Vitamin c


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Vitamin c

  1. 1. GROUP V MEMBERS 12/GS/3864 12/GS/3929 12/GS/3705 12/GS/3702 12/GS/3708 12/GS/3711 12/GS/3921 Vitamin C
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION Vitamin C, also known as L-ascorbic acid, is a water-soluble vitamin that is naturally present in some foods, added to others, and available as a dietary supplement. Humans, unlike most animals, are unable to synthesize vitamin C endogenously, so it is an essential dietary component. Vitamin C is required for the biosynthesis of collagen, L-carnitine, and certain neurotransmitters; vitamin C is also involved in protein metabolism.
  3. 3. FOOD SOURCES All fruits and vegetables contain some amount of vitamin C. Fruits with the highest sources of vitamin C include: Cantaloupe Citrus fruits and juices, such as orange and grapefruit Kiwi fruit Mango Papaya Pineapple Strawberries, raspberries, blueberries, cranberries Watermelon
  4. 4. FOOD SOURCES Vegetables with the highest sources of vitamin C include: Broccoli, Brussels sprouts, cauliflower Green and red peppers Spinach, cabbage, turnip greens, and other leafy greens Sweet and white potatoes Tomatoes and tomato juice Winter squash
  5. 5. FOOD SOURCES   Some cereals and other foods and beverages are fortified with vitamin C. Fortified means a vitamin or mineral has been added to the food. Check the product labels to see how much vitamin C is in the product. Cooking vitamin C-rich foods or storing them for a long period of time can reduce the vitamin C content. Microwaving and steaming vitamin C-rich foods may reduce cooking losses. The best food sources of vitamin C are uncooked or raw fruits and vegetables.
  6. 6. FUNCTION Vitamin C is needed for the growth and repair of tissues in all parts of your body. It is used to: Form an important protein used to make skin, tendons, ligaments, and blood vessels Heal wounds and form scar tissue Repair and maintain cartilage, bones, and teeth Vitamin C is one of many antioxidants. Antioxidants are nutrients that block some of the damage caused by free radicals.
  7. 7. FUNCTION   Vitamin C plays a crucial role in the formation of collagen, a major component of connective tissue. Connective tissue has structural and supportive functions which are indispensable to blood vessels and all tissues within the body. Vitamin C is also important in the proper functioning of the immune system, iron absorption, cholesterol metabolism and other biological activities.
  8. 8. FUNCTION    Free radicals are made when your body breaks down food or when you are exposed to tobacco smoke or radiation. Free radicals may play a role in cancer, heart disease, and conditions like arthritis. The body is not able to make vitamin C on its own, and it does not store vitamin C. It is therefore important to include plenty of vitamin C-containing foods in your daily diet.
  9. 9. Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for Vitamin C Table 1: Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) for Vitamin C Age Male Female Pregnancy Lactation 0–6 months 40 mg* 40 mg* 7–12 months 50 mg* 50 mg* 1–3 years 15 mg 15 mg 4–8 years 25 mg 25 mg 9–13 years 45 mg 45 mg 14–18 years 75 mg 65 mg 80 mg 115 mg 19+ years 90 mg 75 mg 85 mg 120 mg Smokers Individuals who smoke require 35 mg/day more vitamin C than nonsmokers.
  10. 10. DEFICIENCY AND RELATED DISORDERS Serious side effects from too much vitamin C are very rare, because the body cannot store the vitamin. However, amounts greater than 2,000 mg/day are not recommended because such high doses can lead to stomach upset and diarrhea. Too little vitamin C can lead to signs and symptoms of deficiency, including: Anemia Bleeding gums Decreased ability to fight infection Decreased wound-healing rate Dry and splitting hair Easy bruising
  11. 11. DEFICIENCY AND RELATED DISORDERS Gingivitis (inflammation of the gums) Nosebleeds Possible weight gain because of slowed metabolism Rough, dry, scaly skin Swollen and painful joints Weakened tooth enamel A severe form of vitamin C deficiency is known as scurvy, which mainly affects older, malnourished adults.
  12. 12. SCURVY  Scurvy is a condition characterized by general weakness, anemia, gingivitis (gum disease), and skin hemorrhages caused by a prolonged deficiency of vitamin C (ascorbic acid) in the diet.
  13. 13. CURRENT RESEARCH Ongoing research is examining whether vitamin C, by limiting the damaging effects of free radicals through its antioxidant activity, might help prevent or delay the development of certain cancers, cardiovascular disease, and other diseases in which oxidative stress plays a causal role.
  14. 14. CURRENT RESEARCH  GROUPS AT RISK OF VITAMIN C INADEQUACY  Vitamin C inadequacy can occur with intakes that fall below the RDA but are above the amount required to prevent overt deficiency (approximately 10 mg/day). The following groups are more likely than others to be at risk of obtaining insufficient amounts of vitamin C.
  15. 15. CURRENT RESEARCH  SMOKERS AND PASSIVE “SMOKERS” Studies consistently show that smokers have lower plasma and leukocyte vitamin C levels than nonsmokers, due in part to increased oxidative stress. For this reason, the IOM concluded that smokers need 35 mg more vitamin C per day than nonsmokers. Exposure to secondhand smoke also decreases vitamin C levels.
  16. 16. CURRENT RESEARCH  INFANTS FED EVAPORATED OR BOILED MILK Most infants in developed countries are fed breast milk and/or infant formula, both of which supply adequate amounts of vitamin C. For many reasons, feeding infants evaporated or boiled cow’s milk is not recommended. This practice can cause vitamin C deficiency because cow’s milk naturally has very little vitamin C and heat can destroy vitamin C.
  17. 17. The Dietary Guidelines for Americans describes a healthful diet as one that:   Emphasizes a variety of fruits, vegetables, whole grains, and fat-free or low-fat milk and milk products. Fruits, particularly citrus fruits, fruit juices, and many vegetables are excellent sources of vitamin C. Some ready-to-eat breakfast cereals are fortified with vitamin C.
  18. 18.    Includes lean meats, poultry, fish, beans, eggs, and nuts. Is low in saturated fats, Trans fats, cholesterol, salt (sodium), and added sugars. Stays within your daily calorie needs.
  19. 19. References 1. 2. 3. 4. Carr AC, Frei B. Toward a new recommended dietary allowance for vitamin C based on antioxidant and health effects in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 1999;69:1086-107. Frei B, England L, Ames BN. Ascorbate is an outstanding antioxidant in human blood plasma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1989;86:6377-81. Jacob RA, Sotoudeh G. Vitamin C function and status in chronic disease. Nutr Clin Care 2002;5:66-74. Li Y, Schellhorn HE. New developments and novel therapeutic perspectives for vitamin C. J Nutr 2007;137:2171-84
  20. 20. THANK YOU! GOD bless Women with His LOVE that makes every one a joy to live Assignment prepared and presented by Group V Members