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  1. 1. By: Tommy Marinelli<br />Professor Arguello<br />History 140<br />Big History<br />
  2. 2. What is “Big History”?<br />Using a multi-disciplinary approach, big history examines human history from the “Big Bang” up to modern times.<br />History is looked at on a larger scale, bringing all parts of world history together as one historical account.<br />The aspiration for more knowledge about our world emerged during the 20th century’s Cold War and the first reaches into outerspace.<br />The multi-disciplinary approach includes: biology, astronomy, anthropology, cosmology, archaeology, and other related fields that have been brought together using science’s latest findings to scrutinize and analyze history as a whole.<br /> Human adaption and behavioral patterns have been a key in this approach.<br />
  3. 3. Dr. Spencer Wells<br />
  4. 4. Dr. Spencer Wells<br />Renound scientist, author, filmmaker, and leading geneticist known for his documentation on DNA and indigenous peoples.<br />At the young age of 16, Wells was accepted at the University of Texas, focusing on biology. He went on to receive his Ph.D. at Harvard. <br />he aimed to document and create the first-ever map of human migration, showing how humans came to populate the planet after leaving the cradle of Africa some 60,000 years ago<br />Wells was determined to create the first-ever map of human migration, a map that would examine how people spread across the world beginning with Africa.<br />Used DNA and studies on the Y chromosome to trace the migration of our ancient ancestors. <br />Wells studied 25,000 miles of Asia in 1998 which lead to the advancement of studies on the Y chromosome.<br />
  5. 5. Catastrophe<br />Beginning in 535 AD, the most extreme climatic castatrophe occurred.<br />Caused flooding, famine, storms, and the spread of the epidemic of the bubonic plague.<br />Journalist, David Keys, speculates that a tremendous volcanic eruption sparked this change.<br />This catastrophe moved society from the Ancient World into the Medieval Era. <br />
  6. 6. Catastrophe Continued…<br />The domino affect changed the world for centuries.<br />Dendrochronology, examining tree rings, helps us examine conditions in different periods of history. <br />Ice cores from different sites also helped scientists trace back history.<br />
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  8. 8. Guns, Germs, and Steel<br />Jared Diamond examines how certain civilizations have advanced more than others due to things like, “geographical luck.”<br />The people of New Guinea have not advanced along with the rest of the world, after inhabiting New Guinea for over 40,000 years.<br />In appears, in the beginning, farming had a major role in the advancement of civilization and sparked the development of new technologies.<br />The greatest civilizations share three commonalities, according to Diamond: growing populations, advancement in technology, and an organized work force. <br />
  9. 9. Guns, Germs, and Steel Continued....<br />Crops that were highest in protein were cultivated by the most progressed civilizations, mostly the Middle Eastern tribes.<br />Those which farmed animals advanced beyond these tribes. These animals provided more protein and resources needed to nourish a growing civilization.<br />These animals provided milk, leather, a means of transportation, and clothes from hides and fur.<br />Geography and raw materials that were readily available for some, but not others caused the huge gap in development between civilizations.<br />Following this rift in development, many cultures that were separated thousands of years before were coming in contact once again.<br />Spanish coming to America came across the Incas. The Spanish killed over 7,000 Incans and even captured their king.<br />Europeans brought diseases like smallpox to the Americas. <br />The Spanish had the advantage of guns, made from steel, something that put the Incans at a huge disadvantage.<br />
  10. 10. The World and Trade<br />
  11. 11. The World and Trade<br />In the 15th century, the Europeans planned to find a sea route to Asia that would bypass trade with the Middle East. <br />They thought the entire world had already been explored. <br />Columbus searched for this trade route and accidentally discovered the Americas.<br />The New World produced potatoes, corn, tomatoes, and sugar.<br />From the Old World came wheat, cattle, and horses.<br />Lots of trade began including: coffee, tea, tobacco, sugar, and potatoes. <br />Trade became a valuable system across the world. <br />