeric values Frequency distribution represent in graphical form 1) Histogram 2) Bar Graph 3) Circle Graph /pie diagram 4) Frequency polygon 5) Cumulative frequency curve / ogive curve
- 29. Its is two dimensional frequency density diagram It represent continuous frequency distribution Class interval on X-axis & frequency on Y-axis Class interval must be exclusive
- 30. It is simplest type of graphical representation of data It is suitable for discrete frequency distribution Simple bar graph Double bar graph Divided bar graph
- 31. PIE GRAPH Definition: A graph that shows data in the form of a circle Advantages: • Shows percentages • Shows how a total is divided into parts Disadvantages • Not best for showing trends
- 32. FREQUENCY POLYGON It is use for ungrouped frequency distribution Variable value on X-axis & frequency on Y-axis Frequency plotted against the corresponding mid-value
- 33. CUMULATIVE FREQUENCY CURVE Cumulative frequency curve is also called ogive It use when class interval are very small Y-value are obtained by adding successive frequency (cumulative frequency )
- 34. B) MEASURE OF CENTRAL VALUE/TENDENCY/LOCATION Five basic measures of central tendency Arithmetic mean Median Mode Geometrical mean Harmonic mean
- 35. Mean The sum of the value of individual in the data divided by the number of individual in the data. FORMULA Here, ∑, represents the summation X, represents scores N, represents number of scores
- 36. Median: Is the value which is located in the middle of a series when the observation are arranged in order of magnitude If the total number of numbers(n) is an odd number, then the formula is If the total number of the numbers(n) is an even number, then the formula is
- 37. Mode Mode: The number that occurs most frequently in a set of numbers
- 38. C) MEASURE OF DISPERSON It indicate the extend of scattering or variability of item about a central value RANGE MEAN DEVIATION STANDARD DEVIATION QUARTILE DEVIATION COEFFICIENT OF VARIATION
- 39. Range is difference between the smallest & largest of observation Range = largest value – smallest value it is defined as the square root of the arithmetic mean of the squares of deviations of the observation from the arithmetic mean Most commonly used measure of dispersion
- 40. Mean of absolute deviation of all value of data from average ( mean , mode , median ) μ is the mean x is each value N is the number of values Mean Deviation = Σ|x - μ| N
- 41. Quartile Deviation: It is based on the lower quartile Q1 and the upper quartile Q3. The difference Q3−Q1 is called the inter quartile range. The difference Q3−Q1 divided by 2 is called semi-inter-quartile range or the quartile deviation. Thus Q.D=Q3−Q1 2 Q1=Value of (n/4 )
- 42. The coefficient of variation (CV) is defined as the ratio of the standard deviation to the mean Cv = Standard Deviation / Mean Cv = σ /μ
- 43. t-Test t-Test is used for comparing the means of two independent group Paired t-test If there is any kind of correspondence between the individual values in the two samples The should be paired & differences taken and analysed directly as
- 44. Report writing is an essential skill for professionals in almost every field A report aims to inform, authority within the stipulated period Report help to know what has been done , why it was done how it was done , what result was obtained & what conclusion
- 45. it should be accurate & written in simple language It is Complete and Self-explanatory It is Comprehensive but Compact It has a Proper Date and Signature A good report should be able to sustain reader’s interest Features
- 46. Types of report
- 47. Inductive report • Initial stage • Executive summary • Introduction • Methodology • Conclusions • Discussion • references Deductive report • Initial stage • Executive summary • Introduction • Methodology • Discussion • Conclusions • references
- 48. Initial stage contain following items Title page –: contain information related to title , author , year , month of submission & affiliation Acknowledgement -: it indicate the name of person , institutions & organisations who have sanctioned & help in various in conduct of research & preparation of report in various ways Content -: in this page the chapters and their page number including bibliography & appendices
- 49. It contains all essential information in nutshell Introduce the topic to readers in a comprehensive way a) A clear & definite statement of problem b) A brief review of literature c) The concept of important term are explained
- 50. Selection of study area , sample and sample procedure method of data collection & their measurement statistical tools Summary what you did and why Use the past tense
- 51. Findings or results describes what you discovered, observed, etc, in your observations and experiments Use the past tense. Discussion Discusses and explains your findings and relates them to previous research Use the present tense to make generalisations
- 52. Reports in written form are useful for future reference Reports provide adequate and correct information as well as statistical data to management and helps in decision making A report provides information of unknown facts i.e. new ideas new vision new solution to problem new research about a particular matter.
- 53. Research method in social science & extension education – G.L. RAY & SAGAR MANDAL Foundation of Behavioural research KERLINGER , F.N. Class note of biostatistics Practical manual on biostatistics INTERNET

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