Features of Leadership
LEADERSHIP VS. MANAGERSHIP: Comparison
Importance / Significance of leadership
TOPICS UNDER DISCUSSIONTOPICS UNDER DISCUSSION
DEFNITION :DEFNITION : LEADERSHIPLEADERSHIP
"Leadership might be defined as the art of
influencing the behavior and performance of
followers (i.e. subordinates) towards the most
enthusiastic attainment of common objectives
through inspiring the people by the leader's
personality, conduct and behavior ”
"Leadership is the ability of a manager to induce
subordinates (followers) to work with confidence
Features of Leadership
(i) every manager is a leader
(ii) In the leadership terminology, the term 'leader' and
'followers' and popularly used as against the traditional terms
of superior and subordinates.
(iii) Leadership is a process of interpersonal influence.
(iv) Leadership is a mix of Inspiration, motivation and
(v) Leadership rests on power rather than the formal authority
of the manager.
(vi) Leadership is a continuous managerial activity,
(vii) Leadership rather than a dictator like an autocrat all the
time has to mix liberalism and paternalism with
authoritarianism at appropriate junctures to respond to the
demands of the situation.
LEADERSHIP VS. MANAGERSHIPLEADERSHIP VS. MANAGERSHIP
Importance/ Significance of leadershipImportance/ Significance of leadership
(i)(i) Achieving co-operation through team workAchieving co-operation through team work
(ii)(ii) Emphasizing on unity of objectivesEmphasizing on unity of objectives
(iii) Arousing self-confidence(iii) Arousing self-confidence
(iv) Encouraging Initiative.(iv) Encouraging Initiative.
(v) Best utilisation of man-power - through motivation(v) Best utilisation of man-power - through motivation
(vi) Developing good human relations(vi) Developing good human relations
(vii) Building and raising morale(vii) Building and raising morale
(viii) Overcoming resistance to changes(viii) Overcoming resistance to changes
Depending on the attitude of a leader towards his followers
and their work, the following major styles of leadership
could be identified.
•Autocratic leadership styleAutocratic leadership style
•Democratic readership styleDemocratic readership style
•Free-rein leadership styleFree-rein leadership style
•Paternalistic leadership style.Paternalistic leadership style.
AUTOCRATIC LEADERSHIP STYLEAUTOCRATIC LEADERSHIP STYLE
• also known as authoritarian or dictatorial.
• leader believes in centralization of powers
• Autocratic leadership style seems to have originated in
military organisations; where the only 'rule or order'
EG: Adolf Hitler, Saddam Hussein
Merits of autocratic leadership styleMerits of autocratic leadership style
(i) quick-decision making
(ii) suitable at lower levels in an organization
(iii)suitable in emergency situation; where urgent
decisions on strategic issues are required.
(iv)An authoritarian leader may provide strong
leadership to the group; by virtue of, his vast powers
Limitations of autocratic leadershipLimitations of autocratic leadership
• frustration in subordinates.
• Subordinates avoid responsibility whenever they can
afford to do so.
• potential cannot be exploited. This phenomenon retards
• Autocratic leadership style may yield fruit; but only in the
DEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP STYLEDEMOCRATIC LEADERSHIP STYLE
also known as participative or consultative.
This style of leadership is usually adopted by the chief
executive of a business enterprise;
the Prime Minister of a democratic nation goes by this
style of leadership
EG:EG: Bill Gates, President John F. Kennedy
Merits of Democratic style
(i) invites commitment to decisions,
(ii)Potential of subordinates is utilised
(iii)helps to increase-motivation, morale and job-satisfaction
for subordinates; because of the satisfaction of their social
and ego needs, during the process of decision making.
(iv) emergence of good human relations, in the enterprise.
Limitations of Democratic style
(i) delayed decision-making
(ii)the leader might be taken as a sign of managerial
(iii) Democratic style of leadership, in the long-run, can lead to
loss of leader's control, over subordinates.
(iv)The leaders can have a tendency of passing the buck, if
wrong-decisions are taken.
(v)This style of leadership is not suitable; when decisions on
complex and strategic issues are required.
LAISSEZ-FAIRELAISSEZ-FAIRE OROR FREE-REIN LEADERSHIP STYLEFREE-REIN LEADERSHIP STYLE
•once instructions for doing assigned work are given to the
followers, the leader plays only a supervisory role over their
•The leader does not interfere, while the subordinates are
• followed in circumstances, where subordinates are educated
and skilled and understand well as to how to do their jobs.
•An outstanding field for the application of free-rein leadership
style might be traced to 'sports teams', where players play on
the field or perform on the 'pitch'; without inviting or
necessitating any guidance from the captain, who just oversees
Merits of laissez-fair style of leadership
(i) highest sense of job-satisfaction for subordinates
(ii)encourages the fullest exploitation of potential of
(iii) technique of training and developing subordinates for
higher managerial positions.
Limitations of laissez-fair styleLimitations of laissez-fair style
(i) minimises the role of the leader.
(ii)Performance of subordinates can go poor under this
style of leadership; because of loss of control of leader
and unavailability of leader's expert guidance.
(iii)Under this style of leadership, subordinates may work
at cross-purposes; because of the laissez-faire
approach followed by the leader.
(iv)This style of leadership is not suitable when
subordinates are uneducated or less educated or less
Paternalistic leadership stylePaternalistic leadership style
the leader plays a 'fatherly' role towards the subordinates
and takes care of the problems
A paternalistic leader, towards his followers, believes in the
philosophy 'work hard and I will take care for you'philosophy 'work hard and I will take care for you'..
This style of leadership is one of the fundamental
characteristics of the Japanese management system; and
much accounts for the tremendous economic growth
achieved by this nation.
Merits of Paternalistic leadership styleMerits of Paternalistic leadership style
(i)Under this style of leadership, subordinates are loyal
to the leader and the organization, because of a
'father-like' approach of the leader.
(ii)There are good human relations, in the organization;
because of a sort of 'family- environment’ generated
by paternalistic style of leadership.
(iii)This style of leadership implies a balanced
leadership approach; in which fear and love both are
combined in a unique manner by the leader.
Therefore performance by people is the best.
Limitations of Paternalistic leadership styleLimitations of Paternalistic leadership style
(i) This style of leadership is unsuitable; when there
is a lack of mutual trust between the leader and
(ii) Under this style of leadership, subordinates might
take undue advantage of the leniency of the
(iii) The Hard-approach of the leader, due to the
urgency of situational factors, might be strongly
resisted to by subordinates.