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Lean Manufacturing and Principles

Application Of Lean Manufacturing Tools In Garments Production.

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Lean Manufacturing and Principles

  1. 1. Welcome to my Presentation
  2. 2. Md.Azmeri Latif Beg 142-32-257
  3. 3. Topics Name Application Of Lean Manufacturing Tools In Garments Production.
  4. 4. Introduction Lean manufacturing Lean Principles Lean Benefits 7 Wastes of Lean in Garment Manufacturing 8 Preferred Lean Manufacturing Tools for Garment Industry Lean Implementation Model Lean Design and Implementation Conclusion Topic Sequence
  5. 5. Introduction If we try to define Lean Then we can say “A systematic approach to identifying & eliminating waste (non value added Activities) through continuous improvement by flowing the product at the pull of the customer in pursuit of perfection” Lean manufacturing is a unified, compressive set of philosophies, rules, guidelines, tools, and techniques for improving and optimizing discrete process. Lean is a production practice that creates more value with less work by eliminating sources of waste.
  6. 6. Lean Goals Improve quality Eliminate waste Reduce Time Reduce Total cost
  7. 7.  Lean Manufacturing involves a variety of techniques such as one-piece flow, kaizen, cellular manufacturing, standardized work, work place organization or visual management. The major purposes of the use of lean production are to increase productivity, improve product quality, reduce inventory, reduce lead time and eliminate manufacturing waste.  This research addresses the implementation of lean principles in a Portuguese garment industry. Traditionally operated garment industries are facing problems concerning low productivity, long production lead times, high rework, poor line balancing, etc, and the firm focused on this project was facing the same problems.  On an earlier stage, a literature review on Lean Manufacturing was conducted, from the creation of the concept of LEAN to its main tools and techniques. It was also mentioned the concept of cellular manufacturing, how to accurately balance a manufacturing line and were given some examples of previous applications in this industries. After understanding the concepts of lean manufacturing, a description and a critical analysis to the company’s productive system was made, acknowledging the problems it was facing. Next, improvement proposals were suggested related with layout change, visual management, 5S, quality management practices and cellular manufacturing.  After implementation of some lean tools, results observed were highly encouraging. Some of the key benefits involve less movement, transportation and material handling, an increase of 14% in productivity in one month and an increase of 60% in profits in two months. Cellular manufacturing wasn’t implemented, although the company has being left prepared for an implementation in the future. Lean manufacturing
  8. 8. Lean Principles Therefore, five main Lean principles were associated with it, briefly described below, and those are: Value, Value Stream, Flow, Pull and Perfection. Value Express the capacity of accurately specify value from the costumer perspective, or what he’s willing to pay, for both products and services. Lean manufacturing defines the value of a product with the customer point of view. Customer don't mind how hard you work to create the product. Customer will evaluate the product by looking at how well this going to fulfill their requirements. Customer don’t need to pay for the defects that removed from production lines.
  9. 9. Value Stream Identify the value stream of specific activities, from raw material to final goods, required for the development of a product or service, removing non-value-adding waste along that path. 6 Literature Review Flow Make the product or service flow without interruptions across the entire value stream. Pull System The production is authorized (pulled) by the costumer, as opposite to a push system where the finished goods are pushed to the costumer. Perfection Constantly identify and remove any kind of waste along the value stream to achieve perfection.
  10. 10. Lean Benefits What can an organization expect as bottom-line results of applying lean thinking to eliminate waste? Documented results across various industries indicate the results in Table below
  11. 11. 7 Wastes of Lean in Garment Manufacturing One prime objective of industrial engineering is to increase productivity by eliminating waste and non-value adding operations from the manufacturing process. So it is essential to know the wastes and non-value adding functions those exist in garment manufacturing.
  12. 12. 1. Overproduction  Overproduction can be viewed as the opposite of JIT and it means producing items for which there are no orders: produce the wrong part, at the wrong time, at the wrong amount. This waste was considered, to Ohno, the fundamental waste, since it causes most of the other wastes. In other words, it produces unnecessary transportation and storage costs due to the excess of inventory. 2. Waiting Time  This is the unproductive time of a worker, or machine, when he’s just waiting for something. For example, waiting for the next process step, tool or supply, or just watching an automated machine finishing a process. It could also be the waiting time due to the lack of work caused by processing delays, equipment failure or capacity bottlenecks. 3. Unnecessary transport  Moving work in process (WIP), materials, or even finished goods long distances is an unnecessary and inefficient transport. This will increase production costs, the lead time, and can even cause damage to the products during the course of the movement.
  13. 13. 4.Excess inventory The excess of raw materials, WIP or finished goods can cause longer lead times, damaged goods and delays. Extra inventory also hides problems such as production imbalances, redundancies, defects, paperwork, equipment downtime and long setup times. Figure 2.2 easily exemplifies this situation through an analogy where water represents inventory and rocks represent problems. In this case, with a high water level, the rocks are hidden and the management assumes everything is fine, until the water drops and the problems are presented. Deliberately forcing the water level down, all the problems are exposed and can be corrected before they induce other possible even worse problems. Figure:
  14. 14. 5. Incorrect processing This concerns the unnecessary steps that are taken in a process, possibly because of the use of poor tools and product design, causing unneeded motion and producing defects (waste seven). 6. Unnecessary movement These are all the needless motion employers have to perform during a process, such as walking or looking for, reaching for, or stacking parts, tools, etc. 7. Defects This waste is the production of defected parts or correction, that is, repair, rework, scrap, replacement and inspection means wasteful handling, time, and effort.
  15. 15. 8 Preferred Lean Manufacturing Tools for Garment Industry During my visits to garment factories I have seen posters on lean tools and lean slogans in some factories. It means that garment factories are really started implementation of lean tools and practicing lean culture. Factories have posters on process flow chart of lean journey. Improvement pictures of before and after implementation of 5S and Kaizen have been displayed on departments. I have seen lot of visuals on the floor. It ensures that something is happening in garment factories to bring good things and improve business performance. But your question is what lean tools are preferred and applied for garment manufacturing? In one factory, I found a poster where all lean tools were listed those were implemented in that factory. All implementation are done under guidance of external lean experts. Factory has benefited a lot after implementation lean manufacturing. These are the preferred lean tools that have been implemented by experts. So you can start with these tools in your manufacturing facilities. I have listed down 8 preferred lean manufacturing tools which are mostly applied by garment industry with brief explanation.
  16. 16. #1. 5S: 5s stand for Seiri(sorting),Seiton(systematic arrangement),Seiso(super clean),Seiketsu(standardize) and Shitsuke(sustainment).5S is about sorting of things in your workplace and inventory stores. Keep workplace and floors clean and arrange things in right order for easy access. #2. Visual displays: Use visual displays as much as possible to communicate with people working in the factory. Display necessary information for quick access. Production board at the end of the line, Mocks of sewing operations at each work stations, quality inspection procedure on the quality checking tables, displaying right and wrong product, displaying exit sign and labeling every items are few example for visual displays factories can easily adopt. #3. Standardization of work process: One core objective of lean manufacturing is elimination of manufacturing wastes and non-value added tasks from the internal processes and systems. For this factory has to set standardized working method. When one follows standard working procedures, there is minimum chance of making errors.
  17. 17. #4. Quick Changeover: Quick changeover, one of the lean manufacturing tools, is used in reducing waste in garment making process. While setting a line with new styles, line losses lot of time which is known as set-up loss. Quick changeover or SMED method provides efficient way to set lines for new style in less time. #5. Error proofing: Error proofing aka Poka-Yoke is any mechanism in a lean manufacturing process that helps an equipment operator to avoid mistakes. It helps in designing a process in such way that there would not be minimum chance of producing defective product. Its purpose is to eliminate product defects by preventing, correcting, or drawing attention to human errors as they occur. Even error proofing technique can be used in information generation, reporting system. #6. Kanban: Kanban is a workflow system. Kanban tool improves visibility and limit Work in Process. Where factories use Kanban, it helps to eliminate building excess work in process (WIP) in production lines.
  18. 18. #7. Problem solving: Clothes are ever changing product. A garment manufacturers need to work with latest products, new material and machines. When one does something first time there may be a chance of having problem. You have to short out the problem to meet your business goal. Problem solving tools helps you and your team to find possible solution without external experts. Ishikawa’s Fish bone diagram method and 5 Whys are two famous tools widely used in problem solving. #8. Workload balancing: In mass production, garments are made in a line where numbers of operators involve making a single garment. A balanced line means every operator has workload and nobody sit idle without work. This maximizes operator utilization. And as a result you get maximum output from a line. It is not only sewing line, workload balance is required everywhere in the company – like department to department, process to process workload balance.
  19. 19. Cycle concept of Lean Manufacturing Identifying causes(Every problem in the system has a cause for it) Finding root causes(sometimes one or more root causes for a problem) Finding solution(how to overcome this problem) Implementing(implement the solution and to make sure that you achieve your objectives) Will go on and on again and again This process will be continuous until there are wastes to be removed.
  20. 20. Lean Implementation Model
  21. 21. Lean Design and Implementation This chapter represents the implementation phase of the project. Here, the reader is elucidated through an action plan using the 5W1H technique to solve the identified problems, following a description of its implementation, as for the changes in layout, the implemented program, visual management applications, and implementation of 5S program, quality management practices or group technology. Action Design After an analysis to the company’s current productive system, we resorted to the 5W1H technique to find solutions to the problems identified, also defining an action plan to be applied. This plan is shown in the next table.
  22. 22. Action Plan Table What? Why? Where? Who? When ? How? Reduce transports Unnecessary Transport Shop Floor Responsible person To define Layout Change Establishing goals and visual management Low efficiency; Low motivation Shop Floor Responsible person To define Visual Management and Bonus Strategy Organize WIP and tools Large WIP and waiting time Shop Floor 5S responsible To define 5S Application Production Control Unnecessary Movement; Lack of efficiency control; Lack of performance indicators Manufactu ring Line Responsible person To define Create personalized excel program Control Lack of quality Shop Floor Head of To Implement
  23. 23. Areas Where Changes Have Been Made Majority (78%) of the companies said that changes in product design and manufacturing process occurred in their organization as a result of lean implementation; 44% respondents indicated a change in supplier networks and the remaining (22%) focused on factory management followed by inbound logistics (11%) and outbound logistics (11%) In addition, companies mentioned a variety of changes that took place within their organizations. These include: 􀁸 cultural change 􀁸 education of workers and suppliers 􀁸 empowerment of employees 􀁸 commitment of top level managers 􀁸 relationship with suppliers 􀁸 rearranging the manufacturing process 􀁸 creating awareness
  24. 24. Areas of organization where changes were made SI NO. Areas of changes Percentages 1 2 3 4 5 6 Product design Inbound logistics Outbound logistics Manufacturing Processes Supplier network Factory management 78 11 11 78 44 22 Lean production reduces all forms of non-value added activities in organizations and improves its performance. From the analysis of the data collected, it appears that companies that adopt lean manufacturing as a working philosophy within their organizations can make significant improvement in terms of their operational performance even if it is in a modified format that best suits their particular business culture. It is obvious that there are strong benefits to be gained from implementing a lean manufacturing culture, as demonstrated by the companies in this study.
  25. 25. Reduction in unit production cost Company Before Lean ($) After Lean ($) Reduction ($) As a % 1. Fashion Point Ltd. 2. Texas Fashion Ltd. 3. Beximco Fashions Ltd. 4. Shanta Industries Ltd. 5. DADA(Savar) Ltd. 6. Shata WashWorks Ltd. 7. Armana Fashions Ltd. 8. Shanta Denims Ltd. 9. PAXAR Bangladesh Ltd. 8.50 11.0 4.40 10.0 1.40 3.50 0.87 - 4.50 7.00 9.00 3.20 8.00 1.30 3.00 0.84 - 3.00 1.50 2.00 1.20 2.00 0.10 0.50 0.03 - 1.50 17.6 18.1 27.2 20.0 7.1 14.2 3.4 - 33.3
  26. 26. The amount of time (hour/minutes) to accomplish standard work sequence for making a product 1 30° c 21 3 4 6 75 30 min 90 ° c Drained 8.9 10 60 ° c 80 ° c 10 min10 min DrainedDrained Company Before Lean (minutes ) After Lean (minut es) Reduction (minutes) % of reduction 1. Fashion Point Ltd. 2. Texas Fashion Ltd. 3. Beximco Fashions Ltd. 4. Shanta Industries Ltd. 5. DADA(Savar) Ltd. 6. Shata WashWorks Ltd. 7. Armana Fashions Ltd. 8. Shanta Denims Ltd. 9. PAXAR Bangladesh Ltd. 60 30 55 75 50 60 50 60 40 40 15 49 60 39 40 40 40 35 20 15 06 15 11 20 10 20 05 33 50 11 20 22 33 20 33 13 Note: The percentages have been rounded to nearest figure.
  27. 27. ConclusionImplementation of lean manufacturing in a garment manufacturing company is carried out by this. To implemented in a Bangladeshi garment manufacturing company. For the first few weeks we tried to learn the processes in the garments finishing department. Then study and analysis those processes are performed using some lean manufacturing tools and techniques and found some problems. Eventually some layouts and process flows are proposed that improves the productivity and reduces cost. The better utilization of manpower and factory floor space is also ensured by implementing the proposed layout. At the same time proposals help to develop a good relationship among the workers and will provide an easier way for the management to coordinate and integrate the factory production with the current level of resources. These techniques can be implemented in any garment manufacturing company and it will help them to improve the productivity at same level of resources.
  28. 28. Reference  Karim, S. (2009). The Impact of Just-in-Time Production Practices on Organizational Performance in the Garments and Textiles Industries in Bangladesh, Doctoral Thesis, Dhaka University.  Lean thinking, international journal volume3 issue2 december 12,Asst.profes sor, Gandhigra Rural University, ndhigram,India.senthil.b1980@gmail.com  F. A. Abdulmalek, J. Rajgopal, Analyzing the benefits of lean manufacturing and value stream mapping via simulation: A process sector case study. International Journal of Production Economics, 107, 223-236, 2007.  Ripon Kumar Chakrabortty et al./ Study and Implementation of Lean...  en.wikipedia.org/wiki/lean  www.Application Of Lean Manufacturing Tools In Garments Production/html

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