Ncc art100 ch.5


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Ncc art100 ch.5

  1. 1. Exploring Art:A Global,Thematic Approach Chapter 5 Who Makes Art?
  2. 2. Who Makes Art? • Art Production as a social activity – Artists operate within the framework of their own culture – Various people provide support – Leaders in society set standards
  3. 3. Imhotep. Stepped Pyramid of Djoser, 2650-2631 BCE. Saqqarah, Egypt. Art Production as Social Activity Thousands contributed to pyramid construction, including architects, engineers, priests, skilled workers, and laborers.
  4. 4. Pyramids at Giza
  5. 5. About Artists • Examine the education and training of artists across cultures and time: – medieval guilds, – European art academies, – Islamic kitab-khana among others. • Examine the context for art making – workshops – community art making – fabricators, assistants, and technicians – the artist as object-maker – collaborations
  6. 6. Italian Renaissance studio of Verrocchio and his pupil Leonardo da Vinci. The angel to the left is attributed to the youthful Leonardo. Verrocchio was a sculptor, goldsmith and painter. He ran a large workshop in Florence. His fame was chiefly in his sculptured works. The workshop, like the current day college, functioned as a training ground for young artists. It was headed by a master, who would take commissions and oversee the production of works. Apprentices (12-14 yrs.) trained about twelve years. Andrea del Verrocchio. Baptism of Christ, 1472-1475 Verrocchio’s Workshop
  7. 7. Based on a Sufi (Islamic mystic) poet, (current day Afghanistan), best known for his Walled Garden of Truth the work expresses the poet’s ideas on God, love, philosophy and reason. After the Mongol conquest of Persia in the 13th c. miniature painting became a major form of artistic expression in this area of the Islamic world. As foreign rulers of an Islamic culture the Mongols found texts and illustrations an effective way to communicate their values and history. They set up workshops known as the kitab khana in their capital cities to produce and copy books. Workshop—main painter (drew outlines), less senior painters (colored), third artist (faces), border painters and scribes. Sana’i d.1131 Jaganath, Scribe and Painter at Work, from The Garden of Truth, Mughal, c.1600 1st miniature, folio 15. pen and ink on paper
  8. 8. Compare the kind of artist education necessary for the two images above. Andrea del Verrocchio. Baptism of Christ, 1472-1475; Jaganath. Scribe and Painter at Work, from the Hadiqat Al-Haqiqat (The Garden of Truth) by Hakim Sana’I, Mughal, 1599-1600. First miniature, folio 15. pen and ink on paper GUILD AND SCHOOL Early example of academy training 13th —17th c. Persia— kitab khaan
  9. 9. 15th Europe Academies replaced guilds. 1. Provide art training for students 2. Sponsor lectures in theory and establish aesthetic standards 3. Accept mature artists as members King Louis XIV established French Academy—controlled decorative arts, architecture (Versailles), painting and landscape architecture Portrait by Jollain shows absolute ruler— ala academy influence Jollain the Elder, Portrait of Louis XIV holding the plan for the Royal House at Saint-Cyr, 1661-75 oil on canvas, 87x65”
  10. 10. Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture (1648) Modeled after the Academy of St. Luke, Rome Paris had a guild of the same name. Purpose: professionalize artists working for the French court 1661—under Colbert—glorification of Louis XIV 1683—Le Brun—greatest power—strict system of education 1793—suspended by the revolutionary National Convention Later renamed Academy of Painting and Sculpture
  11. 11. Community Art Making • Who has ever seen!—Who has every heard tell, in times past, that powerful princes… nobles, men and women, have bent their proud and haughty necks to the harness of carts and that like beasts of burden they have dragged to the abode of Christ these wagons, loaded with wines, grains, oil, stone, wood and all that is necessary for the wants of life, or for the construction of the church?
  12. 12. The Furriers and Drapers Guild, Donors of the St-James Window
  13. 13. Detail of Chartres stained-glass window of St. Lubin,1200-1210 Gothic stained glass lancet window 13th c. Legend of St. Lubin; the young shepherd Lubin, later bishop of Chartres, studies this alphabet, while his companions drink wine. North side of the nave of the Cathedral of Chartres, France.
  14. 14. Role of Artists in Various Cultures • Compare the different role of artists across cultures and time periods – Art making based on gender • Quilters – Artist as skilled worker • Medieval craftsmen and Communist China – The artist-scientist – The artist-priest – The creative genius – Rulers as artists
  15. 15. Eva Hesse. (1936-1970). Repetition Nineteen III. 1968. Fiberglass and polyester resin, nineteen units, Each 19 to 20 1/4" • Nineteen bucketlike forms, all the same shape but none exactly alike. Nor do they have a set order, since Hesse allowed latitude in placing them: "I don't ask that the piece be moved or changed, only that it could be moved and changed. There is not one preferred format.”
  16. 16. Eva Hesse. (1936-1970). Repetition Nineteen III. 1968. Fiberglass and polyester resin, nineteen units, Each 19 to 20 1/4" • The Minimalist artists, who emerged a little before Hesse did, had explored serial repetitions of identical units. Hesse loosened that principle: Repetition 19 is simultaneously repetitive and irregular. She also tended to work on a humbler scale, and her forms and materials are less technocratic; she herself called the forms in Repetition 19 "anthropomorphic," and recognized sexual connotations in these "empty containers."
  17. 17. Baule Seated Female Figure owner (not artist) associated with work because they perform the rituals that give the work meaning. Annunciation by Fra Angelico (artist priest)
  18. 18. Diagram of the Dome of the Masjid-i-Shah, or Royal Mosque. Isfahan, Iran, 1612– 1637. The left diagram shows the pattern design on the dome, while the three on the right show the interrelatedness of the square and circle, and the geometric basis of the patterns. Square symbolic or earthbound—rocks, crystals Circle represented organic—heat, movement—closeness to Creator Artist as scientist—metaphor for the infinite spirit of Allah
  19. 19. Leonardo, Proportions of the Human Figure, Vitruvian Man, 1492 The drawing was accompanied by notes based on the work of the ancient Roman architect Vitruvius. Man as circle and square, based on the correlations of ideal human proportions with geometry. Exemplifies the blend of art and science during the Renaissance. Leonardo believed the workings of the human body to be an analogy for the workings of the universe. Artist as genius
  20. 20. The Artist Priest • Art is a vehicle for spirituality • Tie between sacred writing and art making – Illuminated manuscripts – Calligraphy • Native American spiritual art – Navajo sacred ceremonies – Kachina Dolls
  21. 21. God Te Rongo and His Three Sons. Wood, 273/8" high. Cook Islands, Polynesia, c. 1800–1900. The British Museum, London. Cook Island deity—created by sculptor priest
  22. 22. Cross and Carpet page from the Lindisfarne Gosple Decorative pages at the beginning of each Gospel are know as Carpet pages because the look like oriental rugs. In general, the artisans responsible for an illuminated manuscript are many and unknown. The Lindisfarne Gospels are an exception. The creator was a monk know as Eadfrith who was Bishop of Lindisfarne from 698 to 721.
  23. 23. Fra Angelica, Annunciation, Early Renaissance Medieval manuscript image of scribe.
  24. 24. Imhotep. Stepped Pyramid of Djoser, 2650-2631 BCE. Saqqarah, Egypt. Creative genius Associated with the concept of genius—priest, scribe, physician and minister to the pharaoh. After is death he was worshiped as one of the Egyptian gods.
  25. 25. European concept of creative genius Renaissance concept due to the rise of humanism which asserted an individual’s worth and emphasized learning.
  26. 26. 19th c. Romantic era in Europe New concept of genius expanded to included to include, personal creativity, uniqueness, strong feeling, adventure, individuality and imagination. Turner, Snowstrom, 1842
  27. 27. A final variation—artist as troubled, tragic or alienated genius "This morning I saw the country from my window a long time before sunrise with nothing but the morning star, which looked very big." Rooted in imagination and memory, The Starry Night embodies an inner, subjective expression of van Gogh's response to nature. In thick sweeping brushstrokes, a flamelike cypress unites the churning sky and the quiet village below. The village was partly invented, and the church spire evokes van Gogh's native land, the Netherlands.
  28. 28. Support for Art Making • Patronage and private support • “The Market” – the fine art market and the tourist market • Tax supported art
  29. 29. Japanese woodblock prints were made for the merchant class. Hokusai, Great Wave Hokusai, The Great Wave, c.1831
  30. 30. Baule Female Figure—personal shrine. 14 November 2008, sold at auction for $8,125. A Baule Female Figure, Ivory Coast, 22 ½”
  31. 31. Aids Memorial Quilt, est. 54 tons Largest piece of community folk art in the world as of 2010.
  32. 32. Dia Art Foundation Dia has defined itself as a vehicle for the relaization of extraordinary artists’ projects that might not otherwise be supported by more conventional institutions. Smithson’s Spiral Jetty (1970) was acquired by Dia as a gift from the Estate of the artist in 1999.
  33. 33. Dia also owns and preserves Walter De Maria’s Lightning Field, 1977 400 stainless steel poles in one mile grid in a remote area of the high desert of western New Mexico. Dia offers overnight visits during the month of May through October.
  34. 34. Percent for Art Please send résumé and cover letter to: Percent for Art New York City Department of Cultural Affairs 31 Chambers Street, 2nd Floor New York, NY 10007 Alice Adams, schoolyard garden at PS 12—inspired by African design and woodwork…each African Garden seat is different. Sponsor: Dept. of Education Brownsville section of Brooklyn
  35. 35. Public Art Fund (non-profit private funds) • Tatzu Nishi (b. 1960, Nagoya, Japan) is known internationally for his temporary works of art that transform our experience of monuments, statues, and architectural details. His installations give the public intimate access to aspects of our urban environment and at the same time radically alter our perceptions. For his first public project in the United States, Nishi has chosen to focus on the historic statue of Christopher Columbus.
  36. 36. The marble statue, which rises to more than 75 feet atop a granite column, was designed by the Italian sculptor Gaetano Russo. It was unveiled in 1892 to commemorate the 400th anniversary of Columbus’s first voyage to the Americas. Despite its prominent public location, the statue itself is little known, visible only as a silhouette against the sky or at a distance from surrounding buildings.
  37. 37. • Nishi’s project re-imagines the colossal 13-foot-tall statue of Columbus standing in a fully furnished, modern living room. Featuring tables, chairs, couch, rug, and flat-screen television, the décor reflects the artist’s interpretation of contemporary New York style. He even designed wallpaper inspired by memories of American popular culture, having watched Hollywood movies and television as a child in Japan. Discovering Columbus offers both a unique perspective on a historical monument and a surreal experience of the sculpture in a new context. Allowing us to take a journey up six flights of stairs to a fictional living room, Tatzu Nishi invites us to discover for ourselves where the imagination may lead.
  38. 38. What do we do with art? • Using art: decoration, display, performance, ritual and prayer, entertainment, leadership and power displays • Keeping art: museums, collections, restoration • When art is not saved: destruction of art, art in rituals, non-object art • Studying art: art history, aesthetics, art criticism, archeology, cultural anthropology, human development
  39. 39. Keeping Art • WHY: PLEASURABLE, AESTHETIC AND STIMULATING • HOW: – Art collections – Museums and private collections – National, regional and other art museums – Museums and new technology – Museum design – Preservation and restoration
  40. 40. Equestrian statue of Marcus Aurelius, ca. 175 CE. Bronze, approx. 11’6” high. Musei Capitolini, Rome. The original function—to reinforce or assert authority. In museums today, the function is to educate the public about other cultures, to provide visual pleasure, and to entertain.
  41. 41. Exterior of the Cathedral of St. Basil the Blessed, 1555-1561. Moscow (red square). GLORY OF A NATION Why: Aesthetics Power—commissioned by Czar Ivan to celebrate military victories over the Mongols Today: National pride—symbol of Old Russia Tourist attraction
  43. 43. Feathered Headdress of Moctezuma. Quetzal and cotinga feathers, gold plaques. Aztec, c. 1519. Kunsthistorisches Museum. • War booty from last Aztec ruler to Cortes—sent to Spanish king Charles V
  44. 44. One of over a dozen Egyptian obelisks in Rome • Heliopolis—one of the oldest cities of ancient Egypt—obelisk from the 5th Dynasty • Egypt was invaded and occupied by ancient Rome and France under Napoleon. • It’s treasures were seized by the Romans, French and British Empires.
  45. 45. One of over a dozen Egyptian obelisks in Rome • Taking an obelisk from Egypt and placing it at an important site in the Roman Empire was an act of great symbolic importance political/religious. • Political—spoils of triumph • Augustus was the first ruler to relocate an Egyptian obelisk into a new context. • Moved by Augustus to Alexandria, Caligula moved it to Rome.
  46. 46. One of over a dozen Egyptian obelisks in Rome • 1585, Pope Sixtus had the 330-ton obelisk moved ¼ mile to St. Peter’s Square. • The obelisk provides an ideal visual anchor with the cross on the summit. This once trophy of Roman imperialism…symbol of triumph of Christianity over paganism.
  47. 47. Herakles or Dionysus, c. 447-432 BCE, from the east pediment of the Parthenon, Acropolis. Athens, Greece. Marble, approx. 3’6”. British Museum,London. Museums and art saved in museums The Elgin Marbles reside in The British Museum, 1823-1847. London.
  48. 48. Portrait of Adele Bloch-Bauer • The Bloch-Bauer paintings, stolen by the Nazis in 1938, hung in Vienna's Belvedere museum. • June 19, 2006…A dazzling gold-flecked 1907 portrait by Gustav Klimt was purchased for the Neue Galerie NYC by the cosmetics magnate Ronald S. Lauder for $135 million, the highest sum ever paid for a painting.
  49. 49. When Art is Not Saved • Discuss the loss of art and art that is meant to be temporary – Art destroyed in conflicts • Destruction of art and architecture throughout history • “Iconoclasm” – Art used dynamically in rituals • Art created – and destroyed – as part of a ritual – Non-object art
  50. 50. The Buddha Statues of Bamiyan, Afghanistan destroyed in 2001 World’s tallest statue of Budda 175 feet, 2,000-years-old (90 miles west of Kabul) Taliban Supreme Commander ordered the destruction of all statues in Afghanistan. The destruction of pre-Islamic figures was designed to stop the worshipping of “false idols”.
  51. 51. In ancient Rome, art was displayed in the Baths of Caracalla
  52. 52. • 15th c. museum meant collection • 18th c. museum came to mean the building in addition to the collection • 19th c. museums became common in Europe • Capitalism with its emphasis on ownership, control and possession encourged its growth Studiolo of Francesco de’ Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, c.1570.
  53. 53. • National museum— • British Museum • Louvre • Smithsonian Institute • Vatican Museum • Many founded in the 18th c. – 19th c. in the same atmosphere of categorizing that led to the encyclopedia.
  54. 54. Herakles or Dionysus, c. 447-432 BCE, from the east pediment of the Parthenon Museums and art saved in museums 1753 British Museum—focus ancient Greece and Rome and Renaissance Italy Large museums often benefit from conquest and colonization Ingres, Grand Odalisque—during the colonial era—European fascination with the exotic The British Museum, 1753, founded for “inspection and entertainment of the learned and curious, for the general use and benefit of the public.”
  55. 55. • Art Museum – Private institutions – Public museums – University-run • Art Musuems • 19th c.—first US art museum featured plaster copies of famous sculpture • 20th c.—expanded to include painting, sculpture, printmaking and decorative arts
  56. 56. Army of the First Emperor of Qin in pits next to his burial mound, c.210 BCE Lintong, China painted terra-cotta, average 5’10” • Regional museums serve the interests of a specific locality and reflect that area’s cultural history. • The Army’s purpose was to help rule another empire in the afterlife.
  57. 57. No two faces are the same. In 221 BCE, Qin declared himself emperor, ending 100 years of war and unifying China—money, system of measure, writing, language. He even had all axle widths the same size so all wheels would fit in street ruts. It took 700-thousand people more than 30 years to complete.
  58. 58. Media museum and virtual museum • Media museum • Artwork technology driven • Virtual museum • online
  59. 59. Preservation and Restoration • Preservation • Climate-control counters—weather, pollution, tourist wear and tear, damage by souvenir hunters, damage from war • Restoration goal • Return damaged or deteriorating art to its original condition.
  60. 60. Leonardo, Mona Lisa, c.1503 • Bulletproof glass as well as humidity, temperature and controlled lighting.
  61. 61. Michelangelo, Pieta, • Attached with hammer in 1972.
  62. 62. • Hall of the Bison, Paleolithic cave painting, 15000—8000 BC. Altamira, Spain • Closed to the public in and replica opened in 2001
  63. 63. Buddha face, Temple of Bayon, Angkor Thom, Angkor, Cambodia • Cleaning practices in question. • Subjected to modern detergents and herbicides to clean off mold and fungus and to retard new plant growth
  64. 64. Michelangelo, Sistine Chapel Sibyl before and after cleaning
  65. 65. Iconoclasm • Destruction of sacred images
  66. 66. Bamiyan Stone Buddha, 4th or 5th c. CE Bamiya, Afghanistan demolished March 2001 by the Taliban because the Koran forbids religious images
  67. 67. -object” Andy Goldsworthy. Dandelion Line, 2000. Storm King Sculpture Park, New York. Outdoor installation (like performance art)—preserved and sold in photographs through galleries.
  68. 68. Robert Smithson. Spiral Jetty, 1970. Compare the different ways of art making and how people contribute Smithson, Floating Island to Travel around Manhattan Island, 1970/2005 September 17-25, 2005
  69. 69. Danish artist Olafur Eliasson created The New York City Waterfalls Project Four waterfalls ranging from 90 to 120 feet, 2008
  70. 70. Studying Art • Art history: historical study of visual art • Aesthetics: branch of philosophy that studies “beauty” • Art criticism: judgments about the value of art exhibits and events • Archeology: study of physical remains of past human life • Cultural anthropology: study of humanity within cultures • Human development: various studies of human growth and development
  71. 71. • Art is experienced through performance or display. • People keep art because it is important to them. • Governments keep art for its sacred or aesthetic qualities, for national pride, for enriching their cultural treasure and for a stronger economy
  72. 72. • Art is kept in private an public collections. • Museums vary in kind and purpose • Art preservation and restoration bring economic, aesthetic and technological challenges,