Plagiarism Professional Development


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Plagiarism Professional Development

  1. 1. Lisa Quraish 991-479-061Indiana State University CIMT 513 Proficiency 3 Option #1 July 5, 2012
  2. 2. Quraish CIMT 513Option #1: Develop a single detailed outline for a one to two hour teacher in-service program designed to systematically inform teachers about electronic plagiarism—your content should include, but not necessarily be limited to: what electronic/digital plagiarism is, the problem it represents, strategies for identifying it, strategies for preventing it, implications for administrative policy and practice, and implications for the curriculum. Depending on your writing and organizational style, I would advise either a sentence outline or a paragraph outline. Preface your outline with a two or three paragraph narrative regarding how you will conduct the in-service, i.e. what media and methods you will use to make your presentation— examples that come to mind include ice breakers, description(s) of presentation materials, handouts/support materials, active learning exercises during the in-service, etc. Aside from the obvious, your outline should also include (but not be limited to) such things as: detailed examples of two or more instructional activities that might be used in the classroom to teach students about the problem; sample policy and procedure statements from other schools; and resources for further information (a brief annotated bibliography for three or more resources, print and/or web-based). You will also develop a PowerPoint presentation that will serve as an integral part of the in- service. The presentation should be no more than 20 slides. It should include a logical introduction, main content points, and conclusion/summary. Remember that PowerPoint presentations should be used as focal points for a live presentation. Do NOT be tempted by text heavy slides—use key words and phrases that will be elaborated upon via the presenter’s narrative. Be sure to use graphics as appropriate. Proper use of slide builds and transitions between slides is encouraged. If your knowledge/expertise with PowerPoint is limited, find someone who has the experience and know-how to provide you with assistance and/or an honest, constructive critique of your presentation. Obviously, you will be submitting at least two (2) different files to me as email attachments: narrative files (outline, handouts, etc.) and the PowerPoint presentation. The exceptional treatment of this project option will show depth of thought for each aspect of what the project calls for, not skimp on details, be well-organized and creative. 1
  3. 3. Quraish CIMT 513Electronic Plagiarism Presentation I have created a 1.5 hour presentation on electronic plagiarism to be used at the highschool level for teacher in-service/professional development. This presentation will take place inthe high school’s LGI (large group instruction) room which has a permanent ceiling mountedprojector and wall mounted projection screen for the PowerPoint portion of the presentation. Asthe teachers enter the room, they will each pick up a presentation packet including a note-takingcopy of the PowerPoint slides, detailed instructions for the inservice activities, and resourcesincluding sample High School policies and honor codes, activities for use in the classroom, andan annotated bibliography. A laptop cart will be at the front of the room and will be utilizedduring the ―Identifying Plagiarism‖ activity. Additionally, upon entering each participant will receive a filled film canister that will beused for the opening ice breaker. Canisters will be filled with things such as beans, rice,paperclips, pea gravel, etc. There will be four canisters containing each substance. Withoutopening the canisters, participants will have to find the others with matching canisters by soundalone. Each group of four will be instructed to sit together, as they will be working together ingroups during the presentation activities. The presentation will follow a predictable format, and will be divided into the followingsegments: opening (15 minutes), PowerPoint presentation (15 minutes), break for activity (15minutes), continue PowerPoint presentation (5 minutes), break for activity (15 minutes),conclude PowerPoint presentation (15 minutes), opportunity for Q & A (10 minutes). 2
  4. 4. Quraish CIMT 513Presentation Packet Contents 1. PowerPoint Slide Note sheets 2. Identifying Plagiarism Activity Sheet – See Appendix I below 3. Creating LPP Assignments Activity Sheet– See Appendix II below 4. Samples of High School Honor Codes –The School for Ethical Education, 4. Instructional Activities for the Classroom – See Appendix III below 5. Additional Reading Annotated Bibliography – See Appendix IV belowOpening (15 minutes)I. Participants enter the room. A. Participants pick up packets and film canisters. B. Begin the ice breaker. 1. Participants shake canisters and compare them to find their group of four. 2. Instruct participants to sit once all four members are found. C. Call to attention while introducing the topic. D. Explain packet contents drawing attention to the PowerPoint slides/note sheets. E. Begin PowerPoint presentation.PowerPoint Presentation (15 minutes)II. What is electronic plagiarism? A. According to, plagiarism is ―to steal and pass off (the ideas or words of another) as ones own‖ (―Plagiarism‖ def. 1). B. Electronic plagiarism refers to the alarming trend of students using the Internet or a combination of Internet and word processing software to commit plagiarism. 1. In a 2001 study72% of the 4,500 high school students from 25 different schools sampled admitted to cheating on written assignments (Nagy, 2004). 2. More than half of the students sampled admitted to plagiarizing information found on the Internet (Nagy, 2004). 3
  5. 5. Quraish CIMT 513 C. Plagiarism takes a variety of forms (iParadigms, LLC, 2012). 1. Turning in a paper written by someone else constitutes as plagiarism. a) Term paper mills are an easily accessible online source of pre-written and custom ordered essays and research papers. b) Friends, older siblings, or groups (fraternities/sororities at the college level) sometimes provide a ―file‖ of previously turned in papers and old test questions. 2. Using another’s words and ideas but failing to give credit where it is due. a) Even the most eloquent and originally paraphrased content is plagiarism if the original work is not referenced both in text and in a reference page. b) Quotes should be used sparingly (no more than 10% of the total paper) with appropriate quotation marks and reference to source (Purdue OWL, 2012). c) Copying the sentence structure of a source (even if words may have been changed) constitutes as plagiarism if there is no citation. d) If the majority of an assignment is a compilation of others’ words and ideas with little to no original thought, despite proper citation, it is considered plagiarism (iParadigms, LLC, 2012). 3. Resubmitting one’s own work for a different course is considered self- plagiarism unless permission has been granted by the assigning teacher.III. What greater problem does this phenomenon represent? A. Students’ cyber ethics, or understanding of acceptable behavior on the Internet, are significantly less developed than traditional ethics. 4
  6. 6. Quraish CIMT 513 1. An example would be the belief that stealing a CD from the store or a friend would be wrong, yet downloading a CD through a file sharing website is acceptable (Symantec, 2012). 2. There is a predominate belief amongst youth that everything on the Internet is ―free‖ and belongs in the public domain (Fain & Bates, 1999). 3. Cheating, including but not limited to electronic cheating, is on the rise and is perceived as ―socially acceptable‖ (Fain & Bates, 1999). B. Students are under a great deal of pressure to excel at an abundance of extracurricular activities, meet work, school, and family demands, all the while maintaining high GPAs (Fain & Bates, 1999). 1. Some students may see committing plagiarism as an act of self-defense in a high pressure environment where cheating is the norm and sets up unfair competition (Fain & Bates, 1999). 2. Some students feel they are not naturally gifted writers and would rather risk cheating than risk turning in poor work (Harris, 2012). C. Some students view high school as merely a means to an end (diploma or college acceptance). 1. These students may take advanced courses simply to pad a resume with little to no interest or use for the subject matter. 2. If an assignment is not considered relevant to one’s future, either in college or career, it may be viewed as a waste of time, increasing the occurrence of plagiarism (Fain & Bates, 1999). D. There are a number of other factors influencing the occurrence of plagiarism. 5
  7. 7. Quraish CIMT 513 1. Some students truly do not understand what constitutes as plagiarism and all of its forms (Fain & Bates, 1999). 2. Many students are natural procrastinators or are simply so overwhelmed with activities that they do not allot enough time to adequately complete writing assignments (Harris, 2012). 3. All schools have those few students who get a kick out of breaking the rules and like to see how much they can get away with before getting caught or suffering any consequences (Harris, 2012). 4. Some temptation to plagiarize stems from known teacher behaviors: those who do not closely read assignments or check for plagiarism, and those who, when plagiarism is suspected or evident, are reluctant to report it (Fain & Bates, 1999).IV. How can electronic plagiarism be identified? A. Sometimes students make detection easy by leaving obvious clues. 1. Inconsistent citation style or format (APA and MLA, for example) can indicate a copy and paste effort (Harris, 2012). 2. Large sections with no in-text citations or quotations could indicate ―borrowed‖ ideas (Harris, 2012). 3. Formatting issues, such as mixed spacing, font, tabs, or broken lines should be a red flag for copy and paste (Harris, 2012). 4. If the topic seems like a stretch when compared to the assigned topic or if the topic or viewpoint seems to change throughout the paper the paper could be from a paper mill website or a combination of original thought and copy/paste (Harris, 2012). 6
  8. 8. Quraish CIMT 513 5. A reference list with no recent works or text with dated statistics indicates the possibility of an old paper retrieved from a paper mill or ―borrowed‖ from friend/family member (Harris, 2012). 6. Writing that seems uncharacteristic for the student in either diction or style should prompt further investigation (Harris, 2012). 7. Careless mistakes that serve as criminalizing evidence are the existence of URL’s at the top of the page, a name that is not one’s own, a copyright or watermark indicating where the paper was downloaded, etc. B. If suspecting plagiarism, you can prove your case by taking one of the following actions. 1. Hold a conference with the student asking leading questions and asking for explanation on areas of concern in an effort to get the student to confess (Harris, 2012). 2. An approach that may seem less threatening (especially in cases where it turns out not to be plagiarism) is asking students to summarize the process of research, their findings, or to give an oral presentation (Pearson, 2004). 3. Choose a phrase or excerpt that seems especially unnatural and enter it into a number of search engines and full-text databases (Pearson, 2004). 4. Using the cloze strategy, delete words or passages of the student’s paper and see if they are able to fill in the blanks reasonably (in relation to the original text). (Bates & Fain, 2009). 5. Use plagiarism detection software such as to compare student papers against billions of pages of digital content (Harris, 2012). 7
  9. 9. Quraish CIMT 513Identifying Electronic Plagiarism Activity (15 minutes) - See Appendix IPowerPoint Presentation (5 minutes)V. What can be done to prevent electronic plagiarism? A. The first and most essential step in the prevention of plagiarism is making sure that students are well educated on the definition and forms of plagiarism (Harris, 2012). 1. Teach students the proper way to cite and paraphrase, giving both good and bad examples (Harris, 2012). 2. Explain to students that plagiarism involves both stealing and lying and is a form of fraud (Harris, 2012). B. Make sure students know what the consequences of being caught plagiarizing will be and enforce your policies routinely (Lad, 2011). C. Create projects with a ―low probability of plagiarism‖ (Johnson, 2004). 1. Assign projects with a clarity of purpose that will teach applicable skills (Johnson, 2004). 2. Give students choices when possible so that projects spark interest and become meaningful and relevant (Johnson, 2004). 3. To prevent the regurgitation of facts, ask students to write in a narrative style about how they went about their research, surprising findings, etc. (Johnson, 2004). 4. Assign projects that focus on higher levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy and answer real questions (Johnson, 2004). 5. Assign hands-on, creative projects that make use of multiple senses and technology (Johnson, 2004). 8
  10. 10. Quraish CIMT 513 6. Create collaborative projects and share results with family and friends when possible (Johnson, 2004). 7. Assign complex projects that can be broken into manageable steps, assessed authentically, and provide students the opportunity to ―reflect, revisit, revise, and improve‖ (Johson, 2004). D. When a more traditional assignment is necessary, require specific components and process steps (bibliography, outline, rough draft, etc.) to prevent plagiarism (Harris, 2012).Creating an LPP Assignment Activity (15 minutes) - See Appendix IIPowerPoint Presentation (15 minutes)VI. What are the implications for administrative policy and practice? A. Policies need to be put in place to promote a culture of pride in academic integrity. B. It is believed that schools with honor codes generally have lower levels of cheating due in large part to an increase in peer disapproval of cheating/cheating regaining a social stigma within the school community (McCabe & Trevino, 2002). C. An honor code should cover cheating, plagiarism, fabrication, multiple submissions, misrepresentation, and unfair advantages (Stanford, 2001). 1. A traditional honor code generally employs ―honor pledges, student-organized honor systems, unproctored exams, and the requirement of students to turn in suspected cheating incidents‖ (Stanford, 2001). 2. Modified honor codes ―aim to develop a sense of community responsibility for academic integrity, particularly among students. Unproctored exams and the use 9
  11. 11. Quraish CIMT 513 of a pledge are usually at the instructor’s option‖ and only at the upper college level (McCabe & Trevino, 2002). a) Modified honor codes are only effective so long as the school makes an effort to communicate to students that academic integrity is a major priority in the school (McCabe & Trevino, 2002). b) Additionally, students should be permitted to participate in ―judicial or hearing bodies‖ to review alleged honor code infringements (McCabe & Trevino, 2002).VII. What are the implications for curriculum? A. Actively teach information literacy, including research techniques, citations, and paraphrasing. B. Promote good work ethic and a sense of pride in original work by carefully grading and providing appropriate, constructive feedback to each student. C. Explain policies on plagiarism and grading at the start of the school year and follow through with consequences when plagiarism does occur. D. Assign relevant, authentic projects that inspire creativity and original thought (Johnson, 2004). 10
  12. 12. Quraish CIMT 513 ReferencesBates, P. and Fain, M. (2009). Cheating 101: Detecting Plagiarized Papers. Retrieved from, M., and Bates, P. (1999, March 5). Cheating 101: Paper Mills and You. Retrieved from, R. (2012). Anti-Plagiarism Strategies for Research Papers. Retrieved from, D. (2004). Plagiarism Proofing Assignments. Retrieved from, K. (2011). Preventing Plagiarism: Tips and Techniques. Retrieved from, D. and Trevino, L.K. (2002). Honesty and Honor Codes. Retrieved from, C. (2004). Dealing with High School Plagiarism. Retrieved from (2012). In Retrieved from, LLC. (2012). What is Plagiarism? Retrieved from, G. (2004). Electronic Plagiarism Seminar. Retrieved from Online Writing Lab. (2012). Paraphrase: Write It in Your Own Words. Retrieved from 11
  13. 13. Quraish CIMT 513The School for Ethical Education. (2008). Honor Code and Examples. Retrieved from (2001). Honor Codes Across the Country. Retrieved from http://www-cs- Corporation. (2007). Cyber Ethics. Retrieved from 12
  14. 14. Quraish CIMT 513Appendix I Identifying Electronic Plagiarism With your group of four, you will read a sample student paper searching for instances of plagiarism. Before you begin, have one participant from each group get a laptop and a sample paper. 1. Remember to look for obvious clues! Inconsistencies Few citations Formatting discrepancies Irrelevant Change in style or diction Careless mistakes 2. Find a phrase that seems ―suspicious,‖ either in spelling, jargon, or content, and run it through a number of search engines. Make sure to use quotes around the phrase! 3. Using your laptop, find your sample paper in the shared folder. Copy and paste the content into and read through the detailed plagiarism report. See how the software’s findings differ from your own. Questions for discussion: Did you find plagiarism where there was none? How can falsely accusing be avoided? How did the software’s findings compare to your own? Were all of the software’s findings accurate? 13
  15. 15. Quraish CIMT 513Appendix II Creating Assignments with Low Probability of Plagiarism (LPP) In your groups, use Doug Johnson’s (2004) guidelines for creating LPP assignments,paraphrased and restated below, to create detailed instructions for an assignment you feelstudents would have a hard time plagiarizing, or a low inclination to plagiarize.Be sure to be specific and have multiple due dates for process steps. Additionally, use as manyof the suggestions below as reasonable:1. Assign projects with a clarity of purpose that will teach applicable skills (Johnson, 2004).2. Give students choices when possible so that projects spark interest and become meaningfuland relevant (Johnson, 2004).3. To prevent the regurgitation of facts, ask students to write in a narrative style about how theywent about their research, surprising findings, etc. (Johnson, 2004).4. Assign projects that focus on higher levels of Bloom’s Taxonomy and answer real questions(Johnson, 2004).5. Assign hands-on, creative projects that make use of multiple senses and technology (Johnson,2004).6. Create collaborative projects and share results with family and friends when possible(Johnson, 2004).7. Assign complex projects that can be broken into manageable steps, assessed authentically,and provide students the opportunity to ―reflect, revisit, revise, and improve‖ (Johson, 2004).Questions for discussion: How does the assignment created compare to assignments you generally assign? What will you be most likely to carry over into your classroom? 14
  16. 16. Quraish CIMT 513Appendix IIIActivities for Use in the Classroom* Identifying Plagiarism Activity Sheet – Provide a worksheet of scenarios in which students have to decide whether the student in the scenario is guilty of committing plagiarism or not. Be sure to thoroughly go over answers and reasoning so that students have a better understanding of what to avoid in their own papers. Consider giving a participation grade for true effort, but avoid giving a grade on accuracy for students should not be punished for inaccuracy on a learning exercise. Journaling Reflection on Plagiarism – This works best in a class experienced with regular journaling. Following the explicit teaching of plagiarism and its various forms, ask students to reflect on what they have learned, why it is relevant, and the impact it has on them personally. Ask students to write their own example scenarios of plagiarism (as in the above activity) and then offer suggestions as to how this could have been avoided. Citation Exercises – Create a worksheet with examples of text with missing citations (indicated by empty parenthesis) and a list of fake resources to choose from. After teaching students about your chosen format (MLA or APA, for example) of in-text citations, assign students the task of filling in the missing references from the list of fake resources.*This list has been adapted and modified from: 15
  17. 17. Quraish CIMT 513Appendix IVAdditional Reading1. Bochicchio, K. (2008). Beat the Cheat: Teaching Students (and Parents) Its Not OK to Copy. Retrieved from Teacher written article on the first-hand experience of cracking down on plagiarism, and the backlash that can initially come not only from students, but from parents, as well.2. Mayfield, K. (2000). Catching Digital Cheaters. Retrieved from A look into the inner workings of paper mill websites, their legalizing ―disclaimers,‖ and the man credited with trying to put an end to them, TurnItIn creator, John Barrie.3. Lee, F. (2003). Are More People Cheating?: Despite Ample Accounts Of Dishonesty, a Moral Decline Is Hard to Calculate. Retrieved from accounts-dishonesty-moral-decline-hard.html Not specific only to plagiarism, this article offers a look into the prevalence of cheating and attempts to uncover whether it indicates an all encompassing decline in ethics and morality. Don McCabe and his research on cheating within high schools and universities is introduced. 16
  18. 18. Quraish CIMT 513 PROJECT SUBMISSION CHECKLISTNOTE: The most frequently occurring problem with projects has to do with not followinginstructions regarding submission. These errors, particularly a few of them, are time consumingfor you and for me to troubleshoot. As a result, the following checklist has been developed in aneffort to eliminate the problem. Failure to include this checklist with each submitted project orfailure to adhere to any submission rule will be costly in my grading of your work—a deductionof 10 pts.Each item on the ch ecklist is referenced in the course syllabus, so you might want to checkthere for further clarification.INSTRUCTIONS: Include this checklist as the last page of all submitted project work Saved text file in correct format, Word for Windows (.doc file extension) or as Rich Text Format (.rtf file extension) Named saved file appropriately, e.g. John Smith would name his word processing file for proficiency #1 as smith656prof1.doc. Included cover sheet with prescribed information Restated project verbatim If applicable, adhered to page length specifications Included a header or footer with last name and course number on each page of the project Used Times Roman or Arial font only Unless instructed otherwise, double-spaced body text Incorporated pictures and/or illustrations as appropriateComments or explanations that you need to make (optional): hsd 8/2011 17