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Guy Cunliffe Energy Benchmarks for Sector Reporting

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Guy Cunliffe Energy Benchmarks for Sector Reporting

  1. 1. Energy Footprint and Energy Savings Potential of Domestic Iron & Steel – A Baseline Study Energy Research Centre, University of Cape Town Industrial Energy Efficiency Conference National Cleaner Production Centre South Africa (NCPC-SA) Century City Convention Centre, Cape Town; Friday, 15 September July 2017
  2. 2. Contents  Background to the project  Methodology (and Limitations)  Background: SA Steel Sector Challenges  Steel Production in South Africa  Current Average Energy Estimates  International Benchmark Estimates  Energy Management Systems  Guidelines for Implementation  Going forward: Detailed study of four sectors 2
  3. 3. Background to the project  Larger detailed study: Energy Footprint and Energy Savings Potential of Heavy Industry  Scope includes Iron & Steel, Non-Ferrous Metals, Non-Metallic Minerals & Chemicals  Objective to develop baseline and potential savings scenarios for industrial energy use  Model to be used by DOE to inform the iterative Integrated Energy Plan process  In response to initial obstacles, this desktop study was proposed as a preliminary step  High level snapshot of energy intensity of the sector  Comparison of South African energy intensity with global benchmarks  Guidelines for implementation (DoE reporting requirements) 33
  4. 4. Methodology (and Limitations)  Study relied exclusively on data, information and literature available in the public domain  In addition to preliminary data collection for the larger study, we relied upon:  DOE & ERC internal energy balances  South African Iron and Steel Institute (‘SAISI’) data  Company reporting and website data  Other South African public studies (e.g. DEA Mitigations Potential Analysis 2014)  Case studies on projects supported by the NCPC-SA  International literature (e.g. studies by US EPA, India and China)  Data and reporting from the World Steel Association  Very limited direct stakeholder engagement - data was (and is) a key challenge 4
  5. 5. 9.4 9.4 9.4 9.6 9.0 8.2 7.5 7.6 7.5 6.9 7.2 6.4 6.4 ,0.0 ,2.0 ,4.0 ,6.0 ,8.0 ,10.0 ,12.0 Milliontonnes[Mt] South Africa Annual Domestic Production  Salient notes:  33% production decline 2006 – 2015  Global steel oversupply – downward pressure on export prices  Rising imports to South Africa  Financial losses for companies  Rising energy (electricity!) prices  Reinforces the importance of Energy Management System implementation (SAISI, 2016; TIPS; 2016) Background: SA Steel Sector Challenges
  6. 6. Steel Production Processes in SA  Primary steelmaking ‘routes’:  Blast Furnace – Basic Oxygen Furnace  Direct Reduced Iron – Electric Arc Furnace  COREX/MIDREX – CONARC Furnace (Saldanha Works)  Secondary steelmaking: Scrap-EAF  Final energy carriers:  Electricity  Bituminous coal  LPG  Steam 6 Blast Furnace 64% Electric Furnace 5% Other (COREX) 11% Direct Reduced Iron 20% Iron Production (SAISI: 2015) Basic Oxygen Furnace 61% Electric Arc Furnace (incl. CONARC) 39% Steel Production (SAISI: 2015)
  7. 7. Steel Production Processes – BOF 7 Raw Iron Sintering Blast Furnace Iron Making BOF Steel Making FluxesSteam Elec Coke batteries Coking Coal CO Gas Coke Bit coal Elec BF Gas Liquid Iron Scrap (<10%) O2 Steam Liquid Steel BOF Gas Sinter mix BOF Steel Production – High Level Energy and Material Flows Mate- rial Energy
  8. 8. Steel Production Processes 8 Raw Iron Sintering Blast Furnace Iron Making BOF Steel Making FluxesSteam Elec Coke batteries Coking Coal CO Gas Coke Bit coal Elec BF Gas Liquid Iron Scrap (<10%) O2 Steam Liquid Steel BOF Gas Sinter mix BOF Steel Production – High Level Energy and Material Flows Mate- rial Energy Majority energy use
  9. 9. Current Average Energy Estimates  Estimate, based on aggregate data  High degree of uncertainty  Actual performance likely to vary  High-level findings  Iron making the most energy intensive step  Process heating the largest end use of energy  Sector average estimated ~ 26.5 GJ/tsteel  India estimate (2014) 27 GJ/t  China (average) ~ 22 GJ/t  US (best practice) 15 – 18 GJ/t  Scrap reduces energy – but limited by availability 9 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 BF-BOF DR-EAF Scrap-EAF Other-EAF GJ / t (steel product) Current Average Energy Intensity (per tech route) Coal Coke Electricity Off Gas Steam LPG Other
  10. 10. International Benchmark Estimates  Benchmark energy intensity averages compiled from World Steel Association reporting (2014)  Data collected from 42 steel works (representing ~9% of global production)  Global average of 17.5 GJ/tsteel  NB: Limiting factors not accounted for:  Variance in feedstock quality, availability  Difference in quantities of scrap  Variance in energy carriers (US mostly gas-based)  Physical plant limitations, variance in configuration  Driving factors e.g. costs of energy, materials  Effects of under utilisation 10 0.0 5.0 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 BF-BOF DR-EAF Scrap-EAF GJ / t (steel product) CAEC vs Best (Int’l) Available Energy Intensity BAEC [GJ / t] CAEC [GJ / t]
  11. 11. Guidelines for Implementation  Energy Management System implementation has had proven, demonstrable success at steel plants in South Africa  Capacity building (NCPC-IEE project)  Energy review and strategy development  Management buy-in  Modelling and regression analysis  Action Plan formulation, implementation  Ongoing monitoring  System review  Case studies: Vanderbijlpark Works, Saldanha Works 11
  12. 12. Guidelines for Implementation Plans  Guidelines for the deployment of implementation plans, requirements directed by Department of Energy regulations  Reporting in accordance with SANS (ISO) 50001  Development of an EE implementation plan template  Development of guidelines for completion of the template  Main items to be included and reviewed on an ongoing basis:  Scope and boundaries of target systems/area of effort  Management signatory  Energy review documentation (current consumption, significant end-users)  Description of objectives, targets and action plans (incl. task ownership)  Periodic review dates  Guidelines will be drawn up with reference to DOE requirements 12
  13. 13. Going forward: Larger DoE study  Strengthening data!  Detailed industry engagement  Workshops  Detailed data collection, subject to NDAs  Reported in aggregate form  LEAP model development  Long term baseline (2050)  Sensitivity analysis for forecasting assumptions  Scenario development for energy intensity ‘paths’ 13
  14. 14. Thank You  Contact details: Energy Research Centre 6th floor, Menzies Building Upper Campus, University of Cape Town Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701 Tel: +27 (0) 21 650 3230 Fax: +27 (0) 21 650 2830  Email: guy.cunliffe@uct.ac.za 14

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