Mapping the Web Presences
of Tourism Destinations:
An Analysis of the European Countries
Luisa Mich, Nadzeya Kiyavitskaya
...
The problem
• Defining and building a comprehensive Web
presence for a tourism destination exploiting
Web 2.0 ‘spaces’, go...
Tourists and the UGC
... social networking is one of the most powerful forces driving travel planning
today. … social medi...
Critical decisions
• choosing which social networks are worth
investing in to yield a positive return in terms
of promotio...
An example
Segui VisitSweden su
(Non) Strategies of Web presence
• Ignore
• Wait
• Copy
Loss of competitive advantage
Image damage
Costs
Crisis
Research Objectives
• Define a framework for the classification and
analysis of online spaces to be included in a
web pres...
The framework
• An organization’s (DMO’s) Web presence is
determined by the online spaces ‘occupied’
• Online spaces are c...
Classification of the online spaces
1.Official spaces
– official websites (B2C, B2B), micro-sites

2.Semi-official spaces
...
Presence matrixes and maps
• Focusing on the first two levels, the presence
map assigns the official and semi-official
(pl...
Presence matrix
Finland

Official site
Facebook
Twitter
YouTube
Flicker

Official site
www.visitfin
land.com
[en, de, fr ....
Presence map of Finland
Analysis of the official spaces
• B2C websites of the 15 European DMOs:
– Inspective evaluation: applying a table based on...
Website quality and Alexa success
parameters MCA graph
Profile 1

Profile 3

Profile 2
Three ‘profiles’
• Profile 1: very high quality, at least one of the Alexa’s
parameters traffic rank (ranking) and sites l...
Analysis of the semi-official spaces
– Focus on the DMOs’ presences in:
• Facebook (all apart I; D, PL, F have a profile, ...
Results
Nation

FB
fans*

FB
last

TW
TW
followers* last

Germany
France
Spain
United Kingdom
Sweden
Holland
Poland
Norway...
Website and social networks Web
presence MCA graph
Presence maps: three profiles
• the social networks spaces (nodes) are
connected to the destination website:
– by unidirec...
Conclusion and outlook
• We proposed a new model to map official and semi-official
online spaces included in the Web prese...
References
L. Mich, N. Kiyavitskaya, Mapping the Presences of Tourism
Destinations: An analysis of the European Countries,...
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Mapping the Web Presences of Tourism Destinations: An Analysis of the European Countries. Extract from the presentation ENTER 2011

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Mapping Web Presences of Tourism Destinations

  1. 1. Mapping the Web Presences of Tourism Destinations: An Analysis of the European Countries Luisa Mich, Nadzeya Kiyavitskaya luisa.mich@unitn.it, nadzeya@disi.unitn.it University of Trento http://etourism.economia.unitn.it
  2. 2. The problem • Defining and building a comprehensive Web presence for a tourism destination exploiting Web 2.0 ‘spaces’, going beyond the website: – Web 2.0 largely extended the types of Web presences for an organization: institutional websites vs. blogs, wikis, social platforms, podcasts, forums – Traditional marketing and branding scenarios must be revised
  3. 3. Tourists and the UGC ... social networking is one of the most powerful forces driving travel planning today. … social media use among travellers is growing far faster than the travel industry itself. Unique monthly visitors to social travel sites jumped 34% between the first half of 2008 and the last half of 2009. (PhocusWright) Which of the following do you use most frequently when travelling? - Mobile maps: 56% (US) and 63% (non-US) - Social networks: 38% (US) and 64% (non-US) - Virtual/3D tourism: 30% (US) and 27% (non-US) - Blogs: 32% (US) and 22% (non-US) - Podcasts: 9% (US) and 7% (non-US) - Virtual worlds: 0% (US) and 10% (non-US) - RSS feeds: 7% (US) and 11% (non-US) (tnooz.com, August 2010)
  4. 4. Critical decisions • choosing which social networks are worth investing in to yield a positive return in terms of promotion and commercialization of the destination, and • defining how to connect the destination’s site(s) and its presences on social networks
  5. 5. An example Segui VisitSweden su
  6. 6. (Non) Strategies of Web presence • Ignore • Wait • Copy Loss of competitive advantage Image damage Costs Crisis
  7. 7. Research Objectives • Define a framework for the classification and analysis of online spaces to be included in a web presence strategy (decision making): – Provide a model to describe and analyze the characteristics of different forms of Web presence – Investigate the applicability of this model – Elaborate guidelines and recommendations for improving Web presences of DMOs
  8. 8. The framework • An organization’s (DMO’s) Web presence is determined by the online spaces ‘occupied’ • Online spaces are classified according to the level of control the organization can exert on them • An effective Web presence must consider all and only those spaces necessary for the organization’s strategies • Online spaces must be evaluated on a costbenefit analysis
  9. 9. Classification of the online spaces 1.Official spaces – official websites (B2C, B2B), micro-sites 2.Semi-official spaces – presences with partial control, e.g., YouTube brand channel, fan pages on Facebook, a profile on Twitter, wikis, Web communities, blogs … 3.Spaces beyond the organization’s control – uncontrolled (Web 2.0) spaces, e.g., social networks, independent blogs, forums, etc.
  10. 10. Presence matrixes and maps • Focusing on the first two levels, the presence map assigns the official and semi-official (planned or actual) spaces occupied by a DMO to nodes of a graph; connections among these spaces are represented by links (directed edges), obtaining a space connectivity map • 15 European countries: those with more than 5 millions arrival of residents in 2008, http://epp.eurostat.ec.europa.eu
  11. 11. Presence matrix Finland Official site Facebook Twitter YouTube Flicker Official site www.visitfin land.com [en, de, fr ..] Quality: High Twitter twitter.com/ ourfinland Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes Facebook www.facebo ok.com/visit finland 3408 people like this; last off. post Sep 10 Yes Yes 818 followers; last off. tweet Sep 3 YouTube www.youtube .com/user/vis itfinland views 3302; downloads 50275; last off. video Jun 7 Yes Flicker www.flickr. com/photos/ visitfinland last photo Sep 6
  12. 12. Presence map of Finland
  13. 13. Analysis of the official spaces • B2C websites of the 15 European DMOs: – Inspective evaluation: applying a table based on the 7Loci meta-model (Identity, Content, Services, Identification, Management, Usability, Feasibility) – The quality of the websites resulted very different: • there are websites with positive performances for almost all the questions in the evaluation schema, while others have significant gaps among the 7 dimensions (e.g., strong Identity, based on an effective graphical design, good Services, but which Content or Usability are not yet adequate)
  14. 14. Website quality and Alexa success parameters MCA graph Profile 1 Profile 3 Profile 2
  15. 15. Three ‘profiles’ • Profile 1: very high quality, at least one of the Alexa’s parameters traffic rank (ranking) and sites linking in (links) in the 1st (1) or 2nd quartile (2) (e.g., CH, UK, NL, S) • Profile 2: high quality, ranking and links 1 or 2; (ES, F, N, A) • Profile 3: medium, low quality, ranking and links 3 or 4 (PL, P, RO, I) – The existence of 3 profiles is an interesting result and somehow reflects the experience accumulated by the European DMOs for their official website (see Baggio, 2003)
  16. 16. Analysis of the semi-official spaces – Focus on the DMOs’ presences in: • Facebook (all apart I; D, PL, F have a profile, UK has a group page) • Twitter (all apart I and GR; # followers lower than on FB) • YouTube (brand channel, all apart I, PT and RO) • Flickr (only NL, GR and F)
  17. 17. Results Nation FB fans* FB last TW TW followers* last Germany France Spain United Kingdom Sweden Holland Poland Norway Austria Switzerland Greece Finland Portugal Romania <1 <1 >100 <1 10-20 20-100 1-10 1-10 <1 10-20 10-20 1-10 20-100 1-10 days days today days days today today today today days today days today today 1-2 <1 >10 >10 2-10 2-10 2-10 2-10 <1 1-2 today today today today days days today days today days <1 1-2 1-2 days today days 10-20 * In thousands YT YT channel last views* <1 >20 10-20 >20 1-10 1-10 10-20 10-20 10-20 10-20 1-10 months weeks weeks months months weeks weeks months months months months YT total views <10 >300 100-300 100-300 10-100 10-100 >300 100-300 >300 100-300 10-100 months 10-100 #links <3 3-6 >6 <3 >6 3-6 3-6 3-6 3-6 >6 3-6 >6 3-6 3-6
  18. 18. Website and social networks Web presence MCA graph
  19. 19. Presence maps: three profiles • the social networks spaces (nodes) are connected to the destination website: – by unidirectional edges (D, HL, UK) – by (some) bidirectional edges (N, GR, A) – (mainly) by bidirectional edges and there are connections also among some of the social networks (CH, E, F, S)
  20. 20. Conclusion and outlook • We proposed a new model to map official and semi-official online spaces included in the Web presence of a DMO: – its application on a set of European destinations allowed to distinguish different web presence strategies; – it can support destination managers to make their decision on (a) which SNs are worth investing in and (b) how to connect the destination’s site and its presences on SNs • Future works will investigate: – the association between the experience of a destination on the website and its social networks strategy – the impact of differently directed edges (e.g., of a fully connected map vs. a subset of connections) – other social networks (e.g., tourism related ones)
  21. 21. References L. Mich, N. Kiyavitskaya, Mapping the Presences of Tourism Destinations: An analysis of the European Countries, in ICT in Tourism 2011, Wien; New York: Springer Vienna, 2011, pp. 379390. Proc. ENTER 2011, Innsbruck, Jan. 26-28 2011. http://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007%2F978-3-7091-05030_31, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-7091-0503-0_31 L. Mich, Towards a Web 2.0 Presence Model for Tourism Destination Management Organizations, in eChallenges e-2010, IEEE , 2010, pp. 1-8. Proc. e-2010, Warsaw, Oct. 27-29 2010. http://ieeexplore.ieee.org/xpl/articleDetails.jsp?arnumber=5756 589

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