Successfully reported this slideshow.
We use your LinkedIn profile and activity data to personalize ads and to show you more relevant ads. You can change your ad preferences anytime.
ExperimentalDesign
Why Study
Causality
Conditions of
Causality
Types of
Experiments
Validity of
Experiment
Order of Occurr...
Pre-Experimental
Design
True-Experimental
Design
Quasi-Experimental
Design
One group After
Only
Types of Experiments
Class...
Lab Experiment
Definition of
Lab
Experiment
A process of establishing cause and Effect relationship
by controlling the eff...
Lab Experiment
Different experimental groups will have same value of
the confounding variables
Matching
Randomization All ...
Experiment or Measure
The source of effect is only the variable whose impact
we are studying
Internal Validity
External
Va...
Internal Validity
History
Maturation
Testing
Instrumentation
Statistical
Regression
Selection Bias
Mortality
External even...
Internal Validity
History External events affect the Response
Sales
Promotion Sales
Dairy
Farmer’s Ad
Independent
Variable...
Internal Validity
Maturation Changes because of passing Time
Enhanced
Technology
Increase in
Efficiency
Independent
Variab...
Internal Validity
Testing Effect of Taking Test on Subsequent Test
First Measure 2nd Measure
Dependent
Variable
t1 t2 t3
D...
Internal Validity
Instrumentation Change in Measuring Instrument
First Measure
With Method 1
2nd Measure
with Method 2
Dep...
Internal Validity & External Validity
Statistical
Regression
Population
Sample
Effect of including of Extreme Cases
Internal Validity & External Validity
Selection Bias
Effect
Effect of including those who do not represent
the Population
...
Internal Validity & External Validity
Mortality Dropping subjects from the sample overtime
Sample t1 Sample t2 Sample t3
Internal Validity
Instrumentation
Effect
Change in the Instrument from Pre to post test
Pre Test
What is the
speed of the
...
Types of Experimental Design & Validity
Quasi Experimental
Design
Measure the effect of IV on
experimental Group
Pretest &...
Quasi Experimental Design
Pretest & Posttest
Experimental Group
Design
Group Pretest Treatment Posttest
Experimental O1 X ...
Quasi Experimental Design
Posttest only with
Experimental &
Control Group
Group Pretest Treatment Posttest
Experimental - ...
Quasi Experimental Design
Time Series Design
Internal Validity
History
Maturation
Testing
Instrumentation
Statistical
Regr...
Types of Experimental Design & Validity
True Experimental
Design
It has both control and experimental
Group
Pre and Post M...
True Experimental Design
Pretest & Posttest
with Experimental &
Control Group
Group Pretest Treatment Posttest
Experimenta...
True Experimental
Design
Solomon Four Group
Design
Group Pretest Treatment Posttest
Experimental O1 X O2
Control O3 - O4
E...
True Experimental Design
Ex Post
Facto
Design
There is no manipulation of independent
variable only the subjects who have ...
Completely Randomized Design
Group Before Treatment After
G1 O1 X1 O2
G2 O3 X2 O4
G3 O5 X3 O6
Statistical Design
Randomized Block Design
Blocking Factor
Ind Var B1 B2 B3
V1 X1 X1 X1
V2 X2 X2 X2
V3 X3 X3 X3
Statistical Design
Latin Square Design
(Two Blocking Variables)
Blocking Factor1
Blocking
Factor2
B11 B12 B13
B21 X1 X1 X1
B22 X2 X2 X2
B23 X...
Factorial Design
Ind Var2
Ind Var1 V21 V22 V23
V11
V12
V13
Statistical Design
Experiementation causal research
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in …5
×

Experiementation causal research

715 views

Published on

  • Be the first to comment

Experiementation causal research

  1. 1. ExperimentalDesign Why Study Causality Conditions of Causality Types of Experiments Validity of Experiment Order of Occurrence Concomitant Covariation No other Explanation Internal External Classical Statistical
  2. 2. Pre-Experimental Design True-Experimental Design Quasi-Experimental Design One group After Only Types of Experiments Classical Statistical Completely Randomized Randomized Block Latin Square Factorial One Group Before After After Only with Experimental & Control One Group Before After Time Series Multiple Time Series Two Group Before After Two Group After Only Solomon Four Group
  3. 3. Lab Experiment Definition of Lab Experiment A process of establishing cause and Effect relationship by controlling the effect of confounding variables and manipulating the value of independent variable Controlling Training Performance Past Experience Manipulation Want to study the effect of amount of light Use different amount of light
  4. 4. Lab Experiment Different experimental groups will have same value of the confounding variables Matching Randomization All the groups will have randomly assigned members Controlling the Contaminating Effect of Exogenous Variables
  5. 5. Experiment or Measure The source of effect is only the variable whose impact we are studying Internal Validity External Validity Generalizing the results to the other settings
  6. 6. Internal Validity History Maturation Testing Instrumentation Statistical Regression Selection Bias Mortality External events affect the Response Changes because of passing Time Effect of Taking Test on Subsequent Test Effect of including of Extreme Cases Change in Measuring Instrument Experimental Group is anyway differ from Population Dropping out of the Respondents
  7. 7. Internal Validity History External events affect the Response Sales Promotion Sales Dairy Farmer’s Ad Independent Variable Dependent Variable Uncontrollable Variable t1 t2 t3
  8. 8. Internal Validity Maturation Changes because of passing Time Enhanced Technology Increase in Efficiency Independent Variable Dependent Variable Uncontrollable Variable t1 t2 t3 Gaining Experience
  9. 9. Internal Validity Testing Effect of Taking Test on Subsequent Test First Measure 2nd Measure Dependent Variable t1 t2 t3 Dependent Variable
  10. 10. Internal Validity Instrumentation Change in Measuring Instrument First Measure With Method 1 2nd Measure with Method 2 Dependent Variable Dependent Variable t1 t2 t3
  11. 11. Internal Validity & External Validity Statistical Regression Population Sample Effect of including of Extreme Cases
  12. 12. Internal Validity & External Validity Selection Bias Effect Effect of including those who do not represent the Population Population Sample
  13. 13. Internal Validity & External Validity Mortality Dropping subjects from the sample overtime Sample t1 Sample t2 Sample t3
  14. 14. Internal Validity Instrumentation Effect Change in the Instrument from Pre to post test Pre Test What is the speed of the participant Post Test How well they followed the rules
  15. 15. Types of Experimental Design & Validity Quasi Experimental Design Measure the effect of IV on experimental Group Pretest & Posttest Experimental Group Design Posttest Only With Experimental & Control Groups Time series Design
  16. 16. Quasi Experimental Design Pretest & Posttest Experimental Group Design Group Pretest Treatment Posttest Experimental O1 X O2 Control - - - Treatment Group = (O2- O1) Internal Validity History Yes Maturation Yes Testing Yes Instrumentation Statistical Regression Selection Bias Mortality Yes
  17. 17. Quasi Experimental Design Posttest only with Experimental & Control Group Group Pretest Treatment Posttest Experimental - X O1 Control - - O2 Treatment Group = (O1- O2) Internal Validity History Yes Maturation Yes Testing Instrumentation Statistical Regression Selection Bias Mortality Yes
  18. 18. Quasi Experimental Design Time Series Design Internal Validity History Maturation Testing Instrumentation Statistical Regression Selection Bias Mortality O1 O2 O3 O4 O5 X O6 O7 O8 O9 O10
  19. 19. Types of Experimental Design & Validity True Experimental Design It has both control and experimental Group Pre and Post Measure are taken Pretest & Posttest Experimental & Control Group Design Solomon Four Group Design Time series Design
  20. 20. True Experimental Design Pretest & Posttest with Experimental & Control Group Group Pretest Treatment Posttest Experimental O1 X O2 Control O3 - O4 Treatment Group = (O2- O1) - (O4- O3) Internal Validity History Controlled Maturation Controlled Testing Controlled Instrumentation Controlled Statistical Regression Controlled Randomization Selection Bias Controlled Randomization Mortality Yes
  21. 21. True Experimental Design Solomon Four Group Design Group Pretest Treatment Posttest Experimental O1 X O2 Control O3 - O4 Experimental X O5 Control O6 Treatment Group = (O2 - O1) - (O4 - O3) Internal Validity History Controlled Maturation Controlled Testing Controlled Instrumentation Controlled Statistical Regression Controlled Randomization Selection Bias Controlled Randomization Mortality Yes E = O2 – O1 E = O2 – O4 E = O5 – O6 E = O5 – O3 E = (O2 – O1) – (O4 – O3) If All E are similar the Causal relation is established
  22. 22. True Experimental Design Ex Post Facto Design There is no manipulation of independent variable only the subjects who have already been exposed to a stimulus and those who have not been exposed to are compared.
  23. 23. Completely Randomized Design Group Before Treatment After G1 O1 X1 O2 G2 O3 X2 O4 G3 O5 X3 O6 Statistical Design
  24. 24. Randomized Block Design Blocking Factor Ind Var B1 B2 B3 V1 X1 X1 X1 V2 X2 X2 X2 V3 X3 X3 X3 Statistical Design
  25. 25. Latin Square Design (Two Blocking Variables) Blocking Factor1 Blocking Factor2 B11 B12 B13 B21 X1 X1 X1 B22 X2 X2 X2 B23 X3 X3 X3 Statistical Design
  26. 26. Factorial Design Ind Var2 Ind Var1 V21 V22 V23 V11 V12 V13 Statistical Design

×