Industrial pollution & environmental degradation (asif,bastab,mridu,gandharv


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Industrial pollution & environmental degradation (asif,bastab,mridu,gandharv

  1. 1. INDUTRIAL POLLUTION ANDENVIRONMENTLE DEGRADATION x-c Group Members: Gandharv Bastab chatia Mridu paban Asif Hussain
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION• Although industries contribute significantly to India’s economic growth and development, the increase in pollution of land, water, air, noise and resulting degradation of environment that they have caused, cannot be overlooked. Industries are responsible for four types of pollution: (a) Noise (b) Air (c) Water (d) Land. The polluting industries also include thermal power plants.
  3. 3. Noise pollution not only results in irritationand anger, it can also cause hearing impairment,increased heart rate and blood pressure amongother physiological effects. Unwanted sound isan irritant and a source of stress. Industrial andconstruction activities ,machinery, factoryequipment, generators,saws and pneumatic andelectric drills alsomake a lot of noise.
  4. 4. AIR POLLUTION• Air pollution is the introduction of chemicals, particulate matter, or biological materials that cause harm or discomfort to humans or other living organisms, or cause damage to the natural environment or built environment, into the atmosphere. The atmosphere is a complex dynamic natural gaseous system that is essential to support life on planet Earth. Stratospheric depletion due to air pollution has long been recognized as a threat to human health as well as to the Earths ecosystems.
  5. 5. There are two types of air pollution {1}Natural {2}ManmadeNatural Air pollution=Those air pollution whichcauses naturally is natural air pollution, eg: forest fire, dust storm.Manmade Air pollution=That air pollution whichcauses due to human activities is called man madeair pollution. Eg: burning of fossils fuel in industries,vehicles and thermal plants.
  6. 6. PollutantsA substance in the air that can cause harmto humans and the environment is knownas an air pollutant. Pollutants can be in the form of solid particles, liquid droplets, or gases. In addition, they may be natural or man-made.
  7. 7. • Factories=Factories, office buildings, homes and power- generating stations burn fossil fuels, which cause air pollution• Combustion Engine Exhaust=Cars, trucks, jet airplanes and other combustion engine vehicles cause air pollution.• Petroleum=Petroleum refineries release hydrocarbons and various particulates that pollute the air.• Power Lines=Some power lines are not insulated and are high voltage. This creates air pollution.• Pesticides=Pesticides used to kill indoor and outdoor pests, insecticides used to kill insects and herbicides use to kill weeds all cause air pollution.
  8. 8. • Mining Operations• Mining causes air pollution by releasing a variety of particles.• Mills and Plants• Mills and plants, include paper mills, chemical plants, iron mills, steel mills, cement plants and asphalt plants, release emissions into the air causing air pollution.
  9. 9. • Effects of air pollution:• Air pollutants cause asthama, bronchitis, and allergic cold. Pollutant gases produce irritation in eyes, throat and lungs.• Reduction efforts• There are various air pollution control technologies and land use planning strategies available to reduce air pollution.• Efforts to reduce pollution from mobile sources includes primary regulation expanding regulation to new sources,• Increased fuel efficiency, conversion to cleaner fuels (such as bioethanol, biodiesel, or conversion to electric vehicles).
  10. 10. Water pollution• Water pollution is the contamination of water bodies .Water pollution occurs when pollutants are discharged directly or indirectly into water bodies without adequate treatment to remove harmful compounds.• Water pollution affects plants and organisms living in these bodies of water. In almost all cases the effect is damaging not only to individual species and populations, but also to the natural biological communities.
  11. 11. Industrial wastewater• Some industrial facilities generate ordinary domestic sewage that can be treated by municipal facilities. Industries that generate wastewater with high concentrations of conventional pollutants (e.g. oil and grease), toxic pollutants (e.g. heavy metals, volatile organic compounds) or other nonconventional pollutants such as ammonia, need specialized treatment systems. Some of these facilities can install a pre-treatment system to remove the toxic components, and then send the partially-treated wastewater to the municipal system. Industries generating large volumes of wastewater typically operate their own complete on-site treatment systems.
  12. 12. Thermal pollution of water occurs when hot water fromfactories and thermal plants is drained into rivers andponds before cooling. What would be the effect onaquatic life? Wastes from nuclear power plants, nuclearand weapon production facilities cause cancers, birthdefects and miscarriages. Soiland water pollution are closely related. Dumping ofwastes specially glass, harmful chemicals, industrialeffluents, packaging, salts and garbage renders the soiluseless. Rain water percolates to the soil carrying thepollutants to the ground and the ground water also getscontaminated.
  13. 13. • A common cause of thermal pollution is the use of water as a coolant by power plants and industrial manufacturers. When water used as a coolant is returned to the natural environment at a higher temperature, the change in temperature decreases oxygen supply, and affects ecosystem composition. Urban runoff– stormwater discharged to surface waters from roads and parking lots–can also be a source of elevated water temperatures.• When a power plant first opens or shuts down for repair or other causes, fish and other organisms adapted to particular temperature range can be killed by the abrupt change in water temperature known as "thermal shock.
  14. 14. Control of Environmental DegradationEvery litre of waste water discharged by ourindustry pollutes eight times the quantity offreshwater. How can the industrial pollution offresh water be reduced? Some suggestions are-(i) minimising use water for processing byreusing and recycling it in two or moresuccessive stages(ii) harvesting of rainwater to meet waterrequirements