INTODUCTION
Islamic Republic of Pakistan has friendly relations with Republic of Turkey and iran . pakistan
maintain exten...
been spotlighted as an optimal destination for studying history, politics, languages, sciences
and more.
another example o...
“The two countries’ people love each other unconditionally. That’s why the Turkish people
wholeheartedly participate in on...
The whole history of Pakistan is full of crises, wars, military interventions, betrayals,
experiments, working-class movem...
 Pakistan will import $292 million of crude from Iran every month.
So what is Pakistan giving in return? The answer is – ...
A meeting of the Russian-Pakistani commission was of a preparatory nature ahead of President
Putin's visit to Pakistan in ...
Many U.S. companies are very interested in participating in the TAPI project, U.S Assistant
Secretary of State for South a...
2011 was 151.8 billion cubic meters, while consumption in the same year amounted to 153.3
billion.
The excess of the domes...
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  1. 1. INTODUCTION Islamic Republic of Pakistan has friendly relations with Republic of Turkey and iran . pakistan maintain extensive cultural, commercial, strategic and military cooperation and a deep bond of brotherhood with these nations.all three nations are Muslim-majority states and share extensive cultural and geopolitical links. The Ex-President of Pakistan Pervez Musharraf, who spent part of his childhood in Turkey, expressed a desire to develop Pakistan on the Turkish model of modernism and secularism. In spite of the geographical locations and the clear economic and social differences between these countries, Turkey, Pakistan and Iran have had a cordial relation, on a state to state level. Pakistanis have always been called ‘brothers’ in Iran and Turkey. All three nations are members of the Economic Cooperation Organization (ECO) and part of the Developing 8 Countries (D-8) organizations. All three nations have worked to negotiate a preferential trading agreement, aiming to considerably increase trade and investments, especially in transport, manufacturing, telecommunications, tourism and other industries. Pakistani exports include sesame seeds, leather, fabrics, rice, textiles, sports goods, and medical equipment. Turkey's exports to Pakistan include lentils, diesel, chemicals, wheat, chickpeas, transport vehicles, machinery and energy products. Turkish private corporations have also invested significantly in industrial and construction projects developing pipelines,highways, and canals. Iran is already exporting 34MW of electricity daily to Pakistan. Electricity that Pakistan is importing from Iran is much cheaper than the electricity produced by the Independent Power Producers (IPPs) because Iran subsidizes oil and gas which feed the power plants. All these Nation were part of Cold War alliance called the Central Treaty Organization (CTO). Military-to-military contacts remain resolute, uncompromising and stalwart as ever, as the two countries now vigorously aiming and exploring the co-production of weapons ranging from armored vehicles to new-generation corvettes. Significantly, both sides also wish to boost defense exports to Islamic countries as an alternative to "expensive" Western weapons. Pakistan was always supported by Iran when it went to war with India, sending over squadrons of airplanes and extra tanks as well as other arms to support it. Imperalism One of the best example of imperalism is offering education by allowing foreign students to study in their countries like Turkish universities are coming to promote their highly ranked universities in pakistan by advertising in media If you've never thought of Turkey as a top study abroad location, think again! With tourism to this continent-straddling country increasing by nearly 20% year-over-year since 1993, student interest in studying in Turkey is rapidly growing, as well. With this increased attraction in recent years, Turkey's educational system has also
  2. 2. been spotlighted as an optimal destination for studying history, politics, languages, sciences and more. another example of imperilasim is that pakistan and iran have signed agreement to resolve the energy Communism In the aftermath of the 2005 Kashmir earthquake, Turkey stepped up its efforts to help the Pakistani people of the affected areas. Prime Minister of turkey, RecepTayyipErdoğan, paid an official visit to Pakistan in order to share the grief and agony of the brotherly people of Pakistan. Turkey announced a package of $150 million for the quake-hit people. The Turkish welfare organization Kizilay (Turkish Red Crescent) also constructed a mosque in the Azad Kashmir region. The mosque is being built in the Ottoman Style in Bagh District;(azad kashmir) it would have a capacity to accommodate 300 people, besides a guesthouse, a lodging facility and a teaching area for 250 students practicing the holy book of Islam, the quran. In response to the 2010 Pakistan floods, Turkey issued a rallying cry for flood-hit Pakistan. Apart, from the state and its organizations, a number of Turkish business society also initiated aid campaigns for Pakistan. Turkey also sent a train carrying food,medicine aid for the flood vitims of Pakistan. The train is loaded with humanitarian aid collected by Turkey' s Sabah (newspaper)-ATV (TV channel) Group and Turkish Red Crescent. The aid consists of 300 prefabricated houses, 2,000 food parcels, 930 sacks of flour, hygienic materials, dried food, diapers and potable water. The Turkish government also announced building of a Turkish town in the flood stricken Pakistan. Turkey has donated a $11 million to Pakistan. Turkish Prime Minister Erdogan also visited flood stricken parts of Pakistan, Erdoğan traveled from Islamabad to Karachi with six ministers, flying by helicopter to witness aid efforts, including the completion of a village of 2,000 prefabricated houses built by the Turkish Red Crescent near Multan, in the eastern province of Punjab. After the flood when the Turkish Prime Minister could not come to Pakistan due to his engagements his wife visited pakistan to look after the flood victims and after success in referendum he immediately came to Pakistan and personally gave the keys of the houses constructed by Turkish red cresent to the flood victims. Turkish Prime Minister Erdogan, during his visit to Pakistan has said, “We love you and I believe you love us. Pakistan... did not abandon us after the 1999 earthquake.”
  3. 3. “The two countries’ people love each other unconditionally. That’s why the Turkish people wholeheartedly participate in ongoing aid campaigns for Pakistan.” The Chief Minister of the Punjab Province in Pakistan, Shahbaz Sharif has thanked Turkey by saying, “Turkey and Pakistan are bonded in cultural, religiousand historical ties and Turkey has always supported Pakistan in hard times. pakistan and turkeyhave close fraternity.” The Turkish Ambassador to Pakistan, Babur Hizlan thanked the Chief Minister on holding a ceremony on the 87th independence day of Turkish Republic, “Pakistan and Turkey have deep-rooted historical relations and the Turk people consider Pakistan as their second home. He said that relations between the two countries are growing with the passage of time and are role a model for other states. He said that the ties between Turkey and Pakistan are time tested and both the countries have supported each other on international forums.” Marxism Relations with Turkey and Pakistan since the Revolution generally have been amicable and without any major issues. Before the Revolution, Iran had joined both countries in a defensive alliance (that included Britain with the United States as an observer), the Central Treaty Organization, and in an economic agreement, the Regional Cooperation for Development. Iran withdrew from both agreements after the Revolution. Nevertheless, Iran's economic ties with Pakistan and Turkey have expanded significantly. Both countries have become important trade partners of Iran. Turkey also has become the major transit route for goods traveling by truck and rail between Europe and Iran. The increased volume of trade with Turkey and Pakistan has been facilitated both by their location and by the ideology of "neither East nor West," which advocates reducing imports from the industrialized nations in favor of importing more from Muslim and Third World countries. Although Iran maintained diplomatic relations with Afghanistan in 1987, Iran was critical of both the Marxist-Leninist government in Kabul and the presence of Soviet troops in the country. Although distrustful of the ideologies of most groups, Iran's leaders generally supported the cause of the Afghan resistance. Iran provided financial and limited military assistance to those Afghan resistance forces whose leaders had pledged loyalty to the Iranian vision of Islamic revolution. Iran also hosted about 2.3 million refugees who had fled Afghanistan. Socialism
  4. 4. The whole history of Pakistan is full of crises, wars, military interventions, betrayals, experiments, working-class movements, and social and political explosions. The weak indigenous ruling class, the colonial state structure, the strong establishment and imperialist domination, created many problems for the new state which not only still exist but have become bigger and more complicated. To understand the present situation, it is important to see how the Pakistani state, ruling classes, working class, economy, political movements and society in general have developed over the last 60 years. The only class which can bring change and transform the lives of the working masses is the working class. Socialism is the only viable system to replace capitalism. The working class has not yet started to move but once it starts the whole political scenario will be different. There is a 43 million strong working class, one third of the total population. The Pakistani working class and masses have showed again and again that they have the potential, courage and capability to conduct a revolutionary struggle against the rotten rulers. The working class needs its own revolutionary party and leadership to organise the struggle. Such a party, with a clear programme, strategy and tactics, and mass support, can win the future for the masses. Pakistan is heading towards another showdown between the ruling and working classes. The outcome of this showdown will determine the future of this country and for the masses. The working class cannot take full advantage of independence and cannot enjoy real freedom without the overthrow of capitalism and feudalism. Capitalism Recently Iran agreed to export 80,000 barrels crude per day to Pakistan. Pakistan requested a loan of $500 Million from Iran for the pipeline to be built. Iran refused for $500 million but agreed for half the amount – $250 million. This loan of $250 million doesn’t have the interest rate decided or the loan repayment length. The fun does end here. Russia is “pressuring” Pakistan to award a $1.2 Billion Oil Pipeline ‘no-bid’ contract to Gazprom, a Russian firm that has used its economic clout for political gains in Europe. Let’s try to understand what’s happening here.  Iran is going to loan $250 Million for IP pipeline to Pakistan  Russia wants $1.2 Billion to build the pipeline for Pakistan
  5. 5.  Pakistan will import $292 million of crude from Iran every month. So what is Pakistan giving in return? The answer is – I don’t know. And here’s why I say this  Pakistan owes a total of $130 billion, local and foreign  Pakistan has a trade deficit of about $1.5+ Billion per month i.e. its importing 66+% more than its exporting  Repayment of $2.3 billion (1.5 billion SDR) to the IMF is due this year. You will witness a 15% drop in the PKR value by or before summer. So how do we solve the huge debt, the huge trade imbalance and rupee depreciation? Simple! Take on more debt, use that debt to build infrastructure to boost imports and then reduce the price of imports by subsidies financed by money printing! The general public is completely complacent in these decisions. The public protested the rise in oil prices. The public demanded and welcomed the recent subsidies. And I can only assume the response from the public to this Iran Pakistan Oil pipeline is going to be ‘encouraging’. Never mind the consequence of influence of these both countries, Iran and Russia, will play in the internal affairs of Pakistan when the debt bill comes due. There is a saying “When you borrow money from the Russians, you are lending your soul”. For Pakistan, there will be no room left for soul-searching. That too would have been collateralized. Liberalism Pakistan lives in an energy crisis. The country faces an acute shortage of energy resources which greatly hinders its economic development. Implementation of the Iran-Pakistan gas project could really help Pakistan's economy, but the question largely depends on the positions of the great powers, Trend news agency's expert Azer Ahmedbeyli wrote in an article published on Thursday. According to the Pakistani newspaper The Express Tribune, Russian and Pakistani representatives discussed Russia's possible participation in the Iran-Pakistan gas pipeline construction project (Pakistan's section) during a meeting in Islamabad on the level of the joint intergovernmental commission. The Russian side expressed its desire to help Pakistan to overcome its energy crisis and stressed Russian Gazprom's readiness to participate in financing the project.
  6. 6. A meeting of the Russian-Pakistani commission was of a preparatory nature ahead of President Putin's visit to Pakistan in October. It is planned to sign a number of major agreements with Pakistan and it is assumed that the Iran-Pakistan gas pipeline project will be one of them. Half of the energy resources consumed by Pakistan fall to natural gas. So far, the country produced and consumed its own gas without importing it from other countries. In 2011, Pakistan extracted 39 billion cubic meters of gas and consumed the same volume. However, the home grown amount is not enough to ensure the normal functioning of the Pakistani economy. According to Pakistani sources, at present, up to 10 billion cubic meters of gas per year are required now. In 2014-15, this figure will increase to 25.7 billion cubic meters a year. A year later, it will amount to 30.8 billion cubic meters and in 2017 the supply deficit will reach 36 billion cubic meters a year. Besides the acute need for gas, Pakistan is in a position close to critical due to a lack of funds for the construction of its part of the project in terms of limited time. According to the contract, the Pakistani section worth $1.5 billion must be constructed and a full-scale exploitation of the gas pipeline must be launched by late 2014. If the terms are violated, Islamabad will have to pay huge fines to the Iranian side which is completing the construction of its section of the pipeline. Everybody has an interest in this game. Pakistan is trying to ensure gas supplies as soon as possible for the needs of its economy which is suffocating from a lack of energy resources. Pakistan's leadership stresses its firm determination to complete the construction of a pipeline from Iran by all means as the Iranian gas is much more accessible now, than the Turkmen (TAPI project). This does not mean that the Turkmen gas will be superfluous. These figures testify to the fact that Pakistan will need it in the short term prospect. Taking into account the recently discovered huge gas reserves, Turkmenistan is trying to enter new markets. The Turkmenistan-Afghanistan-Pakistan-India (TAPI) pipeline project looks very promising. Something was done to promote it. An inter-state agreement between the participating countries was signed in 2010. Turkmenistan signed a memorandum of understanding with Afghanistan in May 2012. The purchase-sale agreements of Turkmen gas were signed with the State Gas Systems of Pakistan and Indian GAIL ltd. According to many experts, the main obstacle for the project is the security in the Afghan section of the route. Potential investors are hesitant to finance the construction without serious guarantees which no one can offer. However, Turkmenistan is holding a series of world road-show business trips to attract investment for the TAPI project construction in the three largest financial centres of the world - New York, London, Singapore these days.
  7. 7. Many U.S. companies are very interested in participating in the TAPI project, U.S Assistant Secretary of State for South and Central Asia Robert Blake mentioned it during a visit to Central Asia in August. Blake stressed that progress on this issue depends on what will be offered. "The participation in the construction of these pipelines is associated with many risks. In particular, firms will consider issues such as the incentives Turkmenistan is ready to offer to international companies to take part in the project. Let's wait for the road shows." He said that concrete discussions about who will form and lead a consortium for the practical construction of the pipeline will begin after their completion. The issue of diversification of export routes is important for Iran having more gas reserves than neighbouring Turkmenistan. However, as opposed to Ashgabat, a political aspect in the implementation of its own gas pipeline project is important for Tehran. It is necessary for Tehran to demonstrate the failure of the sanctions regime, the presence of partners and allies and its international isolation, especially such as Pakistan, the U.S. old strategic partner in the region amid the US-Iranian confrontation. It is important for the U.S. to ensure Iran's maximum isolation, especially its oil and gas potential to weaken the economy and at least force it to abandon its nuclear programme. Accordingly, Americans want to prevent the construction of a pipeline from Iran to Pakistan under any circumstances by putting pressure on Islamabad by persuasion and poorly hidden threats. What does Russia want? As always, it has the most unpredictable plans. The idea of "what is good for the enemy of America is good for Russia" may have a right to exist. In the future, under any pretext it is possible to refuse an agreement to finance the Iran-Pakistan project, whilst demanding the U.S. offers concessions on other foreign policy issues. This action is allowed in politics. However, Russia's attempt to establish its own interests including economic in Pakistan - one of the two largest countries in South Asia, having nuclear weapons, is still more real. It should be recalled that Putin's visit in October will be the first visit of a Russian president to Pakistan, since 1948. Ironically, or, if you like thanks to the principles of the free market heavily implicated in the geopolitics, there is such a situation that the U.S. and Russia seem to change their roles. The U.S. for the TAPI project, originating in Turkmenistan, a former Soviet republic, Russia's partner in the CIS, while Russia can finance the Iran-Pakistan project and therefore support Islamabad - the U.S. strategic partner in the South Asian region. There is another important point in this story. According to the contract, Pakistan will initially import annually around eight to10 billion cubic meters of Iranian gas. Gas production in Iran in
  8. 8. 2011 was 151.8 billion cubic meters, while consumption in the same year amounted to 153.3 billion. The excess of the domestic consumption over the volume of production in Iran has recently become a trend. The country is short of gas given such a significant level of production and it imports gas from neighbouring Turkmenistan. Iran's Northern provinces have not yet been gasified and are suffering from the cold every winter.

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