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Apparel Washing and Finishing

Best wash look is the best touch of a garment - Garment washing is the best touch of a garment. Same type of garments can produce several effects for several wash.Apparel finishing can change your garments.

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Apparel Washing and Finishing

  1. 1. Apparel Washing & Finishing AZMIR LATIF, MSc.Engr (Textile) [1] State the flow chart of garment manufacturing process?
  2. 2. Apparel Washing & Finishing AZMIR LATIF, MSc.Engr (Textile) [2] Q1. What do you mean by apparel washing? 'Washing' can also refer to the washing of clothing or other cloth items, like bed sheets, whether by hand or with a washing machine. Washing is the process & technology which is used to modify the appearance, outlook comfort ability and fashion of the garments is called garment washing. Industrial Garments Washing is one of the major important parts for Textile sector. By industrial garments washing we can remove dust, dirt and infections material. For improving special look on garments as per fashion requirement. Garment washing is normally done after stitching. According to fashion trend and customer demand buyers ask for garment washing. For the washing apparel buyers mention exactly what types of washing they need for the order. For example, Tom Tailor buyer asked for washes like – Vintage wash, Cloud wash, softener wash or Acid wash. Each wash has different types of appearance on the fabric surfaces. Wash types mainly depends on the product types. For denim product heavy enzyme is required where for knitted Tee light softener wash may be okay. VVI Q2. Write down the objects of garment washing?  To remove starch that applied during fabric manufacturing.  To soften the garment hand feel and improve bulkiness  To remove dirt, spots, oil stains that accumulate to garment at the garment manufacturing processes.  To remove chemicals used during printing process and embroidery process To fulfill customer demand  Washed clothes can be worn directly after purchasing  To give faded look or any other color tinted look to the garment.  To stabilize garment shrinkage and dimensional instability. Objects of garments washing:  To develop softness in garments: Size materials applied during manufacturing present in the fabric are removed which enhances soft hand feel . Additional softness may be attained by using softener.  To introduce fading effect: Dyes or pigments are present in the fabric , used during coloration, are washed out locally or partially which result fading or worn out effects in the garments.  To create new fashion: Washing Process of garments bring different outlook ( faded, color tinted etc ) thus creating new fashion for the new generation especially for teenagers.
  3. 3. Apparel Washing & Finishing AZMIR LATIF, MSc.Engr (Textile) [3]  To satisfy the consumer :As the contraction or extraction (shrinkage ) occur due to washing , the wearer can use the garments after purchase satisfactory. VVIQ3. Write the Purpose of washing? Purpose of washing/Best wash look is the best touch of a garment - Garment washing is the best touch of a garment. Same type of garments can produce several effects for several wash. This may be explained in the following way: - Like this:  To create wash look appearance, seems the new touch of fashion.  By the washing technique, faded/old, color or tinted affect.  Washing technique creates new fashion such as tagging, grinding, destroy, blasting, whickering, permanent wrinkle, deep dye, tie dye, p.p spray, hand crapping, p.p spoonzing etc.  To reduce size materials that imports soft hand feels.  To attraction the customers/buyer by different types of fashionable washing and market development.  Due to washing, shrinkage occurs in the garments. There is no possibility of further shrinkage of the wash garments.  Any dirt, spot or germ if added in the garments during manufacturing is also removed due to washing.  Washing process of garment is done to create wash look appearance. After washing the garments create a new looks which seems the new touch of fashion.  By the washing technique, faded/old look, color or tinted affect is created in the garment which also seems the best touch of garments.  Washing technique create new fashion such as tagging, grinding, destroy, Blasting, whiskering, permanent wrinkle, deep dye, tie dye, p.p spray, hand crapping, p.p spoonzing etc. Which is also seems the best touch of garments.  The main and important function of washing is to reduce size materials as a result the garment become size free and become soft hand feel.  When these soft garments are touched then it seems to best touch of garments.  To attraction the customers/Buyer by different types of Fashionable washing and market developments. Q4. Write the Advantages of Garment Washing? 1. Starch materials is present in the new fabrics of the new garment are removed, hence feels soft during use. 2. Softness feeling of garments could be further increased. Washed garment could be wear directly after purchase from store. 3. Fading affect is produced in the garment in regular or irregular pattern. 4. Fading affect could be produced in the specific area of the garment as per specific design. 5. Different outlook of garment could be produced in the garment by different washing techniques. 6. Similar outlook can be produced in the garments by different washing techniques. 7. Initial investment cost to set up a garment washing plant is comparatively lower.
  4. 4. Apparel Washing & Finishing AZMIR LATIF, MSc.Engr (Textile) [4] 8. Dirts and spots if present in the garment are removed. 9. Shrinkage occurs in the garment washing, hence no possibility of further shrinkage. 10. Removal of starch or size materials make the fabric soft hands feel. 11. Softness could be increased by the addition of softener just at the last stage of washing. 12. Dirt, spots, impurities, gum etc, if accumulated in the garments during manufacturing could be removed. 13. During washing shrinkage may takes place, therefore after washing there is no possibility to create such problem. 14. Washed garments could be worn directly after purchase. 15. Faded or worn out effect could introduced to the garments which creates new fashion 16. Similar outlook can be obtained by different washing techniques. 17. Comparatively lower capital is required to set up a washing plant. 18. Lower land space and least manpower cost are required to run a washing plant. Q5.Discuses the Requirements of garments washing: 1. It should be removed size materials from the garments. Hence feels soft during use. 2. It should be removed any dust, dirt, spot, impurities or germ which is present or added in garments during manufacturing. 3. It should be shrinkage occurred i.e. no possibility of further shrinkage of wash garments due to washing. 4. It should be attracted the customers or buyer by using different types of fashionable washing and market developments. 5. It should be produced similar or different outlook in the garments by different washing techniques. 6. It should be created wash look appearance in the garments. After washing the garments create a new looks which seems the new touch of fashion. 7. It should be created color or tinted affect in the garments which also seems the best touch of the garments. 8.It should be created faded affect in the garments. 9. It should be possible to wearing directly the garments after purchasing from the shop. 10. Should be used new/ modern/ latest machines. 11. It should also be produced fading affect in the specific area of the garment as per specific design. 12. It should be comparatively more profitable than others. Q6.Discuss about different types garments washing? There is some physical pretreatment related to industrial garments washing. These are Hand Scraping, Sand Blasting, Whiskering, Tagging, Crinkle Effect, Grinding, and Destroying. There is also some chemical pretreatment related to industrial garments washing. These are Potassium per Manganate spray, Color Spray. Color spray is also known as tinting. For garment dyeing and washing plant some machines and equipments are necessary. These are: Types of wet and dry process •Normal wash / Garments wash/ Rinse wash.
  5. 5. Apparel Washing & Finishing AZMIR LATIF, MSc.Engr (Textile) [5] •Pigment wash. •Caustic wash. •Silicon wash. •Stone wash. •Enzyme wash. •Stone Enzyme wash. •Acid wash. •Bleach wash. •Tinting & over dyeing. •Sand Blasting. •Hands scraping. •Over all wrinkles. •Permanent wrinkle. •Grinding & Destroy. •Broken & Tagging. •P P Spray & P P (potassium perborate) Sponging etc. VVI Q7. Why the normal wash / garments wash is needed? Normal wash is required for the following reasons:- •To remove dust, dirt, oil spot, impurities from the garments. •To remove size materials from the garments. •To remove starch presents on the garment fabrics. •For soft feeling to wear the garments after purchasing. •To achieve buyer washing standard. Q8. Discuss the factor which affects the garment washing? Depending on garments construction different types of washing process can be done. 1. Twill/Canvas/Knitted/Corduroy - Normal wash, Pigment wash, Caustic ,Si wash 2. Denim/Jeans/Gabardine - Enzyme wash, Stone wash, Bleach wash , Acid wash 3. Grey fabric- Super white wash To have an idea about washes few washes have been explained below. 1. Heavy enzyme or Vintage Wash: Vintage means old look. To get the old or used appearance garments are washed inside washing machine with enzymes. Fleece sweat shirt are washed with heavy enzyme. 2. Cloud wash: Cloud wash gives appearance of white patches on the garment surface that looks like cloud in the sky. 3. Stone wash: To get faded look on the garment surface white stone are used with enzymes during washing. During washing fabric come in contact with stones and by rubbing color fades. Stone wash generally used for denim product washing. 4. Acid wash: For acid wash, base color of the garment taken out by spraying acid on the specified areas.
  6. 6. Apparel Washing & Finishing AZMIR LATIF, MSc.Engr (Textile) [6] VVI Q9. What are changes occurred after washing? The changes occur due to the following actions: 1. Mechanical / rubbing / abrasion between garments to garments. 2. Garments to machine; and 3. Chemical action. Effects of garments washing 1. Change the appearance of the garments. 2. Change the strength of garments: 3. Change the weight of garments: 4. Change in size. 5. Change in color. 6. Change outlook of the garments. 7. Change in comfort. 8. Change in design. Change the appearance of the garments: The overall appearance is changed by washing by using different chemical and process. It may be fade or observed tiny crease on the fabric surface. Change the strength of garments: Friction between fabric surfaces with rotating drum, fabric strength is loss. Strength loss is depends on the processing time & types of wash required. Change the weight of garments: During washing size material may removed, fiber open, yarn open, fiber migrate from yarn so ultimate weight loss after washing Change the dimensional stability of garments: During washing ordeal operation is needed. So dimensional stability of garment may shrinkage or extend. The original shape of garment may increase or decrease. Change in size: The original shape of garment may increase or decrease during washing. So the ultimate size of garment is change.
  7. 7. Apparel Washing & Finishing AZMIR LATIF, MSc.Engr (Textile) [7] Change in color: During washing dyed and printed garment are affected by chemical. Some color washed off from the fabric surface. Color bleed form the surface. Color decay from deeper to paler shade. Change outlook of the garments: Over all out look of garment may changed by washing. Change in comfort: Clothing comfort is a state of mind when it is at its lowest stress level. Comfort is defined as the absence of perceived pain- and discomfort. Clothing comfort is a state of satisfaction indicating physiological, psychological and physical balance among the person. After washing, garment may soften or hard. Change in design: By giving different effect on garments, the design of garments is changed. After washing, wrinkle effect may do by wrinkle wash. Q10.Write the Unavoidable changes / limitations of garments washing? Like other processes the garments washing is also not without some limitations. They included as below-  Garments size change: Size change takes place due to shrinkage properties of fabric. The amount of shrinkage properties of fabric determines the size change of the garments.  Size material is partly removed : Unfixed dyes may remain on the surface of the garments and it is necessary to remove completely after washing. Q11.What do you mean by Acid Wash? Acid wash is again becoming popular on denim jeans and we are going to see more of acid washes in the coming seasons. Here, let‟s have a quick look at the acid washing process. An acid wash finish treatment creates significant contrasts in the color of the denim material. It can be done on Indigo & Sulphur base fabric garments. As the randomly faded, acid washed style came into vogue in 1980s, the process of treating denim in such a way began to become increasingly refined. Some tried to use a method similar to the stonewashing, yet the fading did not occur as dramatically or throughout the material. Acid-washed on apparel, (Phosphoric Acid is used in the process, acid would react with fabric surface and destroy the fabric), is washed with thermocol ball, pumic stones or until it is bleached almost white. During Acid wash, thermocol ball or pumic stones are used. By the action of thermocol ball or pumic stones, irregular fading affect is developed on the heavy garments like denims, thick canvas/twill, and sweater. The thermocol ball or pumic stones act a brushing action on the garment fabric surface. It Super-size your silhouette in this slouchy denim jacket in vintage acid wash.The area where more brushing action takes place there more dicolour or fadding affect is developed and the area where less brushing action takes place less brushing action and takes place less fadding affect will be developed. The multi-layer fabric areas like –collar, calf, pocket, placket, side seam etc area will be brushed more than the single layer areas. As a result irregular fadding affect will be developed on the garments fabric surface. Thus in this way fading affect may be developed on the garment by acid wash technique.
  8. 8. Apparel Washing & Finishing AZMIR LATIF, MSc.Engr (Textile) [8] Q12.Write the Objects of Acid Wash? 1. To produce irregular fading effects or old looking effect. 2. For soft feeling to wear the garments i.e. to improve softness. 3. To achieve the buyer washing standard. 4. To increase rubbing fastness. 4. To get vintage look (that must be something new look) 5. VVI Q13.Discuss briefly/what are the technique used in acid washing for apparel washing? This is the oldest of fashion washes in denim after stone wash. The name acid wash is in reference to the acids used for this wash in old recipes. In new methods it is done with oxidation. Use of bleach/oxidative is very safe and economical in comparison t o acids. Different chemicals are used and among them potassium permanganate (KMnO4) and sodium hypochlorite are mainly used. Acid wash is typically done by soaking pumic stone in hypochlorite. Sometime KMnO4 is used in replace of bleach. Selection of oxidant is very important and mainly depends on the type of fabric. When it is done with pumice stone the washer and garment should not contain any water. Dry garment is much suitable for this process then a damp one. Pumic stones are soaked in bleach and left it to open for little time so they get only damp rather than wet. Then they are processed in machine with garments. The extent of effect is controlled with process time, concentration of oxidant solution and quantitative ratio of garment to stone. In some derivatives of this process cotton balls or cotton ribbons are used instead of pumic stone. The impact of cotton is very different form pumic stone. It produces more merged and cloudy effect. Cotton ball of cotton ribbon is more successful on damp rather dry garment. Again the concentration of oxidative solution, time of process and quantity of  garments measures the effect. Cotton towels are some time used for this effect to produce more cloudy patterns on garment. Garment must be stone washed before going for acid wash. It is more prominent and uniform on medium stone wash than dark or light washes. KMnO4 cannot be used with cotton balls/ribbons. It is only possible with hypochlorite. Black sulfur is not process able with hypochlorite as sulfur reacts vigorously with sulfur and pace of process cannot be controlled. One important thing about acid wash is that the process is without water so the effect will be more random and variation will to a larger extent than regular washes. So by keeping the batch size minimum this variation can be controlled. The simple relation is larger is the batch size greater is the variation in result.
  9. 9. Apparel Washing & Finishing AZMIR LATIF, MSc.Engr (Textile) [9] VVI Q14.Which Technique to be applies for acid washing? During machine rubbing garments and stones rotate and the stones drop on the garment surface. Due to biting and brushing action of the stones, the garments become faded in spot pattern. By the action chemicals present in the stone discolors the garments. The thick seam areas like collar, pocket, cuff, side seam etc area are faded more than the remaining areas of the garments. During loading and unloading of the garments in the washing machine, counting of be done to avoid double treatment of a garment. If any garment is double treated, then the garment will be rejected. Before processing second batch in the same machine, fresh soaked stones to be added in the washing machine.  Degree of fading: Due to biting and brushing action of the stones, the garments become faded in spot pattern. The lot size of garments, machine drum diameter is considering parameter. Stone quantity depends on that. Some time need deep fading that time machine rpm is high time is high. Number of stone is higher when deep fading is needed. Soaking time is very important to good oxidation. The ratio of soaking chemicals {potassium permanganate (KMnO4): phosphoric acid (H3PO4)}[50:50].  Fabric type: Fabric type is very important in acid washing. All process ant technique time temperature directly depends on fabric. For acid washing denim fabric is suitable. But all fabric may allow is technique like, light garments like denims, thick canvas/twill, and sweater. In Acid washing irregular fading effect is done by different fabric & fabric line. In a garment has different seam line. When a garment bend or fold some portion has more contact with other. In their surface contact is high so during washing friction is high so in a certain area fading high. In a same batch body to body are different with other. It is impossible to match body to body 100% precisely.  Fabric GSM: After subsequent washing process the garments become fully relaxed. This causes a decrease in GSM of fabric slightly. As the potassium Permanganate is color discharging oxidant the acid wash caused a color fading of denim garment with a frosty look due to irregular rubbing action of pumice stone. It was also evident from the experiment that acid wash is less significant in the EPI & PPI of the denim apparel. Due to washing the yarns become softer. As a result the count slightly increases both in the warp and weft way. The area where more brushing action takes place there more discolor or fading affect is developed and the area where less brushing action takes place less brushing action and takes place less fading affect will be developed. The multi-layer fabric areas like –collar, calf, pocket, placket, and side seam etc area will be brushed more than the single layer areas. As a result irregular fading affect will be developed on the garments fabric surface. Thus in this way fading affect may be developed on the garment by acid wash technique.
  10. 10. Apparel Washing & Finishing AZMIR LATIF, MSc.Engr (Textile) [10] Q15.Write the Latest acid washing process/technique on Woven denim? Denim apparels (jeans) were desized using detergent and desizing agent. The liquor ratio containing Desizing agent Ne (2gm/l) and super-excel (1gm/l) and material to liquor ratio of 1:13. The process was accomplished in an industrial horizontal sample washing machine (NgaiShing, Model-NS-2205, Hong Kong) at 60°C for 20 min. Desizing treatment was carried out to remove the sizing material from the yarn dyed denim. After that a hot wash was conducted at 70°C for 20 min following a cold wash for 3 min. Desized apparels were squeezed in Hydro-extractor m/c (Zanussi, Roaches International LTD, England) at 200 RPM for 4 min to remove excess water from the apparels. Then the samples were dried at 65°C for 25 min in a sample steam drier (OPTI-DRY, Roaches, International LTD, England) following 5 min cold dry in the same machine. The fresh pumice stones were soaked at room temperature for 10 min by shuffling using Potassium permanganate (4gm/l, KMnO4) and phosphoric acid (1ml/ l, H3PO4) containing the liquor ratio 1:2. Pumice stones are naturally perforated; hence pick up the solution very quickly After the desired soaking of pumice stone, the completely dried desized apparels were treated with them (damp pumice stone) at room temperature for 15 min at the same sample washing machine at 30 RPM without additional water followed by the standard washing procedure. After the treatment the pumice stone were unloaded from the machine. The acid washed apparels were conducted by a neutralization process, a detergent wash and a softening process respectively. The neutralization process was carried out by sodium metabisulphite (4gm/l) at room temperature for 5 min, detergent wash by super-excel (2gm/l) at 50°C for 10 min to remove the breaking stone dust and adhering chemicals and Softening was carried out by Basu-soft softener (1gm/l). The acid washed apparels were squeezed and dried in the same hydro-extractor machine and drier respectively following the same time, temperature and RPM. Then the treated apparels were assessed to find out the changes of properties of denim apparel due to acid wash treatment. VVI Q16.Write about Pumice Stone? •The tone is the perforated stones, produced from volcanic explosion. •At first these stones are soft but becomes cold, it becomes the stones with rough surface, •Pumice stones float on water. •Pumice stones come from Indonesia and Turkey. •Indonesia stone color is slightly brown and Turkey stone is white color. •Pumice stones are available in 3 size i.e. small 2-3 cm, medium 3-5 cm and large size 5-7 cm. •Two to Three times can be used are pumice stone. •Every bag contain 22 kg to 25 kg and price 400/= to 425/=/ bag (varies).
  11. 11. Apparel Washing & Finishing AZMIR LATIF, MSc.Engr (Textile) [11] Q17.Write about Thermocol Ball? In early 2000 some laundry tried doing the same wash soaking thermocol bolls in bleach or pp solution to get this desired effect. While this process can be done using light bleach, chlorine, potassium permanganate etc. Garments are washed with different kind of Balls like Emery, Rubber, Plastic and Silicone coated Balls to give myriad finishes. Stone/thermocol Ball Stone/Cotton balls/Cotton ribbons are dipped in diluted solution of oxidant to make them ready for process. It is very important to remove the excessive quantity of solution from stones. This will be helpful in controlling the effects. This can be done by two ways. One is to let the soak out in open by placing them on mesh sheet and them running them in washer without water. When they get semi wet, they are ideal to use in process. This treatment is very useful for acid wash. Some time a quantity of raw stones or cotton balls is added to treat ones to control the intensity of pattern Q18. When Corksheet is use in the replace of thermocoal ball? Some times corksheet is used for abrasion .For getting overall fading effect corksheet is used as a cost effectively. There are many size of corksheet used for acid washing. All process is same only corksheet is used on the instead of thermocol/stone. Number of corksheet pieces is depend on the load size of garments, machine drum diameter.
  12. 12. Apparel Washing & Finishing AZMIR LATIF, MSc.Engr (Textile) [12] VVI Q19.Write briefly Acid washing process sequence? Apparatus:  Denim Jeans  Rubber Gloves  Laundry Bleach  Spray Bottle  Pumice Stones – like you use for a pedicure  Sodium bisulfate (optional) 1. Soak the pumice stones in the bleach overnight. The bleach will be absorbed into the stone. Wear old clothes and rubber gloves while handling the bleach. Make sure you have a well-ventilated area to work in. 2. Mix two parts bleach with one part water in a spray bottle. Randomly spray the pants where you want the acid wash look to appear. Soaking the jeans completely will give you an overall faded look while just working on certain areas will give you the splotchy look. 3. Take the bleach soaked pumice stone and scrub on the area of the jeans that you choose. Try different effects. You may want to spray the jeans around the legs, but use the pumice stones on the rear end of the jeans to give them a worn aged look. Get creative and none of your acid wash jeans will look the same. 4. Allow the pants to sit for ten to fifteen minutes and watch the jeans begin to fade. The longer you let them sit, the lighter they will get. However, it is very important not to leave the bleach on for more then twenty minutes. The bleach will begin to eat away at the denim fabric and ruin your jeans. 5. Set the washer for a small load and fill with water. Add a tablespoon of sodium bisulfate. This will remove the extra bleach from the pants and allow you to wash them with other clothes. If you do not have sodium bisulfate, wash your jeans several times by themselves or only with other clothes you do not mind getting bleached. 6. Dry the acid wash jeans in the dryer as normal. If you want them to shrink, leave them in the dryer until they are completely dry. If you do not want them to shrink, take them out while they are slightly damp and hang them to dry the rest of the way. Acid Wash Process: A processor Acid wash of 60 kg batch of Denim Trouser as mentioned below:-  Desizing  Stoning or/and Enzyming  Soap Rinsing  Acid Wash Process  Neutralization  Softener Application  Hydro Extractor Machine  Dryer Machine  Quality & Delivery
  13. 13. Apparel Washing & Finishing AZMIR LATIF, MSc.Engr (Textile) [13] In acid washing basic chemicals  potassium permanganate (KMnO4)  phosphoric acid (H3PO4) or Ortho-phosphoric acid H3PO4,  thermocoal ball, pumic stones or corksheet  Sodium meta-bisulphite (Meta, Na2 S2O3), First Step: Pretreatment/Desizing. 1. Add water @ L: R = 1: 10.............. 600 litres. 2. Start Machine. 3. Add desizing agent @ 1 gm/litre .................600 Gms. 4. Add detergent @ 1 gm/litre ........................ 600 Gms. 5. Temperature............................. 60°c. 6. Time........................... 20 mts. 7. Drop the liquor. 8. Rinse one for 3 minutes (cold). Second Step:Hot wash 1. Add water @ L: R = 1: 10.............. 600 litres. 2. Temperature............................. 60°c. 3. Time........................... 5 mts. 4. Drop the liquor. 5. Here hot wash is used to remove the adhering materials from the garment surface. 6. Unload the garments from the washing m/c in the trolley. 7. Load the pre treated garments in the dryer m/c. 8. Dry the garment completely & unload the garments. 9. The thermocal ball or pumic stones used for acid wash need to pre-treat in the following chemical solution: 10. Water ..................... 100 L 11. Potassium per manganate.............. 1000 Gms. 12. Phosphoric Acid............................... 250 Gms. 13. Stire the solution in a stainless steel tub with dry pumic stone. 14. Soak the stones with the chemical solution ......... 10 –15 minutes. 15. The stones will pick up the solution. Then the soaked stones are dried in the open air for.............. 2 to 3 hrs. 16. Then pre-treated garment 30 –40 kg per batch load in the dry washing machine. 17. Load the per-treated stones (about 50 kg) in washing machine. 18. Start machine running for each batch ........................ 7 to 10 mts. 19. Stop machine running. 20. Unload the treated garment separately. Pumic stones with P.P. solution hit on garment surface as a result fadding will be developed. 21. Then load the stones treated garment in another washing machine.
  14. 14. Apparel Washing & Finishing AZMIR LATIF, MSc.Engr (Textile) [14] Third Step:Wash for Cleaning 1. Batch wt................................ 70 kg. 2. Add water @ L: R = 1: 8.............. 560 litres. 3. Add detergent @ 1 gm/litre .............560 Gms. 4. Temperature............................. 40°c -50°c. 5. Time ..................................10 mts. 6. Drop the liquor. 7. Here detergent is used to remove the breaking stone dust and chemicals from the garment surface. Fourth Step:Whitening/Neutralization 1. Add water @ L: R = 1: 8.............. 560 litres. 2. Machine running. 3. Add Metabisulphite @ 5 gm/litre..... 2800 Gms. 4. Cold temperature. 5. Time 5 mts. 6. Drop the liquor. Fifth Step: Soft Wash 1. Add water @ L: R = 1: 7.............. 490 litres. 2. Machine running. 3. Add Acetic acid @ 0.6 gm/litre ..................... 294 Gms. 4. Add Softner @ 1 gm/litre ........................ 490 Gms. 5. Then unload the garments. Sixth Step:Hydro Extractor Machine  Hydro extractor machine to remove excess water from the garments. Seventh Step:Dryer Machine.  After hydro extraction the garments are sent to drying m/c for complete drying. Eighth Step:Quality & Delivery.  After drying the garments go to quality checking & rectify washing fault and then good one delivery.
  15. 15. Apparel Washing & Finishing AZMIR LATIF, MSc.Engr (Textile) [15] Q20.What kind of Precaution need to be taken for acid washing?  Maintain the stock solution properly constant when comes socking the stone.  No water licks age in to the machine when treated pumic stone & garments in to the machine.  Not excess load the garments in the Acid wash processing.  Add some new stone after finishing on batch to maintain the volume for 2nd batch. It is a matter of experience.  Color Shade Variation & Solution  When fabrics come in to garment factory against any order from abroad / local fabric dyeing factory, its found different colour shade roll in the same colour i.e. slide light, slide dark, slide tone different for this reason garment factory to control shade variation works as follows :-  8"×8" size fabric cut from every roll.  Marking roll number by permanent marking pen at back side of cutpes.  Every cutpes joint each other and make a blanket.  Then it washes into standard approval shade.  Garment factory now segregate same colour tone in one bundle and shade grading A.B.C.D.  First a shade roll cutting by pattern then B.C.D shade separately.  After garment making shade level attached on body.  Then go to washing plant for standard washing.  Washing plant shade level wise washing in respective wash.  After wash it any big shade variation found then again rewash to match with buyer approval standard. Final quality checking garment go to finishing section for thread cutting, button attached, iron &poly etc Q21.What is Wrinkle finishing technique: A wrinkle, also known as a rhytide, is a fold, ridge or crease in the cloth or garments. Wrinkle is a particular type of pressure in the finished fabric. Resin & its use in Denim garments industry to create unique & vintage looks which add value to denim garments & improves it sale ability in market. In 80‟s we have seen Resin being used to give non press , iron free trousers & now we are using in Denims to make wrinkles & creases to look natural vintage which stays after multiple home laundries. VVIQ22.What are techniques is used wrinkle finishing? We may apply wrinkle finishing by two techniques 1. Tagging on whole garment 2. Pressing on specific area
  16. 16. Apparel Washing & Finishing AZMIR LATIF, MSc.Engr (Textile) [16] VVI Q23.Write the Objectives of wrinkle finishing technique? 1. Fashion and style purpose. 2. Popular design. 3. To create unique & vintage looks by wrinkle finishing which add value to denim garments & improves its sale ability in market. 4. This requirement of buyer. 5. We get the whole area of the garment or partial or specific area of garment. VVI Q24.Write the flow chart of wrinkle finishing? Flow chart of wrinkle finishing Apparel Apply resin Pressing/ Clamping Curing Unload Finishing Q25.What kinds chemicals, Machine, Equipment & Raw material is used for wrinkle effect? Material used: Resin Machine or equipments used: Pressing machine, clip, industrial oven for curing Apparel types: Woven (pant/shirt) and knit (T-shirt) both VVI Q26.Write the types of resin & their Application? 1. Deposition type of resin (For wrinkle resistance finish) 2. Cross linking type of resin (For wrinkle effect)
  17. 17. Apparel Washing & Finishing AZMIR LATIF, MSc.Engr (Textile) [17] VVI Q27.Write the Merits & Demerits of different kind resin application on apparel? Merit:  By applying resin on the garments to create creases in the clothing were creases are wanted such as pant legs and sleeves on shirts.  Press clothing to create creases where wanted;  By oven curing it make cross link and create the wrinkle properties on garments.  It prevents the intermolecular slippage in the fiber core.  If we use formaldehyde free resin, it may not harmful Demerit:  It decreases the tensile & tear strength  It decrease the abrasion resistance  It gives an unpleasant odor  It gives unwanted harsh & stiff feel  It turns the fabric yellow after chlorine bleaching  Some time difficult to remove unfixed resin
  18. 18. Apparel Washing & Finishing AZMIR LATIF, MSc.Engr (Textile) [18] Q28.Discuss different wrinkle process/types of wrinkle effect? 1. Permanent Wrinkle Process 2. Overall Wrinkle Process 1. Permanent Wrinkle Process:  Generally permanent wrinkle is doing on garments after all types of wet process wash in dry position.  Permanent wrinkle is done on the garments made from all types of fabrics like, Denim, Twill,  Canvas, Poplin, Corduroy, Knit & Polyester etc.  For permanent wrinkle we are use resin which is spray on garments particular/specific areaby nozzle.  Resin is diluted with water which is recommended by chemical supplier, generally 20% resin& 80% water.  After resin spray on respective area, then fold by buyer demand and clip attached upon the folding area.  Now hangers the garment in to the hanger trolley, Trolley capacity approx. 80-100 pcs garments.  Then trolley with resin treatment garments put inside the Industrial oven.  Set temperature 140°c to 160°c, Time 20-40 minutes (if folding layer is less,  Less time required, if folding Layer is more, more time is required).  Start the machine.  When setting time is over, machines are automatically off.  After heating time over garments with hanger will stay 10 minutes for cold in oven.  Now open the door and trolley with garment out from oven.  Open the clip from garment and go to quality section for quality checking & delivery. [1] 2. Overall Wrinkle Process:  Generally overall wrinkle is doing on garments after all types of wet process & dry process.  Overall wrinkle is done on the garment made from all types of fabrics like, Denim, Twill,  Canvas, Poplin, Corduroy, Knit, Polyester, Viscose & Nylon etc.  Now tie the whole garment in tight position by thread.  For overall wrinkle, we are used resin in washing machine with water and run tied garments for 5 to 10 minutes at 50°c temperature.  Then unload the garments from washing machine to trolley for hydro extractor to remove the excess water.  Open the tie or cut the thread.  Now hanger the garments into the hanger trolley. Trolley capacity appreciates 80-100 pcs garments.  Then trolley with resin treatment garments put inside the Industrial oven.  Set temperature 140°c to 160°c, Time 50-70 minutes.
  19. 19. Apparel Washing & Finishing AZMIR LATIF, MSc.Engr (Textile) [19]  Start the machine.  When setting time is over, machines are automatically off.  After heating time over garments with hanger will stay 10 minutes for cold in oven. Now open the door and trolley with garments out from oven and go to quality section,checking& delivery. Q29.Write the Methods/process of applying Resin on the denim garments? The amount of time required to reach the target moisture level will depend on the weight of the fabric, the temperature of the dryer, the duration of the drying cycle, and the extent to which the garments are tumbled. However, it is important to keep the drying temperature below a temperature which will cause the resin to set. Once the garments have been dried to the proper moisture level, they are ready for the pressing and final cure steps. It is important to press and finally cure the garments without substantial delay, i.e. delay of more than approximately 12 to 24 hours, depending upon the weight of the fabric comprising the garments. Denim fabrics can be held between the drying and the pressing steps longer than lighter weight fabrics, because they tend to more readily retain moisture. Pressing of the garments in accordance with the present invention is done with a garment press capable of exerting a vacuum on the garment through the lower plate of the press. Initially, the garments are positioned with the aid of a vacuum to eliminate wrinkles and they are subsequently subjected to a steam treatment for approximately five seconds with the vacuum turned off. Steam is then applied to the garment through the top plate of the press for approximately 5 seconds. Finally, the garments be pressed for non denim to get wrinkle free, durable press finish or crunched for denim where ever 3D effect needed and cured. The current technology of post cure being introduced for non denim garments process gives an option to produce a garment with smooth drying and wrinkle resistant properties along with sharp creases that are durable for the life of the garment. In this process the resin is padded onto the fabric and dried at low temperature. The fabric is then cut, garment constructed and creases pressed into the garment. A high temperature cure in this configuration is given to cross-link the resin. This process, though giving excellent results, has not been too successful with garment manufacturers owing to obvious limitations of colors, styles and fabric weight, and the need for a direct interface between mills, garment manufacturers and retailers. Chemicals being added to process & its functions The non ionic wetting agent reduced surface tension of the fiber & allows chemical penetration, so cross linking can take place throughout the fiber cross-section. A high density polyethylene restores some of the lost tear strength and abrasion resistance by providing lubrication. It also has
  20. 20. Apparel Washing & Finishing AZMIR LATIF, MSc.Engr (Textile) [20] a synergetic effect with silicone or fatty-based softeners to improve hand feel. Among the silicone softeners, amino functional or reactive polysiloxanies with silanol functional end-groups act as elastomeric finishes imparting higher crease resistance, good dimensional stability and excellent soft handle. They can also reduce free formaldehyde release by replacing part of the resin. Above processes and methods provides a commercially practicable method for imparting durable press characteristics to fabrics containing cotton. Garments treated by the methods set forth herein may be made to have durable press and softness characteristics which are both superior and consistent from batch to batch and maintaining an acceptable level of garment wear and durability . Description The wrinkle free finish is being done by cross-linking cotton. Permanent press finishes function by forming cross-links between adjacent cellulose polymer chains. Then cross-linked cotton does not allow fibers to shrink & thus wrinkles will not form. In todays‟s world DMDHEU- Di methyl Di hydroxyl Ethylene Urea is the main cross-linking agent. With magnesium chloride as the acid catalyst to initiate a reaction, it forms cross links in the amorphous regions of the fiber. There are many modified version of DHDHEU‟s are available in market as tailor made products, easy to use & with low formaldehyde. Formaldehyde release is always a big issue & it may cause cancer to human body. Hence internationally free formaldehyde parameter being set up to maximum 75 PPM. There are new inventions/ research being done with no formaldehyde resin application but somehow or other it’s not so popular either they are not as durable as resin or very high in cost to use in mass production. VVI Q30.Write the technique of applying Resin on the denim garments for wrinkle effect? The major application methods currently used are based on the following processes: garment- dip; spray application. In the garment-dip method, garments are constructed from non-resinated fabric, then impregnated with a resin formula similar to that used in the non denim garments process, extracted to about 65 per cent wet pick-up and then tumble dried to 8-10 percent moisture content, a critical factor that is determined using a moisture meter. In the spray method is a latest technologyof wrinkle finishing, the resin is applied by spraying it onto the garment during tumbling in an enclosed rotational device, or on spray booth
  21. 21. Apparel Washing & Finishing AZMIR LATIF, MSc.Engr (Textile) [21] where garments being hanged to inflated balloons & sprayed a measured quantity of resin solution. A microprocessor is used to meter the exact amount of chemicals and to control the rotation time, desired wet pick-up, spray rate and process time. The garments are then treated for different 3D effects, crunched or whatever designed intended to produce, used for both menswear and women swear with the market moving towards washed-down looks and softer handles. Parameters to be considered while choosing denim fabric for Resin finish The garment finisher usually does not manufacture his own fabric and he may be faced with unacceptable losses in tensile strength, tear strength and abrasion resistance in the fabric when cross-linking. Because of the added value, garments rejects due to low strength may prove to be more expensive than fabric rejects. For producing an acceptable 3D effects Denim, several precautions must be taken in fabric selection:  The base fabric must have sufficient strength to withstand 40-60 per cent loss in tensile and tear strength and still maintain sufficient strength to provide a garment of acceptable wear life and durability  It must also have excellent absorbency to allow resin to penetrate into the very interior of the fibres and form crosslink‟s. Surface adhering resins do not serve any useful purpose and are inefficient and wasteful  If the fabric is dyed the dye must be fast to acid catalysis and high temperatures. Sulphur dyes, which are known to generate acid upon storage, are to be strictly avoided & Lycra/Spandex based fabric also should be tested on elongation before mass production.  Residual extractable on the fabric (like starch from size) can react with resin and lower its effectiveness, a high degree of size removal is thus essential  Fabric pH should be between 6.5 to 7.0. Q31. Selection of machinery & Oven (Curing)/ Why oven is necessary to give permanent wrinkle effect? Many aspects must be considered when choosing the technology; type or product (Tops & Bottoms), process, time, temperature, 3D, and chemicals. For high quality 3D crunching / whiskers, the two most important criteria are temperature and control of cycle. Presses should be equipped with high-heat, cast aluminum heads or with supplementary electrical heaters to give a processing temperature of approximately 150 – 180 degree centigrade. This temperature is crucial as it starts the curing process and controls the effects.
  22. 22. Apparel Washing & Finishing AZMIR LATIF, MSc.Engr (Textile) [22] There are various types of 3D making equipments available in the market i.e. Wire crinkle, Decca/crunching machines, then aluminum flex pipes & also manmade leg hangers on which natural 3D effects being carried out. While selecting an Oven, garment manufacturer must analyze their products to be produced, place/space & capacity of production accordingly they can choose from medium to big size of batch or continuous oven which is readily available with many machinery producers. Curing is the process to place the fabric/garment at high temperature for allowing the chemical to carry out the reaction process. Curing is usually used for fixation process. The cross linking of the resin is usually taken at constant high temperature for minutes. During curing process, the surface temperature of the fabric is critical. A tunnel oven is faster but requires a certain amount of garment preparation and a material handling system to and from the tunnel. Air flow pattern in these ovens controls temperature fluctuations, movement of the garment and effect formation and is therefore the most important selection criteria. The air velocity is finally controlled, in as much that temperature fluctuation has been brought down to a remarkable 3 degree Centigrade over a single garment. Developments are also underway to perfect microwave curing technology. As against normal convection curing, the temperature rise in microwave ovens is expected to be quicker, uniform throughout the fiber cross section, and to give minimum damage to the fiber. There are many Resin suppliers available in the market & they sell their products in combination of their own recipe & even they are expert enough to suggest you right resin combinations for your denim garments to get unique look with low formaldehyde. Using resin on garments is only one major danger is leaching of free formaldehyde if resin is not cured properly due to any parameters being ignored in a process i.e. Temperature and time. Hence for dealing with resin application skilled man power is pre requisite. Q32.How Resin works? Resins work by reacting the nitrogen atoms of each resin molecule with the hydroxyl group of the cotton fabric. The reaction forms a linkage between the resin and the cotton fibers giving the cotton on shrink pattern in which shape is being made & cured. Q33.What do you mean by wrinkle resistance finish? Wrinkle free resin finishing is a process to apply chemical resin onto fabrics functioning crosslinking between hydrogen bonds in order to enhance stability, on other words, fabrics are prevent to wrinkling. The ability of a fabric to recover to a definite degree is called crease recovery of the fabric.Tendency of
  23. 23. Apparel Washing & Finishing AZMIR LATIF, MSc.Engr (Textile) [23] fabrics made by cellulose, regenerated cellulose and blends with synthetic fibers to wrinkle after washing, tumble drying and wearing are higher. Today everybody wishes for that his/her dress retains just ironed shape. Wrinkle free finishes provide wrinkle free and soft look fabric. Wrinkle free finishes are broadly used in the textile industry to impart wrinkle-resistance to cellulosic materials such as cotton fabric. Cellulosic fiber-containing fabrics are made wrinkle resistant by a durable press wrinkle-free process which comprises treating a cellulosic fiber-containing fabric with formaldehyde, a catalyst capable of catalyzing the crosslinking reaction between the formaldehyde and cellulose and a silicone elastomer, heat-curing the treated cellulose fiber-containing fabric, preferably having a moisture content of more than 20% by weight, under conditions at which formaldehyde reacts with cellulose in the presence of the catalyst without a substantial loss of formaldehyde before the reaction of the formaldehyde with cellulose to improve the wrinkle resistance of the fabric in the presence of a silicone elastomeric softener to provide higher wrinkle resistance, and better tear strength after washing, with less treatment.[2] The application of wrinkle resistance (permanent or durable press) finishes on the fabric improves their wrinkle resistance property. Because of increasing demand for pure cotton fabrics, permanent press finishes are being used on these clothes. In conventional durable press finishing, there are two types of products used (resin type and reactant type). VVI Q34.Write the Objectives of wrinkle resistance finish? The main objectives of wrinkle resistance finish keep the fabric flat and smooth and free from undesirable creases.  It makes apparel easy to use, wash and iron. Disadvantage: [9]
  24. 24. Apparel Washing & Finishing AZMIR LATIF, MSc.Engr (Textile) [24] VVI Q35.Discussbrieflyresin&its classification? Resins fallintotwogroup  Depositiontypes ofresin(Depositedonthe fabricassurface coating.Noreactionwilltake place between fiber &resin)  Crosslinkingtype ofresin(Chemicallyreactwiththe fiberandcrosslinkfiber moleculesalsoobtained durable &better) Types of Resins(according to chemical)  Formaldehyde based resins Crosslinking resins are divided into two categories formaldehyde based and non-formaldehyde based. [9]  Non-formaldehyde based resins Non-formaldehyde based resins are made to favour customers towards the harmful and fatal chemicals.[5] e.g.N,N-Dimethyl-4,5-dihydroxyethylene urea (DMeDHEU/DMUG, 1,2,3,4- Butanetetracarboxylic acid (BTCA), Citric acid (CA), Polycarboxylic acid Phosphono and phosphinocarboxylic acids (APCM), Ter-polymer (TPMA), 1,3-dihydroxyl-4,5-dimethyl-2- imidazolidinone (DHDMI).[5] VVI Q36.Write the process sequence of wrinkle resistance finish? Process sequence Padding (Apply resin) Drying by Dryer Curing Washing
  25. 25. Apparel Washing & Finishing AZMIR LATIF, MSc.Engr (Textile) [25] [9] VVI Q37.Write the effect of wrinkle resistance on fabric properties? The crease resistant finish significantly and measurably changes the fabric characteristics. Wrinkle Recovery Angle Wrinkle recovery angle is increased by crease resistant finish. The warp and weft wrinkle recovery angles of Groups 1-3 fabrics are shown in Table 2. On comparing wrinkle recovery angles of Groups 2 and 3 fabrics, it is observed that the Group fabrics show 46% increase in wrinkle recovery angle in warp direction and 61% increase in weft direction over Group 2. Breaking Strength The crease resistant finishes also limit the movement of fibre elements. However, limiting fibre movement will reduce the breaking strength of fibre. Fibres with crease resistant finishes are more susceptible to exceeding the fibre breaking strength under an applied force. Table 2 shows that the breaking strength of Group 3 fabrics is lower than the breaking strength of Groups 1 and 2 fabrics. It is found that the decrease in breaking strength of Group 3 fabrics as compared to Groups 1 and 2 fabrics is 28% in warp direction and 27% in weft direction. Tearing Strength Crease resistant finish causes a decrease in tear strength. Table 2 shows a decrease in tear strength of Group 3 fabrics as compared to Groups 1 and 2 fabrics. It is found that tear strength of Group 3 fabrics is 18% in warp direction and 20% in weft direction to those of Groups 1 and 2 fabrics. Pilling Crease resistant finishes also affect pilling performance of woven fabrics by decreasing the ability of the fibre to move. Limiting fibre movement leads to decreased pilling or improved pilling performance. Table 2 shows that the pilling Performance of Group 3 fabrics increases over both Groups 1 and 2 fabrics; the increase is 59% over Group 2 fabrics. The per cent changes of Group 3 fabric characteristics in relation to Group 2 fabrics (plus sign indicates increase and minus sign indicates decrease) are: WRA= 46 % (+) (warp),
  26. 26. Apparel Washing & Finishing AZMIR LATIF, MSc.Engr (Textile) [26] 61% (+) (weft); breaking load = 28 %(-)(warp), 27% (-) (weft); tearing load = 18 % (-) (warp), 20% (-) (weft); and pilling = 59% (-). Q38.Briefly discusses the method of applying wrinkle resistance finish? Types of Cross-Linking Process The resin-finishing process involves padding and drying the open-width, cellulosic-fibre-based fabric and then curing it by one of a number of methods. The following different crosslinking processes are used in resin finishing: • Dry crosslinking process • Moist crosslinking process • Wet crosslinking process • Postcure process • Precure process •Dip-dry process Dry crosslinking process The most important of these processes is dry crosslinking, in which the fabric is cured in a dry state. After being padded, the fabric is usually dried on the stenter and then cured in a curing apparatus, or on the stenter immediately after drying (flash-curing process). Moist crosslinking process In moist crosslinking, the fabric is cured in a moist, partially swollen state (about 6 –12 % residual moisture). The fabric is padded with liquor containing a mineral-acid catalyst in addition
  27. 27. Apparel Washing & Finishing AZMIR LATIF, MSc.Engr (Textile) [27] to the crosslinker. BASF recommends sulfuric acid, because hydrochloric acid is problematic for various reasons including hydrogen chloride in the exhaust air. The fabric is subsequently dried to a residual moisture content of 6 –12 %. After being batched for one or two days at a required, such as residual moisture content and batching temperature. Very good easy care effects, low formaldehyde values and low strength losses are obtained only if these conditions are exactly maintained. The process has regained importance in recent years, following an interval of more than 20 years, in the manufacture of virtually non-iron, all-cotton textiles of acceptable strength. Wet crosslinking process In wet crosslinking, the reaction takes place when the fabric is in a wet, fully swollen state. Today this method is no longer used, even though it is much easier to carry out than moist crosslinking, because the dry crease recovery is almost the same as that of untreated cotton temperature of 25 – 35 °C, the fabric is washed, neutralized and dried. Afterwards it is usually further treated with handle-finishing agents. The process is very expensive, because several drying steps are necessary. Moreover, in practice it is difficult to maintain the exact conditions textiles. As in the moist crosslinking process, a liquor containing a strong mineral acid is applied and the batch of wet fabric is rotated for about 20 hours at room temperature. The fabric is then washed, dried, neutralized and, if necessary, aftersoftened. Because of the repeated drying required, this process is also expensive. Postcure process The postcure process is another old process that has experienced a revival, beginning in the USA. It belongs to the dry crosslinking methods and is the most significant permanent-press method. The fabric is treated as in standard dry crosslinking but not cured. The treated fabric is subsequently made up into garments and provided with crease lines or pleats in the steam press before being oven-cured. Earlier permanent-press methods, for example the Koratron process, have disappeared as a result of a number of disadvantages, such as a formaldehyde odour problem during steaming (more than 1000 ppm in the AATCC 112 test!) and a pronounced shade change because of the zinc nitrate that had to be used to achieve the necessary high reactivity. Today‟s postcure process can be carried out with low-formaldehyde crosslinkers that are reactive enough to be catalysed with magnesium chloride, and formaldehyde-free crosslinkers that have the additional advantage of producing an even better tensile strength. Precure process Crosslinking in the precure process is also carried out in the dry state. Another permanent-press method, it is a special case in which blended wovens of synthetic and cellulosic fibres (usually PES/CO or PES/CV with over 60 % PES) are provided with permanent creases. In the first step, the cellulosic component undergoes standard continuous resin-finishing by the dry crosslinking process. After making-up, the finished garment is shaped by heat setting the synthetic fibres at high temperature and under high pressure in special ironing presses. Today, the name “precure process” is occasionally given to the dry crosslinking process to distinguish it from the postcure process. The original precure process is no longer important. Dip-dry process The dip-dry process is a special case of the permanent-press or postcure process. The fabric is first made up into garments, which are dipped to impregnate them with the finishing liquor,
  28. 28. Apparel Washing & Finishing AZMIR LATIF, MSc.Engr (Textile) [28] centrifuged, dried, ironed and cured. This process has also experienced a revival. Materials: Fabrics used: 1. 100% cotton woven fabric 2. 99% cotton & 1% spandex blended woven fabric 3. 98% cotton & 2% spandex blended woven fabric 4. 65% cotton & 35% polyester (PC) blended woven fabric Experimental tools & equipment  Resin used:  Formaldehyde resin, DMDHEU (BASF)  Concentration of resin: High  Methods of application: Padding and Curing Methods Pre-Cure process: The samples fabrics are cut into 35cmx35cm for padding in padding machine. At first samples are padded into a padding machine at 5.5 bar pressure. After padding these samples were dried at 120ºC for 2 min and cured at 170ºC temperature for 45 seconds in a pre-heated oven of 50ºC. The following recipe is used for padding: 1. Fixapret Resin CL: 100g/l 2. Fixapret Catalyst F-M: 30g/l 3. Perapret Additive PEP: 30g/l 4. Siligen Softener SIE: 20g/l 5. Kieralon Washoff XC-J Conc.: 1g/l 6. PH: 5.5 7. Padder pressure 1.5 bar 8. Pick-Up%: 65-75% VVIQ39.Briefly describes the wrinkle resistance finishing effect? A Study on wrinkle resistance finish by resin on cotton fabric properties we summarize that Resin finishing is the process of bringing out a special property of ‘crease recovery’ of cotton. Resin finishing often known by various fancy terminologies is an important process of textile processing. Wrinkle free finish quite often called „wash & wear finish/anticrease finish/crease resistance finish/durable press finish/ Resin finishing‟. It has been that all kind of finishing process significantly affect fiber charecteristics. Finish processes applied to the fabrics lead to increased fabric cost. The cost can be minimized by selecting fiber, yarn, fabric with high wrinkle resistance charecteristies before applying a crease resistance. Anti wrinkle finish operation is generally applied to fabrics for clothing. With the application of this operation, while wrinkle strength and pilling perforance increase, the tensile and tearing strength of the fabric decrease. So, anti-wrinkle finsh operation will be important in hoding stated fabic properties in optimum. Another research shows that it was found the Efficacy of Crease
  29. 29. Apparel Washing & Finishing AZMIR LATIF, MSc.Engr (Textile) [29] Resistant on cotton fabric Finish on Crease Recovery Characteristics is decrease over its use and laundering. Crease recovery angle and fabric crease recovery was detected on treated fabric subjected to different laundering cycles.. After application of crease resistant finish on the scoured cotton fabric, the crease recovery angle of the fabric was measured to see the effect on crease resistant finish on the crease recovery characteristics of the treated fabric. It is concluded from the results that the crease resistance finish showed the good resistant against wrinkle formation. It was found that there was increase in the crease recovery angle of the fabric after application of crease resistant finish. It proves that the chitosan with the citric acid shows the good results against crease formation and it also showed maximum retention of the finish by maintaining the satisfactory crease recovery angle after 20 washing cycles. In other research on Wrinkle-free Treatment on Fabric Tear Strength and Dynamic Water Absorbency Wrinkle-free treatment also affect fabric tear strength. The level of wrinkle-free treatment can affect the fabric tear strength, the higher level of the treatment, the lower the tear strength .Other factors can also affect the fabric strength such as yarn formation and fabric structure. Wrinkle-free finish reduces the moisture sorption capacity of a fabric. Therefore, the industry uses swelling index (water retention) as an indicator of wrinkle-free treatment level. While carrying the test, fabric samples are dipped with different period of time and calculate the percentage of moisture retentivity by the variance of the damp weight divided by fabric weight. High nitrogen content or low swelling index (water retention) reduces the water absorption rate of the fabric and increases the contact angle when the water drop is in initial contact of the fabric. A Study on Resin wrinkle resistance finishing shows that the catalysts used for DMDHEU systems, such as magnesium chloride, cause degradation of cellulose, thus reducing the tensile and tear strength of cotton fabric. The magnitude of fabric strength loss is affected by temperature, time, and concentration of the catalyst. Fabric strength loss also depends on both the cation and anion of the catalyst. An activated catalyst system, which includes an organic acid, causes more severe fabric tensile strength loss. By analyzing different resin finishing treatment, if we apply Low- amino modified polysiloxane combined with a blend of amino modified polysiloxane and hydroxy terminated polysiloxane show better strength improvement than polyethylene emulsions or amino silicones. Any kind of resin finishing treatment increase strength and pilling perforance, the tensile and tearing strength of the fabric decrease and also reduces the water absorption rate of the fabric and increases the contact angle when the water drop is in initial contact of the fabric. In table 2 (chareteristic of fabrics) already shows how fabric properties affect by wrinkle resistance finish.Finally we say it enhancement in fabric resiliency and softness as well as decrease in fabric abrasion resistance, tear and tensile strength and also make the fabric harsh and stiff. Try to avoid DMDHEU systems, such as magnesium chloride, cause degradation of cellulose, thus reducing the tensile and tear strength of cotton fabric. The use of low amino modified polysiloxane combined with a blend of amino modified polysiloxane and hydroxy terminated polysiloxane as an additive minimizes strength loss of the cotton fabric with improvement in softness because of treatment with resin and catalyst, without creating negative effects on the wrinkle resistance of the fabric.

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