Algae Based Biofuels


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Making Algae to Biodiesel

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Algae Based Biofuels

  1. 1. 70CentsaGallon.comMBE/SDVE<br />John Manzanet VP of Operations<br />Victor Garlington Director of Client Services<br />
  2. 2. Algae Based Biofuels<br />Who we are<br />Where we are going<br />Goals and objectives<br />
  3. 3. Who we are<br />Bio Diesel Manufacturing Equipment<br />Algae Production Systems<br />Feed stocks<br />“Force for Earth” Fuel and Engine Conditioner<br />Project Managers<br />
  4. 4. What we’re doing<br />Be premier solution provider of Bio Diesel and Algae Processing Equipment in Florida<br />
  5. 5. Projects<br />Fuel to Farms Initiatives<br />USDA/FL Bio Fuels Association Utilizing Farm land for Algae to Bio Diesel Production in FL<br />Algae to Jet Fuel DARPA <br />
  6. 6. Force for EarthFuel and Engine Conditioner<br />Clean Green <br />
  7. 7. Algae Based Biofuels<br />Clean Green <br />
  8. 8. Algae Biofuel Begining<br />Algae was responsible for creating the Earth&apos;s oxygen atmosphere three billion years ago and it took around two billion years to form the modern atmosphere with 20 percent oxygen. Without algae some argue that we would not be here.<br />
  9. 9. Industry Direction<br /><ul><li>The Oil companies are beginning to explore Alternative Energy Sources.</li></ul> This is a field that has seen tremendous increase in activity. To date, the O&G companies are staying abreast of developments in this field through investment in small pilot research programs and monetary support of research efforts in educational institutions. Their concentration has been in the area of Wind and Photovoltaic energy production<br /><ul><li>In the Area of Renewable Fuels, Ethanol is viewed by the Oil companies as an annoyance
  10. 10. While the Biodiesel is not of true interest to the Oil Companies as a fuel, it does have a place in the Oil and Gas Company Value Chain (as will be addressed later)</li></li></ul><li>Why the Interest In Biodiesel?<br /><ul><li>Renewable Resource with the largest potential to get us off the foreign oil supply
  11. 11. National Energy Security is an achievable goal with Algae Oil
  12. 12. Environmental Enhancement through Zero Sulfur and the sequestration of CO2
  13. 13. Economics & Job Creation through keeping the production of fuels inside the US</li></li></ul><li>What is Biodiesel<br />Biodiesel is not raw vegetable oil!<br />Algae Oil, as with all of the other vegetable oils used as feedstock, is a fuel only after it is refined or processed<br />
  14. 14. Vegetable Oils & Fats (the Feedstock of the Biodiesel Industry)<br />Oils or Fats<br />Soybean Oil (major market share) <br /> Corn Oil <br /> Canola Oil<br /> Cottonseed Oil<br /> Sunflower Oil<br /> Beef tallow <br /> Pork lard<br /> Used cooking oils<br /> Palm Oil<br /> Algae Oil<br /> Each biodiesel feedstock varies by its free fatty acid content and the different proportions of fatty acids found in each feedstock influence some biodiesel fuel properties<br />degree of saturation<br />Cold flow properties<br />Cetane number<br />
  15. 15. The Problem in the Feedstock-to-Fuel equation<br />It’s The Cost of The Feedstock<br />Currently the cost of Soy Bean Oil is $4.30 to $4.50 per gallon<br />Diesel Fuel is selling at the pump for over $2.20 per gallon<br />The Biodiesel manufacturer must have Approx $.50 /per gallon differential in order to break even<br />Here’s the equation:<br />4.50/gal cost of feedstock (Soy Bean Oil)<br />5.00/gal cost for Finished biodiesel (4.50 + .50) from the producer<br />4.00/gal current selling price at the pump<br />1.00/galOverall Loss (nothing for the producer or distributor)<br />The problem only gets worse as the price of diesel at the pump goes down<br />
  16. 16. So What’s the Answer?<br />Find a New Feedstock other than Soy, Camelina or Palm Oil<br />The Desired Characteristics:<br />Easy to grow <br />Grow anywhere<br />High yield per acre<br />Not used for Human or Animal Consumption<br />Environmentally friendly<br />Algae Oil seems to hold the most promise to meet this need<br />
  17. 17. Algae Oil yield Compared to other Feedstocks<br />Comparative Yields <br />Soy Bean 50-65 Gallons Per Acre Per Year<br />Camelina 150-400 Gallons Per Acre Per Year<br />Palm 400-700 Gallons Per Acre Per Year<br />Algae 2,000 to 20,000+ ?? Gallons Per Acre Per Year(The wide variations in estimated Oil production rates per acre per year are addressed further on in this presentation)<br />Additional Algae Oil Benefits:<br />Can be Grown anywhere<br />Non-polluting<br />Zero Sulfur <br />Releases Oxygen (can be captured and sold)<br />Eats CO2 (a potentially valuable GHG offset)<br />After the Oil is extracted the remaining presscake (BioMass) is a highly valuable product <br />
  18. 18. The Feedstock-to-Fuel equation using Algae Oil<br />Using a projection for the selling price of Algae Oil to the Biofuel producers of approximately $3.00 per gallon the comparison is as follows:<br />Given the same parameters for Algae Oil as with Soy Bean Oil, Here’s the equation:<br />3.00/gal cost of feedstock (Algae Oil)<br />3.50/gal cost for Finished biodiesel (3.00 + .50)<br />4.00/gal current selling price at the pump<br />.50/gal Total Profit<br />This allows a shared profit for both the producer and the distributor<br />
  19. 19. How Does Algae Produce Oil?<br />This is not Rocket Science (here’s the layman&apos;s explanation)<br />Algae is a single cell organism<br />Algae feeds on the Hydrogen from the H2O and the Carbon from the CO2 and through the process of photosynthesis produces Hydrocarbon Chains and releases Oxygen<br />Most strains of the Green and Green-Blue Algae can double their mass every 24hour growing cycle<br />Different strains of Algae produce Algae Oil with slightly different hydrocarbon chains<br />
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  21. 21. How Is Algae Grown?<br />There are 3 methodologies that are currently being used to grow Algae<br /> – with a wide number of variations!<br />First there are Open Ponds:<br />
  22. 22. How Is Algae Grown?<br />Second there are vertical systems such as Vertigrow’s Hanging Bags:<br />
  23. 23. Why Do Production Numbers Vary So Much?<br />Factors Effecting Production Rate Estimates<br />The Algae Strain being used <br />Injection of CO2 to maximize growth by maintaining optimum CO2  concentration<br />Application of all available sunlight<br />Cycling of light and dark periods<br />Glucose injection during dark periods to continue growth WITHOUT sunlight <br />UV Rays filtration<br />Oxygen removal to prevent oxygen poisoning of the top layer<br />Monitoring of the depth of the algae culture to insure proper harvesting<br />Proper circulation <br />Maintaining the optimum temperature for growth <br />Stressing the algae prior to harvesting<br />
  24. 24. The Potential<br />If a land area the size of 16 thousand square miles (half the area of the State of Indiana) were turned to algae production and that algae oil used to produce fuels, there is the potential to eliminate the need for 60% of the transportation fuel production coming out of US refineries<br />By contrast, it would take approximately 2 million square miles (7 times the area of the State of Texas) to accomplish the same result using Soy bean Oil.<br />
  25. 25. What do you know about Algae?<br />Do you know which systems have been tried and have failed or have succeeded?<br />
  26. 26. The BioFence<br />
  27. 27. Coil Wrap<br />
  28. 28. Open Tanks<br />
  29. 29. Pivot Ponds<br />
  30. 30. Open Ponds<br />
  31. 31. Light Pulse Systems<br />
  32. 32. Open Raceway Ponds<br />
  33. 33. Extracting the Lipids<br />There are three well-known methods to extract the oil from oilseeds, and these methods should apply equally well for algae too: <br />1. Expeller/Press2. Hexane solvent oil extraction3. Supercritical Fluid extraction<br />Expeller/Press <br />Expression/Expeller press-When algae is dried it retains its oil content, which then can be &quot;pressed&quot; out with an oil press. Many commercial manufacturers of vegetable oil use a combination of mechanical pressing and Chemical Solvents in extracting oil. <br />While more efficient processes are emerging, a simple process is to use a press to extract a large percentage (70-75%) of the oils out of algae. <br />Hexane Solvent Method <br />Algal oil can be extracted using chemicals. Benzene and ether have been used, but a popular chemical for solvent extraction is hexane, which is relatively inexpensive. The downside to using solvents for oil extraction are the inherent dangers involved in working with the chemicals. Benzene is classified as a carcinogen. Chemical solvents also present the problem of being an explosion hazard. <br />Hexane solvent extraction can be used in isolation or it can be used along with the oil press/expeller method. After the oil has been extracted using an expeller, the remaining pulp can be mixed with cyclo-hexane to extract the remaining oil content. The oil dissolves in the cyclohexane, and the pulp is filtered out from the solution. The oil and cyclohexane are separated by means of distillation. These two stages (cold press & hexane solvent) together will be able to derived more than 95% of the total oil present in the algae. <br />
  34. 34. Supercritical Fluid Extraction <br />This can extract almost 100% of the oils all by itself. This method however needs special equipment for containment and pressure<br />In the supercritical fluid/CO2 extraction, CO2 is liquefied under pressure and heated to the point that it has the properties of both a liquid and gas. This liquefied fluid then acts as the solvent in extracting the oil. <br />References for Supercritical fluid extraction – see here, here <br />Other Less Well-known Extraction Methods <br />Enzymatic extraction - Enzymatic extraction uses enzymes to degrade the cell walls with water acting as the solvent, this makes fractionation of the oil much easier. The costs of this extraction process are estimated to be much greater than hexane extraction.<br />Osmotic shock - Osmotic Shock is a sudden reduction in osmotic pressure, this can cause cells in a solution to rupture. Osmotic shock is sometimes used to release cellular components, such as oil.<br />Ultrasonic-assisted Extraction - Ultrasonic extraction can greatly accelerate extraction processes. Using an ultrasonic reactor, ultrasonic waves are used to create cavitation bubbles in a solvent material, when these bubbles collapse near the cell walls, it creates shock waves and liquid jets that cause those cells walls to break and release their contents into the solvent.<br />Steam Extraction – Using high pressure heat and steam to extract oil is said to also be an efficient and clean method to extract oils.<br />
  35. 35. Fuels Derived From Algae<br />Fuels<br />The vegoil algae product can then be harvested and converted into biodiesel; the algae’s carbohydrate content can be fermented into bioethanol and biobutanol.<br />[edit] Biodiesel<br />Currently most research into efficient algal-oil production is being done in the private sector, but predictions from small scale production experiments bear out that using algae to produce biodiesel may be the only viable method by which to produce enough automotive fuel to replace current world diesel usage.<br />Microalgae have much faster growth-rates than terrestrial crops. The per unit area yield of oil from algae is estimated to be from between 2,000 to 20,000 gallons per acre, per year(4.6 to 18.4 l/m2 per year); this is 7 to 30 times greater than the next best crop, Chinese tallow (699 gallons).<br />
  36. 36. Studies show that algae can produce up to 60% of their biomass in the form of oil. Because the cells grow in aqueous suspension where they have more efficient access to water, CO2 and dissolved nutrients, microalgae are capable of producing large amounts of biomass and usable oil in either high rate algal ponds or photobioreactors. This oil can then be turned into biodiesel which could be sold for use in automobiles. The more efficient this process becomes the larger the profit that is turned by the company. Regional production of microalgae and processing into biofuels will provide economic benefits to rural communities.[18]<br />[edit] Biobutanol<br />Main article: Butanol fuel<br />Butanol can be made from algae or diatoms using only a solar powered biorefinery. This fuel has an energy density similar to gasoline, and greater than that of either ethanol or methanol. In most gasoline engines, butanol can be used in place of gasoline with no modifications. In several tests, butanol consumption is similar to that of gasoline, and when blended with gasoline, provides better performance and corrosion resistance than that of ethanol or E85[19].<br />The green waste left over from the algae oil extraction can be used to produce butanol.<br />[edit] Biogasoline<br />Jet Fuel is being made from algae oil currently. <br />“Flare Test”-Establish that fuel combusts, not explodes.<br />“Can Combustor Test”-Fuel is compatible with basic jet technology.<br />
  37. 37. Other Uses of the Algae<br />Wastewater Treatment<br />
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  40. 40. Algae in Wastewater Treatment<br />The algae system is not a substitute for a wastewater treatment plant. Rather, it<br />replaces the typical equipment used in the biological process of a conventional plant.<br />Because algae is only one component of the system, the conventional treatment<br />process is not turned on its head. The following diagram illustrates the wastewater<br />process flow in an algae system versus a conventional plant.<br />Algae can be used in new construction or added to an existing plant to increase<br />its capacity, efficiency, and environmental friendliness. The algae system<br />provides conventional biological wastewater treatment as well as advanced nutrient<br />removal utilizing algae. The algae also serve to supply the oxygen required by the<br />bacteria and likewise the bacteria supply the carbon dioxide required by the algae.<br />Thus, an ecological balance is established in the algae system making it very<br />stable and resistant to the fluctuations normally experienced with wastewater treatment<br />systems.<br />In addition to ecological balance, another significant advantage of the algae<br />
  41. 41. Algae and Co2<br />
  42. 42. Algae remove massive amounts of CO2 (Carbon dioxide) from the air. Algae farms are glutton eaters of CO2 gas providing a means for recycling waste carbon dioxide from fossil fuel combustion. It is possible to sequester as much as one billion tons of CO2 per year from algae farms. The United States has one energy plant that produces 25.3 millions tons of CO2 by itself. This new technology has attracted companies that need inexpensive CO2 sequestration solutions. <br />