• Research is a careful or critical inquiry or
examination in seeking facts or principles.
• Research is diligent investigation to ascertain.
C.C. Crawford, “ Research is simply a systematic & refined
technique of thinking, employing specialized tools,
instruments & procedures in order to obtain a more
adequate solution of a problem that would be possible
under ordinary means. It starts with a problem, collects
data or facts, analyses these critically & reaches decisions
based on the actual evidence. It evolves original work
instead of mere exercise of personal opinion. It is
quantitative, seeking to know not only what but ‘how
much’ and measurement is ‘therefore, a central feature of
“Research is considered to be the more formal,
systematic, intensive process of carrying on the
scientific method of analysis. It involves a more
systematic structure of investigation, usually
resulting in some sort of formal record of
procedures and report of result or conclusion”
John W. Best
“Education Research is that activity which is
directed towards development of a science of
behaviour in educational situations. The ultimate
aim of such a science is to provide knowledge
that will permit the educator to achieve his goals
by the most effective methods” J.W. Best
Robert M.W. Traverse
Educational Research is:
• Concerned with problems to be solved
• Endeavors to organize data in quantitative terms
• Systematic & accurate investigation
• Collects facts
• Expresses results without being influenced by
any extraneous considerations
Types of studies in Educational Research
(based on positivists paradigm)
(Based on Humanistic paradigm)
2. Case studies
3. Documentary analysis
• Investigation of cause –effect relationship.
• Variable(s) related to cause (antecedents)
• Variable(s) related to effect (consequents)
• If an antecedent is varied under control-
• The variable on whom the effect is measured-
Quasi- experimental Studies
• Quasi: seemingly but not really
• Not truly experimental design
• Same issue as ER but difference in manner
• Most ER are QER as we deal with human
• Correlation between 2 variables.
• Correlation may be + or – or 0
• Varies between 0 and 1 & is expressed in
terms of direction as well as magnitude (e.g.
• Descriptive research investigates ‘what exists’.
• DR includes surveys and fact finding enquiries of
• The major purpose of DR is description of the state of
affairs as it exists at present.
• The researcher has no control over the variables: he
can only report what has happened/happening.
• Ex-post facto studies include attempt by
researchers to discover causes even when
they cannot control the variables.
• Methods used in DR- survey method
(comparative & correlational methods).
• Opposite of experimental Research
• Emphasis on naturalistic field study.
• Participant/non-participant observation for
collection of data
• “What was”
• Try to determine, evaluate & understand past
events for gaining clearer understanding of the
present & better prediction of future.
• Established educational system
• Deals with philosophical aspects of education
• Taken up under HR
• Interpretive in its approach.