Article 366 (29A) defines tax on sale or purchase of goods , once again inclusively and it readsas follows: "tax on the sale or purchase of goods includes – a tax on the transfer, otherwise than in pursuance of a contract, of property in any goods for cash, deferred payment or other valuable consideration; a tax on the transfer of property in goods (whether as goods or in some other form) involved in the execution of a works contract; a tax on the delivery of goods on hire-purchase or any system of payment by installments; a tax on the transfer of the right to use any goods for any purpose (whether or not for a specified period) for cash, deferred payment or other valuable consideration; a tax on the supply of goods by any unincorporated association or body of persons to a member thereof for cash, deferred payment or other valuable consideration; a tax on the supply, by way of or as part of any service or in any other manner whatsoever, of goods, being food or any other article for human consumption or any drink (whether or not intoxicating) where such supply or service, is for cash, deferred payment or other valuable consideration and such transfer, delivery or supply of any goods shall be deemed to be a sale of those goods by the person making the transfer, delivery or supply and a purchase of those goods by the person to whom such transfer, delivery or supply is made ". The Tax is on Sale (including deemed sales) or Purchase of the goods by a Dealer at specified Rate at the specified point quantified on the basis of Sale/Purchase price and/or Turnover.Sales Tax/ Purchase tax/ VAT Tax on sale or purchase within the State.Central Sales Tax Tax on sale or purchase in the course of interstate trade.Works Contract Tax Tax on transfer of property in goods used in execution of a works contract.Lease Tax Tax on transfer of rights to use goods or lease. Sale Meaning: Defined by section 2 (g) of CST Act as follows : "sale, with its grammatical variations and cognate expressions, means any transfer of
property in goods by one person to another for cash or for deferred payment or for any other valuable consideration, and includes a transfer of goods on the hire-purchase or other system of payment by installments, but does not include a mortgage or hypothecation of or a charge or pledge on goods ". Defined by section 4 of the Sale of Goods Act,1930 as follows : "Sale and agreement to sell, - a. A contract of sale of goods is a contract whereby the seller transfers or agrees to transfer the property in goods to the buyer for a price. There may be a contract of sale between one part owner and another. b. A contract of sale may be absolute or conditional. c. Where under a contract of sale the property in the goods is transferred from the seller to the buyer, the contract is called a sale, but where the transfer of the property in the goods is to take place at a future time or subject to some condition thereafter to be fulfilled, the contract is called an agreement to sell. d. An agreement to sell becomes a sale when the time elapses or the conditions are fulfilled subject to which the property in the goods is to be transferred ". The State Laws by and large follow the above definitions for defining the sale. Apart from that, the definition clause in the State Laws may include : a. All deemed sales; b. Certain peculiar clarifications, like, transactions of government etc.; c. Circumstances in which sale could be regarded as within the State and so on.Nature: Sale as ordinarily understood Deemed sale [as defined in Article 366(29A) of the Constitution & State Laws]Geographical Classification: a. Inside a State (liable to the State sales tax). b. Inter-State (liable to Central sales tax). c. Import into India (Not liable to sales tax. Liable to customs duty. Sale in the course of import not liable to tax-see section 5 of the CST Act and State Law). d. Export out of India (Not liable to sales tax. Penultimate sale also not liable to sales tax- see section 5 of the CST Act and State Law). Purchase The term is not defined by CST Act.
Some of the States define the term, alongwith the definition of sale, so as to broadly mean "acquisition of property in goods or purchase of those goods by the person to whom such transfer, delivery, or supply is made ". Goods Article 366 (12) – goods – it is an inclusive definition and it reads "includes allmaterials, commodities and articles ".Section 2 (d) of CST Act defines the same as "includes all materials, articles, commodities andall other kinds of movable property; but, does not include newspapers, actionable claims, stocks,shares, and securities".States generally follow the definition as given in the CST Act.However, States have, in the definition clause, included some clarifications, like: a. Whether in the same or the other form; b. If materials etc. are attached to or form part of immovable property and agreed to be severed under the sale contract, such material shall be deemed to be the goods; c. Some States exclude electricity; d. Some States deem the goods used in the execution of works contract as goods, etc.It can be said that there is no uniformity among the States in defining the term. Accordingly, itwould be advisable to refer to the definition of each State. DealerSection 2 (b) of the CST Act defines the term as follows: "dealer means any person who carrieson (whether regularly or otherwise) the business of buying, selling, supplying or distributinggoods, directly or indirectly, for cash or for deferred payment, or for commission, remunerationor other valuable consideration, and includes – i. a local authority, a body corporate, a company, any co-operative society or other society, club, firm, Hindu undivided family or other association of persons which carries on such business; ii. a factor, broker, commission agent, del credere agent, or any other mercantile agent, by whatever name called, and whether of the same description as hereinbefore mentioned or not, who carries on the business of buying, selling, supplying or distributing goods belonging to any principal, whether disclosed or not; and iii. an auctioneer, who carries on the business of selling or auctioning goods belonging to any principal, whether disclosed or not and whether the offer of the intending purchaser is accepted by him or by the principal or a nominee of the principal.Explanation 1 – Every person who acts as an agent, in any State, of a dealer residing outside theState and buys, sells, supplies, or distributes goods in the State or acts on behalf of such dealer as– i. a mercantile agent as defined in the Sale of Goods Act,1930 (3 of 1930), or ii. an agent for handling of goods or documents of title relating to goods, or
iii. an agent for the collection or the payment of the sale price of goods or as a guarantor for such collection or payment, and every local branch or office in a State of a firm registered outside that State or a company or other body corporate, the principal office or headquarters whereof is outside that State, shall be deemed to be a dealer for the purposes of this Act.Explanation 2 – A Government which, whether or not in the course of business, buys, sells,supplies or distributes goods, directly or otherwise, for cash or for deferred payment or forcommission, remuneration or other valuable consideration, shall, except in relation to any sale,supply or distribution of surplus, unserviceable or old stores or materials or waste products orobsolete or discarded machinery or parts or accessories thereof, be deemed to be a dealer for thepurposes of this Act ". The State Laws follow the above definition. In the State Laws, with developments, certain specific or artificial categories are also included. It would be noticed that the dealer should be engaged in the business of buying, selling supplying or distributing the goods. It would be advisable to study the definitions of dealer of the State concerned. The liability to tax would arise, inter alia, in the following cases or classes of dealers: a. A dealer, registered under State Law or under any prior law or if turnover exceeds specified quantum b. A dealer registered under CST Act c. A casual dealer d. A non Resident dealer e. Other specified category / class, if any. Business a. Defined by the section 2 (aa) of CST Act as follows: "business" includes – i. any trade, commerce or manufacture, or any adventure or concern in the nature of trade, commerce or manufacture, whether or not such trade, commerce, manufacture, adventure or concern is carried on with a motive to make gain or profit and whether or not any gain or profit accrues from such trade, commerce, manufacture, adventure or concern; and ii. any transaction in connection with, or incidental or ancillary to, such trade, commerce, manufacture, adventure or concern ". b. The States have followed the above definition. c. Attributes of the definition and specific inclusions: o Generally, inclusive definition Artificial meaning is given
o Any adventure in the nature of the trade, etc. o Any incidental or ancillary or connected transaction with the trade, etc. o Any incidental or connected transaction for commencement or closure or business o Transaction of sale or purchase of assets relating to trade, etc. o Any other transaction included in definition. Sale Price CST Act defines sale price [s.2(h)] as follows:"Sale price means the amount payable to a dealer as consideration for the sale of any goods, lessany sum allowed as cash discount according to the practice normally prevailing in the trade, butinclusive of any sum charged for anything done by the dealer in respect of the goods at the timeof or before the delivery thereof other than the cost of freight or delivery or the cost ofinstallation in cases where such cost is separately charged ". Turnover CST Act defines turnover [s.2(j)] as follows:"Turnover used in relation to any dealer liable to tax under this Act means the aggregate of thesale prices received and receivable by him in respect of sales of any goods in the course of interState trade or commerce made during any prescribed period and determined in accordance withthe provisions of this Act and the rules made thereunder ".State laws follow the definition with various inclusions and exclusions. Broad details arecontained in the following paragraphs.For the Levy/ calculation of limits the relevant concepts as may have been defined are: a. Turnover b. Total Turnover c. Taxable TurnoverTurnover means aggregate sale price or purchase price of goods sold/purchased.In case of works contract, Turnover could be: 1. Purchase price of goods used 2. Contract price less deductions for services and other charges 3. Contract price.Sale price/Purchase price defined to mean: 1. consideration for goods 2. charges for doing something to goods at/before delivery 3. Adjusted for: o Exclusion of insurance, freight, installation cost as charged o Trade discounts, returns etc. o Such other items as may be /have been specified.
Total Turnover means aggregate turnover of all goods whether exempt or otherwise.Taxable Turnover - turnover on which tax is payable – computed as per: a. Adjustments specified b. Adjustments permissible.Specified Adjustments could include: a. Returns b. Discounts c. Exempt items d. Inter-State sales e. Imports and exports f. Resales Others.Permissible Adjustments : a. As per generally accepted practices b. As may be laid down in Rules etc. Classification of Goods Broadly speaking, the goods can be classified as follows:Class of goods Treatment for tax purposes Goods of special importance as declared under section 14 of CSTDeclared goods Act. Rate of tax cannot exceed 4 percent as per CST Act.Goods agreed upon for Rate of tax should not be lower than the floor rateuniform floor rateTax free goods or Exempt Goods exempt from tax in a given State.GoodsRaw materials or Concessional rate of tax or set off allowed in respect of tax paid onIndustrial inputs purchase thereof. Concessional rate of tax or set off allowed in respect of tax paid onCapital goods purchase thereof.Goods purchased for Concessional rate of tax or set off allowed in respect of tax paid onresale or manufacture as purchases thereof.specifiedPacking materials Usually liable to tax at the same rate as the goods sold.containing goods When purchased from unregistered dealers or in the circumstancesGoods liable to purchase in which no tax is paid or purchases from certain persons (like,tax farmers) or under certain other provisons of the law.Goods of importance to May not be liable to tax or may be taxed at concessional rate orthe States purchase tax may be provided for the same, etc. In other words,
some different treatment may be given.Goods liable to additional Exempt from tax, since the additional excise duty is collected inexcise duty lieu of sales-tax by Central Government and shared by the States. Treated as goods liable to tax through a specific entry, in someIntangible goods States (like, Patent, Copyright, Import Entitlements etc.). In other States, the position is not very clear. The goods not specifically listed. These are other goods or formUnclassified goods part of residual entry. Classification of Goods having regard to rate Based on Rate of tax, the goods may beclassified into: Exempt goods (not liable to tax) Declared goods (liable to tax @ not exceeding 4%, as per CST Act) Industrial inputs/ raw materials (liable to tax at a concessional rate) Goods specifically listed (liable to tax at specified but different rates) Unclassified goods (liable to tax at a specified rate) Purchase Tax (PT) A transaction of sale may not atrract the tax. To illustrate :- o a sale by an unregistered dealer; o or a sale by an agriculturist. In such cases, State Government may levy tax in the hands of purchaser (if a registered dealer) known as Purchase Tax. Purchase Tax may also be levied on certain specific purchases or for non fulfillment of prescribed conditions relating to purchase effected. The Purchase Tax is usually levied at first point of Purchase. The classification of goods and rate of tax, by and large, are the same as applicable to a sale of goods. In addition, there may be a specific list of commodities liable to Purchase Tax. It is levied on Purchase Price. On resale of such goods in the same form there may or may not be any Sales Tax. The law may permit a set-off of tax paid on purchases. The provisions of the relevant law need to be examined for the liability, its quantification, set-off, liability to additional levies and so on. Resale Tax (RT) Certain States levying tax on first point sale have introduced a tax onresale of goods called Resale Tax. The resale tax is payable on the turnover of sale at second or
subsequent points or at a point other than which it is liable to tax. For the purpose, the mode andmanner of arriving at the value of turnover liable to resale tax is prescribed. Resale tax is payableon the sales of the commodities, other than excluded or exempted. Additional LeviesIn addition to tax, the States also collect additional levies called : a. Turnover tax (TOT) b. Additional tax c. Surcharge (SUR) d. Cess e. By any other name .Such levy may be: on turnover ; or on amount of tax; or unit based; or lump sum.Levy may be only if turnover or tax exceeds certain specified limits.Levy could be: a. At specified rate; or b. At specified progressive rate (having regard to turnover, aggregate tax liability or the like).It may be applicable to: a. All types of sale/deemed sale; and/or b. Specified types of sale/deemed sale ( like sale at a point other than specified); and/or c. All types of taxes ( including purchase tax); and/or d. Only some taxes ( say, Taxes other than Purchase tax) ; and/or e. Sale of all or selected commodities; and/or f. Only a city or area, etc. Point of levy Under the CST Act generally single point tax exists. On sales in transit bytransfer of documents, tax may be payable at more than one points.The States can, except in respect of declared goods, levy tax at one or more points.It could be any one or more of : First Point; and /or Last Point; and /or Multi Point; and /or Every Point; and /or VAT
First Point When earliest successive dealer sells the goods for the first time in the State,the tax is leviable.A resale of goods in the same form may not attract any tax. To claim resale, the dealers mayhave to furnish necessary proof or declaration.The tax on First Point is payable on the sale price charged at the point of First Sale.Accordingly, the profits or additional price charged at the point of subsequent sales do not suffertax.Certain States, to provide for First Point levy, treat sale by Manufacturer (M) or Importer (I) ofthe goods in the State, as first point levy. Accordingly, INSTAVAT classifies tax on sale byManufacture or Importer as first point levy.To illustrate , say, the first sale is effected at Rs 100. The second sale is effected at Rs 120. Thethird sale is effected at Rs 150. The rate of tax is say 10 percent.In this case, the tax would be Rs 10 (10% of Rs. 100).The subsequent sale would not be liable to tax. Accordingly, the price difference (of Rs 20between the first sale and the second sale and the price difference of Rs 30 between the secondsale and the third sale) would not suffer any tax. Last Point This means the last sale inthe chain of sales and finally for consumption would attract tax. Sales at earlier point may not betaxed, subject to fulfillment of conditions.Compared to the First Point, in the Last point, the tax is payable on the final price, which wouldinclude the additional price or profits charged by intermediaries.To illustrate, say, the first sale is effected at Rs 100. The second sale is effected at Rs 120. Thethird sale is effected at Rs 150. The rate of tax is say 10 percent.In this case, the tax would be Rs 15 (10% of Rs. 150).Accordingly, as compared to the first point, a higher tax is payable by Rs 5. Multi Point A sale is taxed at more than one point; but, not necessarily at every point. Incase of goods attracting multi point tax, if there is only one sale in the State, then, the rate of taxmay be the aggregate of the rate of tax applicable at different points.The tax on Multi point is payable on the sale price charged at the points liable to tax, whichwould include the additional price or profits charged by intermediaries.In such a case, the tax paid at the earlier stage may not be allowed as set off.To illustrate, say, the first sale is effected at Rs 100. The second sale is effected at Rs 120. The
third sale is effected at Rs 150 to the final consumer. The rate of tax is say 10 percent at firstpoint and 2 percent when goods are finally sold to the consumer.In this case, the tax on first sale would be Rs 10. The second sale would not attract any tax. Thefinal sale to the consumer at Rs 150 would attract tax at the rate of 2 percent, that is, Rs 3.Accordingly, the aggregate tax would be Rs 13. Every Point On certain luxury andintoxicating products, tax is levied at every point. It may not be in the nature of VAT.The tax at every point is payable on the sale price charged at each of the points, which wouldinclude the additional price or profits charged by intermediaries.In such a case, the tax paid at the earlier stage may or may not be allowed as set off.To illustrate, say, the first sale is effected at Rs 100. The second sale is effected at Rs 120. Thethird sale is effected at Rs 150. The rate of tax is say 10 percent.In this case, on first sale, the tax payable would be Rs 10. On the second sale, the tax payablewould be Rs 12. On the third sale the tax payable would be Rs 15. Thus, the aggregate tax wouldbe Rs 37. VAT Some of the States do levy VAT in respect of certain commodities.In case of VAT, the tax paid on earlier point is allowed as a deduction from the tax payable bythe dealer or tax may be payable only on the differential value.In case of a manufacturer, VAT paid on materials purchased for manufacture of goods is allowedas a deduction from the VAT payable on sale. Accordingly, at each point, the tax is payable onthe differential price charged (including profits) by each of the successive dealers.To illustrate, say, the first sale is effected at Rs 100. The second sale is effected at Rs 120. Thethird sale is effected at Rs 150. The rate of VAT is say 10 percent.In this case, on first sale, VAT of Rs 10 would be payable. On second sale, VAT of Rs 12 wouldbe payable; but, the second dealer would be allowed a deduction of Rs 10 being VAT paid onfirst sale. Thus, on second sale, effectively, VAT would be payable on differential price of Rs 20.On third sale, VAT of Rs 15 would be payable; but, the third dealer would be allowed adeduction of Rs 12 being VAT paid on second sale. Thus, on third sale, effectively, VAT wouldbe payable on differential price of Rs 30.Accordingly, the aggregate tax would be Rs. 15. Set off The levy of tax on purchase aswell as sale can have cascading effect or multiplier effect.To reduce the rigor of such tax, the State Law may provide for set off or reduction of tax paid onpurchase or on earlier occasions.The set off permitted could be full or partial.
It may be available under various circumstances, like, to a manufacturer; on purchase; onpurchase of capital goods; on purchase of packing materials; on resale; on exports and inter statesale and so on.For conferring the set off, usually the State Law provides for: a. Basic set off provision and broad principles for working the same. b. Circumstances under which such set off can be claimed or cannot be claimed. c. Detailed rules for the mode and manner of computation of such set off. d. Records, documents, declarations and proof required to be furnished.To compute cost of tax, it would be necessary to consider the set off, if any, available.