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AVB 4: Aircraft Design - CCPL Fleming - 27 AUG


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The 2 period lecture presentation of AVB Aircraft Design.

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AVB 4: Aircraft Design - CCPL Fleming - 27 AUG

  1. 1. AVB Instructor CCPL G.Fleming
  2. 2. AIRCRAFT DESIGN <ul><li>Identify the basic parts of, and terminology used with, an aircraft’s airframe with respect to: </li></ul><ul><li>Fuselage-inc entry, emergency exit’s, aerials & static vents. </li></ul><ul><li>Wing – inc leading & trailing edges, navigation light, ailerons, </li></ul><ul><li>Flap trim tabs, tie down & vents. </li></ul><ul><li>Empennage (tail plane) – inc elevator/stabilizer & trim tabs, fins, rudder &trim tabs. </li></ul><ul><li>Undercarriage – inc struts, wheels, brakes, steering & ground handling points. </li></ul><ul><li>Engine – inc Propeller, spinner, air intakes, cowling and exhausts. </li></ul><ul><li>Cockpit layout – inc engine & flight controls, flight instruments, heat & ventilation controls main switches. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Fuselage <ul><li>Is an aircraft’s main body section that holds crew and passengers or cargo. </li></ul><ul><li>In a single engine aircraft (Cessna) the engine will be mounted on the fuselage. </li></ul><ul><li>The fuselage also serves to position control and stabilization surfaces. </li></ul><ul><li>Entry into the fuselage – Through the doors upon the side of the aircraft. </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency exit’s – Depending on the aircraft, It can be found on the sides of the aircraft. (beside you) </li></ul><ul><li>Aerial on a Cessna can be found on the top of the aircraft. </li></ul><ul><li>Static vents can be found on the sides of the aircraft – Which measure the static pressure of the atmosphere to work instruments. </li></ul>
  4. 6. Wing (main plane) <ul><li>Leading edge is the first part of the wing which makes contact with the air, where air molecules are separated above and below the wing. </li></ul><ul><li>Trailing edge is the last point at which the air is in contact with on the wing. </li></ul><ul><li>Navigation lights are the lights at the end of the wings. The red (left) and green (right) lights – landing lights are located at the leading edge end. </li></ul><ul><li>Ailerons are the control surfaces located on the outer trailing edge on the wings. They are hinged surfaces. This control surface causes the aircraft to roll/bank. </li></ul>
  5. 9. Flaps, trim tabs <ul><li>Flaps are hinged surfaces that are located closer to the fuselage that produces drag and increases the camber. </li></ul><ul><li>The trim tabs can be varied in location depending on the aircraft. For a Cessna 152, the trim tabs are locate on the elevators, They assist the pilot in flying the aircraft without the constant pressured on the control column. </li></ul><ul><li>Trim tabs can be found on many control surface depending on the aircraft. </li></ul><ul><li>Tie down points are located beneath the wings at the struts, to tie down the aircraft on the ground. </li></ul><ul><li>A stall horn makes a horn sound when the aircraft is in or about to stall. </li></ul><ul><li>The fuel tanks are located within the wings. The fuel caps are located on the top of the wings. </li></ul><ul><li>There is a vent that allows the air within the tank to remain the same pressure as the atmosphere. </li></ul>
  6. 11. Empennage <ul><li>The tail section consisting of: </li></ul><ul><li>The TAILPLANE, also called the vertical stabilizer </li></ul><ul><li>The fin, also called the vertical stabilizer. </li></ul><ul><li>The ELEVATOR is attached to the tail plane and controls the pitch of the aircraft. Trim tabs can be found to help the pilot in flying the aircraft. </li></ul><ul><li>The rudder is hinged to the fin and controls the aircraft yaw. </li></ul>
  7. 12. Undercarriage <ul><li>Almost all modern aircrafts have a tricycle undercarriage, which means it has two main wheels and a nose wheel. </li></ul><ul><li>These wheels can be RETRACTABLE or FIXED. </li></ul><ul><li>The Nose wheel is connected to the rudder to steer the aircraft when taxiing. </li></ul><ul><li>Most aircrafts are fixed with disc brakes. Found on the top part of the rudder pedal. Connected to a fluid reservoir which contracts the brakes. </li></ul><ul><li>An aircraft with two main wheels and a tail wheel is known as a tail dragger. </li></ul>
  8. 14. Engine <ul><li>The engine is mounted on the fuselage at the front of the aircraft and is separated from the cockpit by a firewall. </li></ul><ul><li>The engine drives a fixed-pitch propeller, while more aircraft have constant speed propeller. The pitch of the prop can be varied in flight. </li></ul><ul><li>The spinner causes the cool air to be directed in the propeller. </li></ul><ul><li>The engine can get to a very high temperature. To ensue that the engine is not overheated, cool air is passed through the engine and around the cylinders to cool the engine. </li></ul><ul><li>To prevent uneven cooling, cowling ducts at the front of the engine collect air from the pressure area behind the propeller and distributes it as even as possible around the engines and cylinders. The air then escapes through the back. It is also designed to streamline the aircraft and prevent drag. The burned gases leave from the engine cylinders and are passed out via the exhaust system. </li></ul>
  9. 15. Cockpit <ul><li>The cockpit is where the pilot and copilot/passenger seated. The Pilot in control seats on the left. </li></ul><ul><li>The main controls of the aircraft are the flight controls and throttle </li></ul><ul><li>Along the side of the throttle is the mixture and carburetor heat. </li></ul><ul><li>Wing flaps are controlled either manually or by electrical switch/lever on the instrument panel. </li></ul><ul><li>The trim tab wheel is located in between the two pilots, below the throttle. Which controls the elevator trim tab. </li></ul><ul><li>The main flight instruments are in front of the pilot, they consist of the ASI , attitude indicator/artificial horizon, altimeter, VSI, a heading indicator and a turn coordinator. </li></ul><ul><li>Heating and cabin ventilation is found on either side of the inside of the cockpit. </li></ul><ul><li>Main switches consist of magneto/ignition switch, VHF communication radio </li></ul>
  10. 16. Questions?
  11. 17. Quiz <ul><li>What do the cowlings do? </li></ul><ul><li>Where can I find the navigation lights? </li></ul><ul><li>What are some of the instruments found in the cockpit? </li></ul><ul><li>What is the most common modern undercarriage? </li></ul>