Introduction
• Cells are the basic units of organisms
– Cells can only be observed under microscope
• Two basic types of c...
Plant Cell
–Made of cellulose
which forms very thin
fibres
–Strong and rigid
–In plant cells only
• Cell wall
– Protect and support
the enclosed
substances
(protoplasm)
– Resist entry of excess
water into the cell
– Give shape to th...
–A dead layer
–Large empty spaces
present between
cellulose fibres
freely permeable
• Cell wall
Plant Cell
–Lies immediately
against the cell wall
–Made of protein and
lipid Selectively
permeable
• Cell membrane
Plant Cell
–A living layer
–Can control the
movement of
materials into and
out of the cell
• Cell membrane
Plant Cell
–Jelly-like substance
enclosed by cell
membrane
–Provide a medium for
chemical reactions to
take place
• Cytoplasm
Plant C...
–Contains organelles
and granules :
•e.g. chloroplast
•e.g. mitochondrion
• Cytoplasm
Plant Cell
Organelles
 very small size – can only be
observed under electron
microscope
 has specific functions
 in cytoplasm
–Contain the green
pigment chlorophyll
•To trap light
energy, to make food
by photosynthesis
Plant Cell
• Chloroplast
–Contain starch grains
(products of
photosynthesis)
• Chloroplast
Plant Cell
–Rod shape
–For respiration
Plant Cell
• Mitochondrion
( mitochondria )
– Active cells ( eg.
sperms, liver cells)
have more
mitochondria
Plant Cell
• Mitochondrion
( mitochondria )
–Starch granules
–Oil droplets
–Crystals of insoluble
wastes
Plant Cell
• Non-living
granules
– large central vacuole
– Surrounded by tonoplast
– Contains cell sap
• a solution of chemicals
(sugars, proteins, minera
...
–Control the normal
activities of the cell
–Bounded by a
nuclear membrane
–Contains thread-like chromosomes
Plant Cell
• N...
–Each cell has fixed
number of chromosomes
• Chromosomes carry
genes
–genes control cell characteristics
• Nucleus
Plant C...
Different kinds of plant cells
Onion Epidermal Cells
Root Hair Cell
root hair
Guard Cells
mitochondrion
nucleus
glycogen
granule
cell
membrane
cytoplasm
Animal cell
• No cell wall and
chloroplast
• Stores glycoge...
Different kinds of animal cells
white blood cell
red blood cell
cheek cells
sperm
nerve cell
muscle cell
Amoeba
Paramecium
Similarities between plant cells
and animal cells
Both have a cell membrane surrounding
the cytoplasm
Both have a nucleu...
Differences between plant cells
and animal cells
Animal cells Plant cells
Relatively smaller in
size
Irregular shape
No ce...
Animal cells Plant cells
Vacuole small or absent
Glycogen granules as
food store
Nucleus at the centre
Large central vacuo...
Microscope
• Instrument for
observing small
objects
Different parts of a
microscope
Eyepiece
Fine adjustment
Arm
Stage
Condenser
control knob
Base
Body tube
Course
adjustment
Iris diaphragm
Revolving
nosepi...
The cell as the basic unit of life
• Cell is the smallest unit of living organisms
• Unicellular organisms are made of one...
Levels of organization
• Cells are grouped together and work
as a whole to perform special
functions
Tissue
• A group of similar cells to perform a
particular function
–Animals : epithelial tissue, muscular
tissue
–Plants :...
Organ
• Different tissues group together to
carry out specialized functions
–Heart : consists of
muscles, nervous tissue a...
Stoma
Air Space
Spongy Mesophyll
Cell
Chloroplast
The Structures of a Leaf
Palisade
Mesophyll Cell
The Structures of a Heart
System
• Several organs and tissues work together
to carry out a particular set of functions in a
co-ordinated way
– Human...
System in our body
• examples of systems :
 Digestive System
 Respiratory System
 Circulatory System
 Nervous System
...
The Respiratory System
The Circulatory System
The Nervous System
Male Reproductive System
Female Reproductive System
Level of Organization
cells (e.g. muscle cells, nerve
cells)
tissues (e.g. muscle, epithelium)
organs (e.g.
heart, lung...
It’s You
~ END ~
03 the basic_structures_of_a_
03 the basic_structures_of_a_
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03 the basic_structures_of_a_

  1. 1. Introduction • Cells are the basic units of organisms – Cells can only be observed under microscope • Two basic types of cells: Animal Cell Plant Cell
  2. 2. Plant Cell –Made of cellulose which forms very thin fibres –Strong and rigid –In plant cells only • Cell wall
  3. 3. – Protect and support the enclosed substances (protoplasm) – Resist entry of excess water into the cell – Give shape to the cell • Cell wall Plant Cell
  4. 4. –A dead layer –Large empty spaces present between cellulose fibres freely permeable • Cell wall Plant Cell
  5. 5. –Lies immediately against the cell wall –Made of protein and lipid Selectively permeable • Cell membrane Plant Cell
  6. 6. –A living layer –Can control the movement of materials into and out of the cell • Cell membrane Plant Cell
  7. 7. –Jelly-like substance enclosed by cell membrane –Provide a medium for chemical reactions to take place • Cytoplasm Plant Cell
  8. 8. –Contains organelles and granules : •e.g. chloroplast •e.g. mitochondrion • Cytoplasm Plant Cell
  9. 9. Organelles  very small size – can only be observed under electron microscope  has specific functions  in cytoplasm
  10. 10. –Contain the green pigment chlorophyll •To trap light energy, to make food by photosynthesis Plant Cell • Chloroplast
  11. 11. –Contain starch grains (products of photosynthesis) • Chloroplast Plant Cell
  12. 12. –Rod shape –For respiration Plant Cell • Mitochondrion ( mitochondria )
  13. 13. – Active cells ( eg. sperms, liver cells) have more mitochondria Plant Cell • Mitochondrion ( mitochondria )
  14. 14. –Starch granules –Oil droplets –Crystals of insoluble wastes Plant Cell • Non-living granules
  15. 15. – large central vacuole – Surrounded by tonoplast – Contains cell sap • a solution of chemicals (sugars, proteins, minera l salts, wastes, pigments) Plant Cell • Vacuole
  16. 16. –Control the normal activities of the cell –Bounded by a nuclear membrane –Contains thread-like chromosomes Plant Cell • Nucleus
  17. 17. –Each cell has fixed number of chromosomes • Chromosomes carry genes –genes control cell characteristics • Nucleus Plant Cell
  18. 18. Different kinds of plant cells Onion Epidermal Cells Root Hair Cell root hair Guard Cells
  19. 19. mitochondrion nucleus glycogen granule cell membrane cytoplasm Animal cell • No cell wall and chloroplast • Stores glycogen granules and oil droplets in the cytoplasm vacuole
  20. 20. Different kinds of animal cells white blood cell red blood cell cheek cells sperm nerve cell muscle cell Amoeba Paramecium
  21. 21. Similarities between plant cells and animal cells Both have a cell membrane surrounding the cytoplasm Both have a nucleus Both contain mitochondria
  22. 22. Differences between plant cells and animal cells Animal cells Plant cells Relatively smaller in size Irregular shape No cell wall Relatively larger in size Regular shape Cell wall present
  23. 23. Animal cells Plant cells Vacuole small or absent Glycogen granules as food store Nucleus at the centre Large central vacuole Starch granules as food store Nucleus near cell wall Differences between plant cells and animal cells
  24. 24. Microscope • Instrument for observing small objects
  25. 25. Different parts of a microscope
  26. 26. Eyepiece Fine adjustment Arm Stage Condenser control knob Base Body tube Course adjustment Iris diaphragm Revolving nosepiece Objective Clip Condenser Mirror
  27. 27. The cell as the basic unit of life • Cell is the smallest unit of living organisms • Unicellular organisms are made of one cell only • The cells of multicellular organisms are specialized to perform different functions – e.g. mesophyll cells for photosynthesis and root hair cells for water absorption
  28. 28. Levels of organization • Cells are grouped together and work as a whole to perform special functions
  29. 29. Tissue • A group of similar cells to perform a particular function –Animals : epithelial tissue, muscular tissue –Plants : vascular tissue, mesophyll
  30. 30. Organ • Different tissues group together to carry out specialized functions –Heart : consists of muscles, nervous tissue and blood vessels –Leaf : consists of epidermis, mesophyll and vascular tissue
  31. 31. Stoma Air Space Spongy Mesophyll Cell Chloroplast The Structures of a Leaf Palisade Mesophyll Cell
  32. 32. The Structures of a Heart
  33. 33. System • Several organs and tissues work together to carry out a particular set of functions in a co-ordinated way – Human : digestive, respiratory, excretory, circulator y and reproductive systems – Plant : root and shoot systems
  34. 34. System in our body • examples of systems :  Digestive System  Respiratory System  Circulatory System  Nervous System  Reproductive System
  35. 35. The Respiratory System
  36. 36. The Circulatory System
  37. 37. The Nervous System
  38. 38. Male Reproductive System
  39. 39. Female Reproductive System
  40. 40. Level of Organization cells (e.g. muscle cells, nerve cells) tissues (e.g. muscle, epithelium) organs (e.g. heart, lungs, stomach) systems (e.g. circulatory system) organisms (e.g. man)
  41. 41. It’s You
  42. 42. ~ END ~

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