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Pippa Notten

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Pippa Notten

  1. 1. www.ncpc.o.za Name: Dr Pippa Notten Topic: Life Cycle Assessment in Sector – Claybrick Association Pippa is an expert LCA practitioner with over 15 years of experience, primarily in the food, retail, and consumer good sectors, and in the primary industries (mining and power generation). Her past research work has centred on developing LCA methodology, particularly looking at the information needed to support sound decision-making with LCA. Pippa is also an Adjunct Associate Professor at the University of Cape Town, associated with the Environmental Process and Systems Engineering Group in the Department of Chemical Engineering, and LCA subject editor for the Journal of Industrial Ecology. Case Study Life-cycle Management in industry
  2. 2. THE ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIO-ECONOMIC IMPACT OF CLAY BRICKS IN SOUTH AFRICA Pippa Notten
  3. 3. THE ENVIRONMENTAL AND SOCIO- ECONOMIC IMPACT OF CLAY BRICKS IN SOUTH AFRICA Study undertaken by the Clay Brick Association representing the brickmakers that participated and contributed to the development of the study Lead authors: • Environmental LCA: Prof Piet Vosloo & Greg Rice • Social LCA: Michele Gilbert & San-Marié Aucamp Funded by the Clay Brick Association and the National Research Foundation Reviewed by Quantis International Communicated by The Green House and Rothko
  4. 4. WHY DO A LIFE CYCLE ASSESSMENT OF CLAY BRICKS IN SOUTH AFRICA? Support CBA in their efforts towards creating a sustainable clay brick supply chain in South Africa • Reveal and quantify impacts and resource use along the complete clay brick value chain • Identify where along the value chain the highest environmental impacts arise, and thus where the greatest opportunities for improvement lie LCA provides a framework and accepted methodology for assessing sustainability; governed by the ISO 14040 series of standards
  5. 5. WHY DO INDUSTRY ASSOCIATIONS DO LCA? Improve their product • Support members to improve their environmental and socio-economic performance • Benchmark - against baseline, between producers, against competing materials Marketing • Reputation and being seen as a market leader • Provide environmental credentials of their product Industry associations have historically been an excellent source of life cycle data for life cycle inventory databases
  6. 6. WHAT IS AN LCA? Two core concepts of life cycle assessment: • Consider all stages in the product system • Take all relevant environmental impacts into account A model of the life cycle of a product (or service), its resource use and emissions (inputs & outputs) A model of the consequences of these inputs & outputs on our health, the health of ecosystems, and the availability of resources Every model is a simplification of reality A model is only as good as the data that goes into it!
  7. 7. WHAT IS AN LCA?
  8. 8. THE CLAY BRICK LCA Looked at the environmental impact of a clay brick wall over the 4 stages of its life cycle: CLAY BRICK PRODUCTION TRANSPORT AND BUILDING-IN OPERATION OF A LIVED-IN HOUSE DEMOLITION AND DISPOSAL
  9. 9. CLAY BRICK PRODUCTION Detailed data collection via survey of operational brick manufacturers Data collected on amounts of all materials, fuels, energy used in production (e.g. clay, coal, electricity etc.), as well as data on transport services and production processes Clay extraction Clay preparation & mixing Brick drying Brick firing Factory overheads Clay stockpiling Brick extrusion
  10. 10. CLAMP KILN TUNNEL KILN TVA KILN VSB KILN HOFFMAN KILN ZIGZAG KILN South African kilns: Type and production share CLAY BRICK PRODUCTION 68% of bricks in SA, typically stock bricks The LCA considered six different kiln types used in South Africa: 20% of bricks in SA, advanced firing technique with most face bricks produced in SA produced in tunnel kilns
  11. 11. TRANSPORT AND BUILDING-IN The second stage of the life cycle is the transport of the brick to where it will be used and the construction of the wall Includes all materials required for the construction of 1m2 of walling (mortar, plaster, paint, wall ties and insulation) Average transport distance of bricks from factory gate to building site obtained from survey data 3 brick wall typologies considered • 220mm double brick wall • 280mm cavity brick wall • 280mm insulated cavity brick wall, • Either face brick externally or plaster and paint both externally and internally
  12. 12. OPERATION OF LIVED-IN HOUSE The use phase of a clay brick is the operation of a typical South African lived-in house Includes the electricity required for heating and cooling the house over its life span, and the maintenance of the wall 88%Brick drying and fir i ng 10%Clay extraction, preparation and stockpiling 2%Transport and factory overheads Assumed life span of 50 years Thermal performance study looked at the heating and cooling requirements of typical buildings in South Africa, and considered: • six climatic zones of the country; • six wall construction methods, including three clay brick wall types
  13. 13. DEMOLITION AND DISPOSAL Final stage of the brick life cycle is demolition of the wall and disposal of the bricks - either to landfill or re-use/recycling Recycling and re-use of demolition waste not a formalised or regulated industry in South Africa – thus difficult to obtain accurate data Desktop study revealed that a significant quantity of clay bricks are recycled either prior to arriving at, or from landfill sites Recycled bricks are mainly crushed and used as aggregate fill or re-used by the informal building sector 36%of clay bricks estimated to be recycled e span ars SECURE SAVE RECYCLE STYLE
  14. 14. WHAT THE STUDIES FOUND Contribution to climate change of 220 mm double brick wall over its life cycle: MINING AND BRICK PRODUCTION TRANSPORT AND CONSTRUCTION Building and maintaining the walls OPERATION OF A LIVED-IN HOUSE Heating and cooling of the building DEMOLITION AND DISPOSAL Demolishing the wall and disposing of the bricks Percentagecontributiontoclimatechange Contribution to climate change* of a 220mm double brick wall over its life cycle: Very similar relative trend obtained for human health and ecosystem impacts as they are also predominantly caused by coal use
  15. 15. CLIMATE Resulting from burning fossil fuels100% 0% CLAMP TUNNEL TVAVSBK HOFFMANZIGZAG Relativecontributiontoclimatechange WHAT THE STUDIES FOUND Relative contribution to climate impact of the six different kiln technologies assessed (cradle to gate): Percentagecontributiontoclimatechange 88%Brick drying and fir i ng 10%Clay extraction, preparation and stockpiling 2%Transport and factory overheads 1 clay brick = boiling 5 kettles Transports & factory overheads Brick drying & firing Clay extraction, preparation & stockpiling
  16. 16. CLIMATE Resulting from burning fossil fuels100% 0% CLAMP TUNNEL TVAVSBK HOFFMANZIGZAG Relativecontributiontoclimatechange WHAT THE STUDIES FOUND Relative contribution to climate impact of the six different kiln technologies assessed (cradle to gate): Transports & factory overheads Brick drying & firing Clay extraction, preparation & stockpiling Contribution to 220mm double b ontributiontoclimatechange 88%Brick drying and fir i ng 10%Clay extraction, prepa and stockpiling 2%Transport and factory overhead 1 clay brick = boiling 5 kettles = 0.74 kg CO2 equivalents
  17. 17. ECOSYSTEM QUALITY Impacts primarily arise during coal mining CLAMP 100% 0% TUNNEL TVAVSBK HOFFMANZIGZAG Relativecontributiontoecosystemimpacts CLIMATE Resulting from burning fossil fuels100% 0% CLAMP TUNNEL TVAVSBK HOFFMANZIGZAG Relativecontributiontoclimatechange WHAT THE STUDIES FOUND Relative contribution to brick production impacts of the six different kiln technologies assessed: Transports & factory overheads Brick drying & firing Clay extraction, preparation & stockpiling
  18. 18. ECOSYSTEM QUALITY Impacts primarily arise during coal mining CLAMP 100% 0% TUNNEL TVAVSBK HOFFMANZIGZAG Relativecontributiontoecosystemimpacts CLIMATE Resulting from burning fossil fuels100% 0% CLAMP TUNNEL TVAVSBK HOFFMANZIGZAG Relativecontributiontoclimatechange WHAT THE STUDIES FOUND Relative contribution to brick production impacts of the six different kiln technologies assessed: Transports & factory overheads Brick drying & firing Clay extraction, preparation & stockpiling HUMAN HEALTH Primarily respiratory diseases arising from burning coal 100% 0% CLAMP TUNNEL TVAVSBK HOFFMANZIGZAG Relativecontributiontohumanhealthimpacts
  19. 19. ECOSYSTEM QUALITY Impacts primarily arise during coal mining CLAMP 100% 0% TUNNEL TVAVSBK HOFFMANZIGZAG Relativecontributiontoecosystemimpacts CLIMATE Resulting from burning fossil fuels100% 0% CLAMP TUNNEL TVAVSBK HOFFMANZIGZAG Relativecontributiontoclimatechange WHAT THE STUDIES FOUND Relative contribution to brick production impacts of the six different kiln technologies assessed: Transports & factory overheads Brick drying & firing Clay extraction, preparation & stockpiling HUMAN HEALTH Primarily respiratory diseases arising from burning coal 100% 0% CLAMP TUNNEL TVAVSBK HOFFMANZIGZAG Relativecontributiontohumanhealthimpacts NON-RENEWABLE RESOUR CES Consumption of coal and other fossil fuels100% 0% CLAMP TUNNEL TVAVSBK HOFFMANZIGZAG Relativecontributiontonon-renewable resourcedepletion
  20. 20. KEY FINDINGS OF THE ENVIRONMENTAL LCA Environmental impacts are driven by dependence on fossil fuels: Most significant impacts are contribution global climate change, consumption of non-renewable resources and emissions of substances that cause respiratory diseases A brick’s biggest impact is in its use: Greatest share of climate and health impacts occur in the use phase due to electricity used for heating and cooling houses The highest production impacts occur in the kiln: High impacts on ecosystem quality and resources are caused by the production of coal; impacts during firing are from emissions of burning fossil fuels. Kiln technologies have differing life cycle impacts: No one technology performs consistently best across all the different environmental impacts assessed; continuous firing technologies perform best
  21. 21. THE SOCIAL LCA 89 manufacturers contributed data, representing a 78% response rate to the online survey Follows the UNEP Guidelines for the Social Life Cycle Assessment of Products Includes all stakeholders in brick manufacturing and looks at the industry’s socio-economic impact in the following categories:
  22. 22. FINDINGS OF THE S-LCA A positive socio-economic impact R6.50 SPENT ON COMMUNITY DEVELOPMENT per 1000 bricks produced 4 JOBS for every million bricks 74% OF SUPPLIES provided by SMMEs Areas for improvement: Provision of equal opportunities for employment at higher education levels Equal remuneration across gender and race Industry strong-points: Transparency and communication about the industry’s environmental and social performance Provides employment in rural areas
  23. 23. 30% to 70% energy saving using clay brick relative to other typical building materials = 3 to 7 passenger cars off the road for a month for every year the building is in use WHAT CAN THE INDUSTRY DO? The importance of design and education The sector can reduce its environmental impact in two ways: By educating the building sector on the need for the design of energy- efficient buildings and the importance of choosing suitable building materials By becoming more energy efficient and adapting to the use of better performing kilns and cleaner-burning fuels mate change* of a wall over its life cycle: Building with an insulated cavity wall rather than a solid wall reduces the use phase climate impact by 30%
  24. 24. changing from the worst to best performing kiln has the potential to remove 38 passenger cars off the road for a day. changing from a solid wall to a double cavity wall with insulation has the potential to remove 5 x as many cars off the road. Over the life cycle of 1 m2 of wall: WHAT CAN THE INDUSTRY DO? The importance of design and education The use phase has a much higher environmental improvement potential than the production phase
  25. 25. www.tgh.co.za | pippa@tgh.co.za Tel: +27 (0) 21 671 2161 Ubunye House, 70 Rosmead Ave, Kenilworth, 7708, South Africa For more information: www.claybrick.org/LCA A summary of the environmental LCA study is available, authored by Quantis International, funded by the Swiss Agency for Development and Cooperation (SDC) as part of the Energy Efficient Clay Brick (EECB) project implemented in South Africa by Swisscontact.

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