Scoring Key SA2 2012-13 Std X
B OR A
Italy was divided into 7 states in the middle of the 18 century- Sardinia- Piedmont were
under princely states – North was under Austria - Centre- was ruled by Pope and Southern
region was ruled by Spain. The main leaders of Italian unification were- Victor Emmanuel II
of Sardinia, his Chief Minister Count Cavour- two revolutionary leaders Guiseppe Mazzine
and Garibaldi- with the help of these leaders Italy was unified – Victor Emmanuel II was
proclaimed king of united Italy.
Ho chi Minh trail – an immense network of foot paths and roads- used to transport men and
materials from north to south – The trail had support bases and hospitals – Supplies were
transported in trucks – Some were carried by porters – most of the trail was outside
The First World War led to a huge increase in defence expenditure which was financed by
war loans and increasing levies – Prices increased – Extreme hardships for the common
people – Acute shortage of food due to crop failure – People thought that hardships would
end after the war – All these helped in the growth of nationalism.
Civil Disobedience Movement – Colonial government began arresting the congress leaders –
Arrest of Abdul Gaffar Khan – Angry crowds demonstrated in the streets of Peshawar –
Mahatma Gandhi was arrested – Industrial workers in Sholapur attacked police posts,
municipal buildings – Government started a policy of brutal repression – Peaceful
Satyagrahis were attacked – Women and children were beaten – In such a situation Gandhiji
decided to call off the Civil Disobedience Movement.
Proximity of jute producing areas – Inexpensive water transport – Good network of railways,
roadways and waterways to facilitate movement of raw materials to mills – Abundant water
for processing of raw jute – Cheap labour from West Bengal and states of Bihar, Orissa and
UP – Kolkata provides banking, insurance and port facilities.(Any three)
Presence of big rivers – dissected relief – dense forests – frequent floods and international
frontiers – Air transport has made access easier in North Eastern states.
Transport plays a significant role in the economy – Quick movement of raw materials and
finished products – Helps in people’s mobility – Promotes National Integration – Reduces
time and distance between places.
Judicious use of minerals – Care for the future generation – Sustainable development – Idea
of ‘Save our Earth’ to be materialised.
17. Political party – Group of people who come together to contest elections and hold power in
the Government – Agree on some policies and programme for the society – Political parties
contest elections – put forward different policies and programmes – Decisive role in making
laws – Forms and runs Government – Play the role of opposition – Shape public opinion –
Provide people access to Government machinery and welfare schemes (Any three).
18. Pressure groups and movements try to win public support and sympathy by organising
meetings, campaigns – filing petitions – Organises strike or disrupt Government programme.
19. Lack of internal democracy – Dynastic succession – Growing role of money and muscle
power – Parties do not offer a meaningful choice to the voters. (Any three)
20. Right to be informed – Right to choose – Right to seek redressal – Right to represent (Any
21. No need of collateral security – Reasonable interest rate – timely loans – Women become
self reliant – Provides a platform to discuss and act on social issues like health, nutrition,
22. Art – Poetry – stories and music aroused nationalist feelings – Folk songs – folk dances
created the true spirit of the nation – Karol Kurpinsky celebrated the national struggle
through operas and music – turning folk dances like polonaise and mazurka into nationalist
symbols – Language played an important role.
Role of women – Were brave fighters – Women even shot down planes – Women helped in
nursing the wounded – Constructed under ground rooms – In the Ho chi Minh trail 70% to
80% were women.
23. Champaran – 1916 organised peasant struggle- 1917 – Satyagraha at Kheda - 1918 Cotton
mill workers strike at Ahmedabad – 1919 – Nation wide satyagraha against Rowlatt Act –
Non co-operation movement – Dandi March.
24. Air – Water – Thermal – Land – Noise pollution
25. Having formal constitution – elections – ensuring citizen’s rights – Welfare of people –
Accountability – Improves the quality of decision making – Democracy is good in principle –
Economic disparity – Social injustice – Other discriminations – Democracy can only create
conditions for achieving our goals.
26. Challenge of expansion – Greater power to local Governments - Extension of federal
principles to all units of federation – inclusion of women etc. – Eg. India and US face this
challenge. – Deepening of democracy – Strengthening the institutions of democracy – The
control and influence of the rich and powerful people in making governmental decisions
should be brought down – Every democracy faces the challenge.
27. New technology and production methods – increased production standards – Large
companies emerged as Multi Nationals Eg. Tata Motors, Infosys – Small producers – hard hit
due to stiff competition – Many people became jobless.
28. RBI monitors the banks – Whether cash balance is actually maintained – Checks whether
banks give loans to small cultivators – Periodic information on how much they lend.
29. Consumer redressal is becoming cumbersome – consumers have to engage lawyers – Time
consuming – Cash memos are not issued – hence no evidence – Existing laws are not clear
on the issue of compensation to consumers.