Art films vs blockbuster1


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This is a presentation about what is considered Art Movie, art cinema, art house film and the differences with the blockbuster.

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Art films vs blockbuster1

  1. 1. CULTURE & GLOBALIZATION María Villanueva
  2. 2. <ul><li>Art Film Vs. Blockbuster </li></ul>
  3. 3. <ul><li>Art Movie, art cinema, art house film: </li></ul><ul><li>Is a noncommercial, independently made film </li></ul><ul><li>Aimed at a niche audience rather than a mass audience </li></ul><ul><li>Also foreign language film with these characteristics </li></ul><ul><li>I n Europe the term &quot;art film&quot; is more associated with &quot;auteur&quot; films and &quot;national cinema&quot; (e.g., German national cinema). </li></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Art cinema has its own distinct conventions: </li></ul><ul><li>art film producers usually present their films at specialty theatres: repertory cinemas, US arthouse cinemas and film festivals. </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Art films are aimed at small niche market audiences </li></ul><ul><li>Usually they do not get financial backing for large productions budgets, expensive special effects, costly actors, advertising campaigns as are used in mainstream blockbuster films. </li></ul><ul><li>Art film directors use lesser known film actors or even amateur actors </li></ul><ul><li>Modest sets </li></ul><ul><li>Exploring new narrative and filmmaking techniques </li></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><li>a certain degree of experience and intellect are required in contrast with mainstream “blockbuster” movies, more towards escapism and pure entertainment. </li></ul><ul><li>Promotion: film critics reviews, discussion of their films by arts columnists, bloggers, “word-of-mouth” promotion </li></ul><ul><li>Since art films have small initial investment costs, they become financially viable with just a small portion of the blockbuster audiences. </li></ul>
  7. 7. <ul><li>First Directors </li></ul>
  8. 8. <ul><li>Director D.W. Griffith's expensive, most ambitious silent film masterpiece Intolerance (1916) is one of the milestones and landmarks in cinematic history. Many reviewers and film historians consider it the greatest film of the silent era </li></ul><ul><li>The father of montage, Russia's Sergei Eisenstein was one of the principal architects of the modern cinematic form. </li></ul><ul><li>Intolerance part 1 </li></ul>
  9. 9. <ul><li>Luis Buñuel : Un Chien Andalou (1928), </li></ul><ul><li>Luis Buñuel: The Discreet Charm of the Bourgeoisie (1972), Los Olvidados (1950), Tristana (1970), The Exterminating Angel (1962), Viridiana (1961), That Obscure Object of Desire (1977) </li></ul><ul><li>With Salvador Dalí , three-reel surrealist masterpiece Un Chien Andalou (1928), (the film that features dead donkeys on a piano, a razor slashing an eyeball, and other deliberately shocking images that cineastes have either praised or damned for the past seven decades. L´Age d´Or , 1930, was banned from public exhibition almost inmediately ) </li></ul><ul><li>Un Chien andaluz Luis Buñuel : </li></ul><ul><li>L´Age d´ Or </li></ul>
  10. 10. <ul><li>Jean Cocteau , the Blood of a Poet , 1930 Filmography: Orpheus (1950), Beauty and the Beast (1946), Les Enfants Terribles (1950), Les Parents Terribles (1949), L'Eternel Retour (1943), The Blood of a Poet (1930), The Testament of Orpheus (1960) </li></ul>The Blood of the poet
  11. 11. <ul><li>Alfred Hitchcock and Ivor Montagu formed a Film Society and imported films with “artistic achievements”: Soviet films and expressionist films of the Universum Film A.G.(UFA) studios in Germany </li></ul><ul><li>Cinéma Pur, (1920s and 1930s French avant-garde film movement, </li></ul><ul><li>included Dada artists, such as Man Ray ( Return to reason ), Rene Clair ( Entr´acte ), Marcel Duchamp ( Anemic Cinema ) </li></ul>
  12. 12. <ul><li>Film critics did not use the term “art film”, this term was used in USA mainly to refer to European Films. </li></ul><ul><li>Carl Theodor Dreyer, silent: The Passion of Joan of Arc (1928) </li></ul><ul><li>Luis Buñuel. Surrealist film: Un Chien Andalou (1929) L´Age de´Or </li></ul><ul><li>1940 Michael Powel and Emeric Pressburger, The Red Shoes (1948) about ballet. </li></ul>
  13. 14. <ul><li>The Dadaists used film to overturn traditional narrative techniques and bourgeois conventions, such as lineal time and space. </li></ul><ul><li>Man Ray was part of the Dadaist “cinema Pur” film movement, which influenced the development of art films. </li></ul><ul><li>Pure Cinema was influenced by German “absolute” Filmmakers as Hans Richter, Walter Ruttmann, and Viking Eggeling </li></ul>
  14. 15. Rhytmus: an animation composed solely of rectangles and squares Jean Cocteau and Hans Richter
  15. 16. 1920 Paul Chadourne, T. Tzara, Philippe Soupault, Serge Charchoune, Man Ray (picture) Paul Eluard, Jacques Rigaut, Mick Soupault, Georges Ribemond-Dessaignes  
  16. 17. <ul><li>Man Ray , born Emmanuel Radnitzky (August 27, 1890 – November 18, 1976), was an American artist who spent most of his career in Paris, France. Perhaps best described simply as a modernist, he was a significant contributor to both the Dada and Surrealist movements. He is noted for his photograms which he renamed &quot;rayographs&quot; after himself. </li></ul>
  17. 20. <ul><li>Sean O´Casey, The Informer (1935) </li></ul><ul><li>Eugene O´Neill The Long Voyage Home (1940) </li></ul><ul><li>Neorealist films: Rossellini: Open City (1945), Rossellini: Paisa (1946), The Bicycle Thief Ladri di biciclette Thief </li></ul><ul><li>After the war </li></ul><ul><li>Development of “Arthouse cinemas” in major US cities and college towns: a segment of the american audience was wearying of mainstream Hollywood films and moving to the newly created art film theaters to see alternatives to the films playing in the main-streets movie palaces. </li></ul>
  18. 21. <ul><li>What is Blockbuster? </li></ul>
  19. 22. <ul><li>Widely used in United States to include foreign-language “auteur” films, independent films, experiment films, documentaries films and short films. </li></ul><ul><li>1960s, art film became an euphemism in the United States for racy italian and French B-movies. </li></ul><ul><li>Hitchock movies </li></ul><ul><li>1970s, the term was used to describe sexually explicit European films with artistic structure (I am curious (Yellow) </li></ul><ul><li>Experimental underground films, </li></ul><ul><li>1980 European auteur film </li></ul><ul><li>1990 Us “independent” film </li></ul>
  20. 23. <ul><li>Miramax Films distributed independent films </li></ul><ul><li>When major motion picture studios noted the niche appeal of independent films, they created special divisions dedicated to non-mainstream fare: </li></ul><ul><li>Fox Searchlight division of the Twentieth Century Fox </li></ul><ul><li>The Focus Features Division of Universal </li></ul><ul><li>The Sony Pictures Classics division of Sony Pictures Entertainment. </li></ul>
  21. 24. <ul><li>They use a clear narrative form to organize the film into a series of causally related events taking place in space and time </li></ul><ul><li>Every scene is driving towards a goal </li></ul><ul><li>The plot is driven by a well defined protagonist </li></ul><ul><li>Clear characters </li></ul><ul><li>. </li></ul>
  22. 25. <ul><li>Question-and-answer logic </li></ul><ul><li>Problem-solving routines </li></ul><ul><li>The film is tied together with fast pacing, musical soundtracks to cue the audience emotions, </li></ul><ul><li>Mainstream films use familiar, generic images, plots, verbal expression, and archetypal characters </li></ul>
  23. 26. <ul><li>The Art films motivate their narrative in Two principles: realism and authorial expressivity </li></ul><ul><li>Loosening of the chain of cause and effect </li></ul><ul><li>Often deal with an inner and psychological drama that takes place in the character´s psyche. </li></ul><ul><li>Transgressive sexual or social issues </li></ul><ul><li>Moral dilemmas </li></ul><ul><li>Internal dialogue of thoughts, </li></ul><ul><li>Dream sequences and fantasies </li></ul><ul><li>Personal crisis without a clear resolution at the end of the art film </li></ul>
  24. 27. <ul><li>The story in an art film often has an exploration of ideas through lengthy sequences of dialogue. </li></ul><ul><li>Ambiguous episodes </li></ul><ul><li>May be unexplainded gaps in the film </li></ul><ul><li>Deliberately unclear sequences which may force the audience to make their own subjective interpretation of the film´s message. </li></ul><ul><li>Distinctive visual style </li></ul><ul><li>Art cinema film refuses to provide a readily answered conclusion, putting the viewer the task of thinking about what he/she saw, etc. </li></ul>
  25. 28. <ul><li>Italian Neorrealism </li></ul><ul><li>L´Avant Garde (The New Wave) </li></ul>
  26. 29. <ul><li>In the late 1950s, French filmmakers of the late 1950s began to produce films that were influenced by Italian Neorealism and classical Hollywood cinema, a style that critics called the French New Wave(French : La Nouvelle Vague ). </li></ul><ul><li>These film makers showed full rejection of classical cinematic form </li></ul><ul><li>Many also engaged in their work with the social and political upheavals of the era, </li></ul><ul><li>experimenting with editing, visual style and narrative part of a general break with the conservative paradigm. </li></ul>
  27. 30. <ul><li>Some of the most prominent pioneers among the group, including François Truffaut, Jean-Luc Godard Éric Rohmer, Claude Chabrol, and Jacques Rivette, began as critics for the famous film magazine Cahiers du cinéma </li></ul><ul><li>Auteur theory holds that the director is the &quot;author&quot; of his movies, with a personal signature visible from film to film. </li></ul>
  28. 31. <ul><li>Federico Fellini, Night of Cabiria (1957), a prostitute´s failed attemps to find love. </li></ul><ul><li>Ingmar Bergman, Wild Strawberries (1957), an elderly medical doctor with nightmares who revaluates his life. </li></ul><ul><li>Francois Truffaut, The 400 Blows 1959 </li></ul><ul><li>The Polish Film School: </li></ul><ul><li>Khruschev Thaw, and </li></ul><ul><li>Andrzej Wajda, A Generation, Kanal, Ashes and Diamonds, Lotna (1954.1959) </li></ul>
  29. 32. <ul><li>France : Jean-Luc Godard, Breathless (1960) used innovative visual and editing techniques such as jumps, cuts, hand-held camera, among others. </li></ul><ul><li>Italy : Michelangelo Antonioni helped revolutionize the art films: </li></ul><ul><li>Jean luc Godard Breathless </li></ul>
  30. 33. Alain Resnais , Last Year at Marlenbad , (1961) examines the perception of reality,.
  31. 34. <ul><li>L´Eclisse (1962), about a young woman who is unable to concret a solid relationship with her boyfriend. </li></ul><ul><li>The Red Desert (1964) his first color film the need to adapt to the modern times. </li></ul><ul><li>Blowup (1966) based on Cortazar´s story (“Las Babas del Diablo”), a young photographer tries to discover whether he has potographed a murder Palme ´Or Cannes </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>La Notte (1961), an examination of a marriage that dealt with sterility, </li></ul>
  32. 35. <ul><li>La Dolce Vita (1960), depicts nights and dawns in Rome as witnessed by a cynical journalist. </li></ul><ul><li>81/2 , shot in black and white, explores the marital and spiritual difficulties </li></ul>
  33. 36. <ul><li>Robert Bresson, Au Hasard Balthazar (1966), naturalistic, elliptical style. </li></ul><ul><li>Luis Buñuel, Belle de Jour ( 1967) masochist fantasies about bondage </li></ul><ul><li>Stanley Kubric, 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968) scientific realism, pioneering use of special effects </li></ul><ul><li>Soviet Armenia: Sergei Parajanov The Color of Pomegranates, banned by soviet authorities </li></ul><ul><li>Iranian Cinema: Dariush Mehrjui, The Cow 81969), about a man who becomes insane after the death of his beloved cow </li></ul>
  34. 37. <ul><li>Sweden </li></ul><ul><li>India </li></ul><ul><li>Japan </li></ul><ul><li>China </li></ul>
  35. 38. <ul><li>Winter Light (1963) </li></ul><ul><li>The Silence (1963) dealing with emotional isolation and a lack of communication. </li></ul><ul><li>Persona (1966) </li></ul><ul><li>Shame (1968) </li></ul><ul><li>A Passion (1969), deal with the idea of film as an artifice. </li></ul>
  36. 39. <ul><li>India is well known for its commercial cinema, better known as Bollywood. In addition to commercial cinema, there is also Indian art cinema, known to film critics as &quot;New Indian Cinema&quot; or sometimes &quot;the Indian New Wave&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>India: The “Parallel Cinema”, </li></ul><ul><li>Satyajit Ray: the most influencial filmmaker in this movement. The Apu Trilogy (1955-1959), which tells the story of a country boy´s growth to adulthood. </li></ul><ul><li>Bimal Roy, Two Acres of Land (1953) tells the story of a farmer during the starvation in Bengal. </li></ul><ul><li>Do Bigha Zameen (Hindi) by Bimal Roy </li></ul><ul><li>Mrinal Sen and Ritwik </li></ul><ul><li>Apu Trilogy </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  37. 40. <ul><li>From the 1960s through the 1980s, the art film or the parallel cinema was usually government-aided cinema. Such directors could get federal or state government grants to produce non-commercial films on Indian themes </li></ul><ul><li>The directors of the art cinema owed much more to foreign influences, such as Italian Neo-Realism or French New Wave, Starting the 1970s, Kannada film-makers from Karnataka state produced a string of serious, low-budget films. But virtually only one director from that period continues to make off-beat films -- Girish Kasaravalli. Ghatashraddha 1 </li></ul>
  38. 41. <ul><li>A few directors, such as Balachander, Bharathiraja, Balu Mahendra, Bapu, Puttanna, Siddalingaiah, Dr.K.Vishwanath, and Mani Ratnam have achieved fair amount of success at the box-office while balancing elements of art and popular cinema together. </li></ul>
  39. 42. <ul><li>Akira Kurosawa, Rashomon, (1950), four contradictory accounts of a rape and a murder </li></ul><ul><li>Ikuru, (1952), a film about a Tokyo bureaucrat struggling to find a meaning for life. Other Japanese films from this era include : </li></ul><ul><li>Tokyo Story (1953) by Yasujiro Ozu </li></ul><ul><li>Kurosawa, Seven Samurai (1954) </li></ul><ul><li>Kon Ichikawa, Fires on the Plain (1959) </li></ul><ul><li>Kenji Mizoguchi, Ugetsu (1953) and Sansho the Bailiff (1954) </li></ul>
  40. 43. <ul><li>Tadeusz Konwicki (born in 1926) is a Polish writer and film director, a member of the Polish Language Council. </li></ul><ul><li>All Souls´Day , a visually expressive film. </li></ul><ul><li>Salto (1962), leads to discussion about war. </li></ul>
  41. 44. <ul><li>The Shocking Decade and the “Intellectuals” </li></ul>
  42. 45. <ul><li>Stanley Kubrick, A Clockwork Orange (1966) </li></ul><ul><li>Bernardo Bertolucci, Last Tango in Paris </li></ul><ul><li>Andrei Tarkovsky, Solaris (1972) </li></ul><ul><li>Tarkovsky, The Mirror (1975) </li></ul><ul><li>Terence Malick, Badland s (1973) Days of Heaven (1978) </li></ul><ul><li>With a poetic narrative </li></ul><ul><li>India Bhumika by Shyman Benegal </li></ul><ul><li>style </li></ul>
  43. 46. <ul><li>Werner Herzog´s, Aguirre, The Wrath of God (1973) </li></ul><ul><li>Alejandro Jodorowsky, The Holly Mountain , about a footless, handless dwarf and an alchemist seeking the Lotus Island </li></ul><ul><li>Martin Scorsese, Taxi Driver </li></ul><ul><li>David Lynch, Eraserhead (1977) dreamlike movie </li></ul>
  44. 47. <ul><li>Martin Scorsese, shocked audiences with Raging Bull, with Robert de Niro as a boxer. </li></ul><ul><li>Japanese director Akira Kurosawa, Ran (1985) About the Samurai warfare of the 1500s. </li></ul><ul><li>Sergio Leone, Once upon a time in America, an epic tale of a mobseter´s life </li></ul>
  45. 48. <ul><li>Adrzej Wajda, Man of Iron (1981) a critique of the Polish Communist government </li></ul><ul><li>Krzsztof Kieslowsky, The Decalogue for television (1988) explores ethical issues </li></ul><ul><li>Ingmar Bergman, Fanny and Alexander (1982) shown in television with an extended five hours version. </li></ul><ul><li>Channel 4 in UK, financed many films relased theatrically </li></ul>
  46. 49. <ul><li>Martin Scorsese´s, After Hours (1985) about a surreal nightmare world </li></ul><ul><li>David Lynch, Blue Velvet (1986) a film-noir </li></ul><ul><li>Peter Greenaway, The Cook, the Thief, his Wife and her Lover (1989) a black comedy about cannibalism and extreme violence </li></ul>
  47. 50. <ul><li>The Surreal Worlds and Existentialist themes </li></ul>
  48. 51. <ul><li>Joel Coen , Barton Fink , (Palme d´or- Cannes Film Festival) </li></ul><ul><li>David Lynch, Lost Highway, a psychological thriller using surreal imagery. </li></ul><ul><li>Gus Van Sant, My own Private Idaho (1991) independant movie exploring the theme of identity </li></ul><ul><li>Wong Kar Wai , Chungking Express (1994), explores themes of disconnection, lonneliness and isolation in modern Hong Kong. Considered as one of the best Asian films of contemporary cinema by the British film Institute </li></ul>
  49. 52. <ul><li>Abbas Kiarostami , Taste of Cherry (1997), which won the Palme d´or. A minimalist film. In this story a man tries to find someone to bury him after he commits suicide. </li></ul><ul><li>Zhang Yimou, Ju Dou (1990), Raise the Red Lanter n (1991), The story of Oiu Ju (1992), To live (1994) which won the Grand Jury Prize, films about the human emotions </li></ul><ul><li>Robert Altman, Short Cuts (1993), won the Golden Lion and the Volpi Cup at the Venice Film Festival, relates ten parallel and interwoven stories. </li></ul>
  50. 56. <ul><li>Mike Figgis </li></ul>
  51. 57. <ul><li>Bela Tarr, Hungarian director, Satantango (1994), a film of 7,30 hours, shot in black and white </li></ul><ul><li>Kieslowski, Three colors , 1993-94 a trilogy: Blue , Red which explores human relationships. </li></ul>
  52. 58. <ul><li>Park Chan-wook, Oldboy (2003) about a man imprisoned by a mysterious and brutal captor for 15 years and have to chase his old memories when he is released. </li></ul><ul><li>Lee Chang-dong, Peppermint Candy (2000), starts with the suicide of the male protagonist and then uses reverse chronology to depict the events of the last 20 years and led the man to want to kill himself. </li></ul>
  53. 59. <ul><li>Christopher Nolan, Memento (2001), a psychological thriller about a man suffering from short-term memory loss. The plot is revealed backwards in ten-minutes chunks. Uses editing techniques. </li></ul><ul><li>David Lynch, Mulholland Drive (2001) using narrative techniques, young woman in Hollywood with an amnesiac in her house </li></ul><ul><li>Paul T. Anderson, Punch Drunk , (2002) </li></ul><ul><li>Michel Gondry, Eternal Sunshine of the Spotless Mind (2004), a romance film about a man who hires a company to erase the memory of a bad relationship. Uses special effects techniques </li></ul>
  54. 60. <ul><li>Mike Figgis, Timecode (2000), shows four continuous 90 minutes takes that follow four storylines. </li></ul><ul><li>Alexander Sokurov, Russian Ark (2002), uses extended takes even. First feature film shot in a single, unedited take. </li></ul><ul><li>Richard Liklater, Waking Life (2001), uses an innovative digital rotoscope technique to depict a young man stuck in a dream </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  55. 61. <ul><li>Gus Van Sant, Elephant (2003), depicting mass murder at a high school that resembles the Columbine High School massacre. Won the Cannes Film Festival. </li></ul><ul><li>Gerry, Last Days, Paranoid Park </li></ul><ul><li>I´m not There (2007) complex deconstruction of Bob Dylan, tells the story of six different Dylan-inspired characters. </li></ul><ul><li>Harsh Times , a story of an ex soldier who is tormented by the horrors of war </li></ul><ul><li>Hard Candy , a psychological thriller depicts the confrontation between a sexual predator an a 14-year-old girl </li></ul>
  56. 62.
  57. 63. <ul><li>Andrew Dominik, The Assassination of Jesse James by the Coward Robert Ford (2007), a western film. Unconventional epic, depicts the Jesse James´psyche during the final months of his life, developing a fragile friendship with his eventual murderer. </li></ul>
  58. 64. <ul><li>BBC´s The Singing Detective </li></ul><ul><li>David Lynch´s Twin Peaks </li></ul>
  59. 65. <ul><li>Gus Van Sant, To Die For (1995)his first mainstream film </li></ul><ul><li>Stephen Frears, High Fidelity (2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Martin Scorsese, (1983), The King of Comedy </li></ul><ul><li>Spike Lee, Bamboozled (2000) </li></ul><ul><li>Spike Lee, Do the Right Thing (1989) </li></ul><ul><li>Stephen Soderbergh, Sex, Lies and Videotapes , (1989) </li></ul>
  60. 66. <ul><li>Some can disagree over wether a film is mainstream (stablishment) or not. For example, Gus Van Sant´s My own Private Idaho (1991) some consider it as an exercise in film experimentation or can be called an amibitious mainstream film (The Washington Post) </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  61. 67. During the first decade of the twentieth century were made the earliest films of the Chilean Cinema. Nevertheless, it was not until the 1970s when the cinematic culture developed, with the foundation of a national cinema and a department of experimental film at the University of Chile. The production of films was minimal until 1967, when the government of Eduardo Frei began to offer economic support for the industry. During this period directors such as Raúl Ruiz , Aldo Francia and Helvio Soto appeared. The majority of the young directors were inspired by the Unidad Popular of Salvador Allende. What happened next during the Dictadura militar?
  62. 68. DIÁLOGO DE EXILIADOS”, de Raúl Ruiz; “ LA ESTACIÓN AUSENTE” (Seleccionada para participar en el Festival Internacional de Cine Valdivia 2007), de Gustavo Letelier “ LOS TRANSPLANTADOS”, de Percy Matas.
  63. 69. <ul><li>El Biógrafo </li></ul><ul><li>Arte Viña </li></ul><ul><li>Centro Arte Alameda </li></ul><ul><li>Arte Tobalaba </li></ul><ul><li>Arte Normandie </li></ul><ul><li>Cineteca Nacional </li></ul><ul><li>CineUC </li></ul><ul><li>Club UACh </li></ul>
  64. 70. <ul><li>There is a shift in filmaking practice symptomatic of late capitalism, from the counter-culture of the 70´s to and through the era of blockbuster. </li></ul><ul><li>Intensification of neo-conservative hegemony. </li></ul><ul><li>This is an Era where the direct influence of European art cinema has passed </li></ul><ul><li>Post triumphalist ascendancy of Reagan era which backlash (contragolpe) against progressive social initiatives </li></ul>
  65. 71. <ul><li>Disaster and crisis of American economy and the consequences of the War in Iran suggest that the Project for a New American Century has failed </li></ul><ul><li>while the increase of wealth and power in contemporary American suggests otherwise? </li></ul>
  66. 72. <ul><li>The list of exceptional films of the era demonstrates that: </li></ul><ul><li>Bad films (blockbusters, special effects extravaganzas, teen comedies) did not drive out good films. </li></ul><ul><li>Special effects did not vitiate good writing. </li></ul><ul><li>Home video market created a huge demand and opportunities for independent producers and distributors. </li></ul><ul><li>Internet holds promise. </li></ul>
  67. 73. <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>
  68. 74. <ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li>Man Ray </li></ul><ul><li>Art film: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul><ul><li> </li></ul>